Article published in:
Outside the Clause: Form and function of extra-clausal constituents
Edited by Gunther Kaltenböck, Evelien Keizer and Arne Lohmann
[Studies in Language Companion Series 178] 2016
► pp. 417446


Aijmer, Karin
2002English Discourse Particles: Evidence from a Corpus [Studies in Corpus Linguisics 10]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
2004Pragmatic markers in spoken interlanguage. Nordic Journal of English Studies 3(1): 173–190.
2011 Well I’m not sure I think… The use of well by non-native speakers. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics 16(2): 231-254.
Andersen, Gisle
2001Pragmatic Markers and Sociolinguistic Variation. In A Relevance-theoretic Approach to the Language of Adolescents [Pragmatics & Beyond New Series 84]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Auer, Peter
1996The pre-front field in Spoken German and its relevance as a grammaticalization position. Pragmatics 6(3): 295-322.
Auer, Peter & Günthner, Susanne
2005Die Entstehung von Diskursmarkern im Deutschen – ein Fall von Grammatikalisierung? In Grammatikalisierung im Deutschen [Linguistik - Impulse und Tendenzen 9], Torsten Leuschner, Tanja Mortelmans & Sarah de Groodt (eds), 335-362. Berlin: De Gruyter.
Becker, Alton J.
1988Language in particular: A lecture. In Linguistics in Context: Lectures from the 1985 LSA/TESOL and NEH Institutes, Deborah Tannen (ed.), 17-35, Norwood NJ: Ablex.
Bouma, Gerlof
2009Normalized (pointwise) mutual information in collocation extraction. In Von der Form zur Bedeutung: Texte automatisch verarbeiten / From Form to Meaning: Processing Texts Automatically, Proceedings of the Biennial GSCL Conference 2009, Chiarcos, Eckart de Castilho & Stede (eds), 31–40. Tübingen: Gunter Narr.
Brizuela, Maquela, Andersen, Elaine & Stallings, Lynne
1999Discourse markers as indicators of register. Hispania 82(1): 128–141.
Cieri, Christopher, Graff, David, Kimball, Owen, Miller, Dave & Walker, Kevin
2004aFisher English Training Speech, Part 1: Transcripts. Philadelphia PA: Linguistic Data Consortium.
2004bFisher English Training Speech, Part 1: Speech. Philadelphia PA: Linguistic Data Consortium.
2005aFisher English Training Speech, Part 2: Transcripts. Philadelphia PA: Linguistic Data Consortium.
2005bFisher English Training Speech, Part 2: Speech. Philadelphia PA: Linguistic Data Consortium.
Clark, Herbert H.
2002Speaking in time. Speech Communication 36: 5-13.‑6393(01)00022‑X
Cuenca, Maria-Josep & Marín, Maria-Josep
2009Co-occurrence of discourse markers in Catalan and Spanish oral narrative. Journal of Pragmatics 41(5): 899–914.
Cutler, Anne
1983Speakers’ conceptions of the functions of prosody. In Prosody: Models and Measurements, Anne Cutler & D. Robert Ladd (eds), 80–91. Heidelberg: Springer.‑3‑642‑69103‑4
D'Arcy, Alexandra Faith
2005Like: Syntax and Development. PhD Dissertation. Toronto.
Dehé, Nicole & Wichmann, Anne
2010Sentence-initial I think (that) and I believe (that): Prosodic evidence for use as main clause, comment clause and discourse marker. Studies in Language 34: 36-74.
Diani, Giuliana
2004The discourse functions of I don’t know in English conversation. In Discourse Patterns in Spoken and Written Corpora [Pragmatics & Beyond New Series 120], Karin Aijmer & Anna-Brita Stenström (eds), 151-171. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Fischer, Kerstin
(ed.) 2006Approaches to Discourse Particles. Oxford: Elsevier.
Flores-Ferrán, Nydia
2014So pues entonces: An examination of bilingual discourse markers in Spanish oral narratives of personal experience of New York City-born Puerto Ricans. Sociolinguistic Studies 8 (1): 57–83.
Fraser, Bruce
1999What are discourse markers? Journal of Pragmatics 31: 931–952.‑2166(98)00101‑5
2009An account of discourse markers. International Review of Pragmatics 1(2): 293-320.
2011The sequencing of contrastive discourse markers in English. Baltic Journal of the English Language, Literature, and Culture 1: 29-35.
2013Combinations of contrastive discourse markers in English. International Review of Pragmatics 5: 318–340.‑13050209
Gansner, Emden R., Koutsofios, Eleftherios, North, Stephen C. & Vo, Kiem-Phong
1993A technique for drawing directed graphs. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering 19(3): 214–230.
Gansner, Emden R. & Koutsofios, Eleftherios
2006Drawing Graphs with Dot: Dot's User's Manual.​Documentation/​dotguide.pdf>
Haselow, Alexander
2011Discourse marker and modal particle: The functions of utterance-final then in spoken English. Journal of Pragmatics 43: 3603-3623.
Heine, Bernd, Kaltenböck, Gunther, Kuteva, Tania & Haiping Long
2013An outline of discourse grammar. In Reflections on Functionalism in linguistics, Bischoff, Shannon & Carmen Jeny (eds), 155-206. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Hirschberg, J. & Litman, D.
1993Empirical studies on the disambiguation of cue phrases. Computational Linguistics 19: 501-530.
Hopper, Paul
1991On some principles of grammaticalization. In Approaches to Grammaticalization [Typological Studies in Language 19(1)], Elizabeth Closs Traugott & Bernd Heine (eds) 17-35. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Hutchinson, Ben
2003Automatic classification of discourse markers on the basis of their co-occurrences. In Proceedings of the ESSLLI Workshop The Meaning and Implementation of Discourse Particles, Manfred Stede & Henk Zeevat (eds), 1-8. Nancy.
Knott, Alistair
1996A Data-driven Methodology for Motivating a Set of Coherence Relations. PhD dissertation, University of Edinburgh.
Koops, Christian & Lohmann, Arne
2015A quantitative approach to the grammaticalization of discourse markers: Evidence from their sequencing behavior. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics 20(2): 232-259.
Lee-Goldman, Russell
2011 No as a discourse marker. Journal of Pragmatics 43(10): 2627–2649.
Levelt, William & Cutler, Anne
1983Prosodic marking in speech repair. Journal of Semantics 2: 205-217.
Maschler, Yael
1994Metalanguaging and discourse markers in bilingual conversation. Language in Society 23(3): 325–366.
Müller, Simone
2005Discourse Markers in Native and Non-native English Discourse [Pragmatics & Beyond New Series 138]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Murray, Dinah
1979Well. Linguistic Inquiry 10(4): 727- 32.
Norrick, Neal R.
2010Interjections as pragmatic markers. Journal of Pragmatics 41: 866–891.
Oates, Sarah Louise
2000Multiple discourse marker occurrence: Creating hierarchies for Natural Language. In Proceedings of the 3rd CLUK Colloquium, Brighton, 41-45.
2001Multiple Discourse Marker Occurrence: Creating Hierarchies for Natural Language Generation. MA dissertation, University of Brighton.
Plag, Ingo & Baayen, Harald
2009Suffix ordering and morphological processing. Language 85(1): 109–152.
Redeker, Gisela
1991Linguistic markers of discourse structure. Linguistics 29: 1139–1172.
Schiffrin, Deborah
1987Discourse Markers. Cambridge: CUP.
2001Discourse markers: Language, meaning, and context. In The Handbook of Discourse Analysis, Deborah Schiffrin, Deborah Tannen & Heidi E. Hamilton (eds), 54-75. Oxford: Blackwell.
Schourup, Lawrence
1999Discourse markers. Tutorial overview. Lingua 107: 227–265.‑3841(96)90026‑1
2001Rethinking well. Journal of Pragmatics 33: 1025-1060.‑2166(00)00053‑9
Smith, Sara & Jucker, Andreas
2002Discourse markers as turns. In Rethinking Sequentiality: Linguistics meets Conversational Interaction, Anita Fetzer & Christiane Meierkord (eds), 151-178. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Struckmaier, Volker
2014 Ja doch wohl C? Modal particles in German as C-related elements. Studia Linguistica 68(1): 16–48.
Tagliamonte, Sali A.
2016Teen Talk: The Language of Adolescents. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Thurmaier, Maria
1991Combinatorial regularities for modal particles and their use as an instrument of analysis. Multilingua 10(1-2): 19–42.
Traugott, Elizabeth Closs
1997The role of the development of discourse markers in a theory of grammaticalization. Paper presented at ICHL XII, Manchester, UK, 2005.
Vicher, Anne & Sankoff, David
1989The emergent syntax of pre-sentential turn openings. Journal of Pragmatics 13: 81–97.‑2166(89)90110‑0
Waltereit, Richard
2007À propos de la genèse diachronique des combinaisons de marqueurs. L’exemple de bon ben et enfin bref. Langue Francaise 154: 94–109.