A general approach to discourse markers is sketched through an analysis which approaches grammar as emerging in interaction and coming into being through mundane language use (Hopper 1987, 2011). The study continues work on mental verb constructions in a variety of languages. By analyzing all 191 tokens of the (subj)-neg-pred construction of the Hebrew mental verb yada (‘know’) employed throughout audio-recordings of over 7.5 hours of Hebrew casual interactional data, I trace the route of this construction’s gravitation towards the discourse marker loydea / loydat (‘I dunno masc/fem’). I argue that employment of the construction is highly formulaic, not necessarily epistemic, and that its uses are closely tied to its prosodic, morphophonological and syntactic properties, to its position within the ongoing turn and sequence, and to the particular activities in which participants engage in interaction. Based on a mostly synchronic analysis of the data, I suggest two grammaticization paths leading to employment of this construction as a discourse marker. This is then supported with some diachronic evidence. The study of Hebrew loydea / loydat (‘I dunno masc/fem’) shows that the boundaries between the three categories of discourse marker, pragmatic marker, and modal particle can be rather blurred.
1996I think – an English modal particle. In Modality in Germanic Languages, Toril Swan & Olaf Jansen Westvik (eds), 1–47. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
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2006Towards an understanding of the spectrum of approaches to discourse particles: In Approaches to Discourse Particles [Studies in Pragmatics 1], Kerstin Fischer (ed.), 1–20. Amsterdam: North Holland.
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2014The development of discourse and pragmatic markers. In Ghezzi & Molinelli (eds), 10–26.
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(eds)2014Discourse and Pragmatic Markers from Latin to the Romance Languages. Oxford: OUP.
1981Forms of Talk. Philadelphia PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
2006 “Was ihn trieb, war vor allem Wanderlust” (Hesse: Narziss und God- mund): Pseudocleft-Konstruktionen im Deutschen. In Konstruktionen in der Interaktion, Susanne Günthner & Wolfgang Imo (eds), 59–90. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
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1987Emergent grammar. In Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society 13, Jon Aske, Natasha Beery, Laura Michaelis, & Hana Filip (eds), 139–157. Berkeley CA: BLS.
Hopper, Paul J.
1991On some principles of grammaticalization. In Approaches to Grammaticalization, Vol. 1, [Typological Studies in Language 19], Elizabeth C. Traugott & Bernd Heine (eds), 17–35. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Hopper, Paul J.
2001Grammatical constructions and their discourse origins: prototype or family resemblance? In Applied Cognitive Linguistics, I: Theory and Language Acquisition, 109–129. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Hopper, Paul J.
2004The openness of grammatical constructions. 40th Annual Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society, April 15th, 2004. Ms.
Hopper, Paul J.
2011Emergent grammar and temporality in interactional linguistics. In Constructions: Emerging and Emergent, Peter Auer & Stephan Pfänder (eds), 22–44. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
2007The role of I guess in conversational stancetaking. In Englebretson (ed.), 183–219.
2006From discourse pattern to epistemic marker: Estonian (ei) tea ‘don't know’. Nordic Journal of Linguistics 29: 173–200.
2011The terms of not knowing. In The Morality of Knowledge in Conversation, Tanya Stivers, Lorenza Mondada, & Jakob Steensig (eds), 184–206. Cambridge: CUP.
2007Samaney siax batikshoret hakwazi-sinxronit metuvexet-hamaxshev (siax hachet) (Discourse Markers in Israeli Hebrew Quasi-Synchronous Computer-Mediated Communication (Chat Discourse)). MA thesis, University of Haifa.
2006On subordination, Finnish – style: Questioning the category of finite clausal complements in spoken Finnish. SKY journal of Linguistics Supplement 19: 310–321.
2008Stance-taking in Israeli Hebrew casual conversation via be'emet (‘really, actually, indeed’, lit. ‘in truth’). Discourse Studies 10(3): 283–316
Maschler, Yael & Fishman, Stav
2015From multi-clausality to discourse markerhood: The Hebrew ma she- (‘what that’) construction in so-called ‘pseudo-clefts’. Paper presented at the International Pragmatics Association (IPrA) conference, Antwerp, 27 July.
Maschler, Yael & Miller Shapiro, Carmit
2016The role of prosody in the grammaticization of Hebrew naxon (‘right/true’): Synchronic and diachronic aspects. Journal of Pragmatics 92: 42–73.
Maschler, Yael & Schiffrin, Deborah
2015Discourse markers: Language, meaning, and context. In The Handbook of Discourse Analysis, 2nd edn, Deborah Tannen, Heidi E. Hamilton & Deborah Schiffrin (eds), 189–221. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.
2014 “tir'i, hara'ayon po hu shone”: hapo'al ra'a vesamaney hasiax hamexilim 'oto basiax ha'ivri hayomyomi hadavur (“look, the idea here is different”: The verb see and the discourse markers containing it in casual spoken Hebrew discourse). Leshonenu 76(1–2): 165–200.
2004tafkideyhem hashonim shel kinuyey haguf hanos'iyim basiax ha'ivri hadavur (Subject Pronouns: Attached, Overt and Proclitic in Israeli Hebrew Spoken Discourse). MA thesis, University of Haifa.
Polak-Yitzhaki, Hilla & Maschler, Yael
Disclaiming understanding? Hebrew ′ani lo mevin/a (‘I don’t understand masc/fem’) in everyday conversation. Journal of Pragmatics 106: 163–183.
1995Language Change in Child and Adult Hebrew: A Psycholinguistic Perspective. Oxford: OUP.
Rosén, Haiim Baruch
1992zutot mehitgabshuta shel ha'ivrit hayisre'elit (“Obiterdicta” concerning the crystallization of Israeli Hebrew’). Haxug hayisre'eli shel xavrey haxevra ha'eropit levalshanut, divrey hamifgash hashmini (Societatis Linguisticae Europaeae Sodalicium Israelense Studia V), 33–39.
2013Revival of Hebrew: Grammatical structure and lexicon. In Encyclopedia of Hebrew Language and Linguistics, Vol. 3, Geoffrey Khanet al. (eds), 397–405. Leiden: Brill.
Ross, John Robert
1969Guess who? In Papers from the Fifth Regional Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society, Robert I. Binnick, Alice Davidson, Georgia M. Green & Jerry L. Morgan (eds), 252–286. Chicago IL: The Chicago Linguistic Society.
Schegloff, Emanuel A.
1979Identification and recognition in telephone conversation openings. In Everyday language: Studies in Ethnomethodology, George Psathas (ed.), 23–78. New York NY: Irvington.
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