The Adjectival Category

Criteria for differentiation and identification

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ISBN 9789027230270 (Eur) | EUR 115.00
ISBN 9781556193767 (USA) | USD 173.00
 
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ISBN 9789027298805 | EUR 115.00 | USD 173.00
 
This monograph sets out (i) to establish criteria for differentiating adjectives from other word-classes for languages in which they form a distinct category, and (ii) to establish criteria for determining their (non-)identity with words from other categories for languages in which they do not. As languages show various gradations in the extent to which adjectives can be distinguished from other word-classes, the author discusses idealized language types, thereby providing a model for the analysis of natural languages. The book argues that adjectives do not uniformly show all differentiating characteristics and that these characteristics are semantically relevant and functionally motivated: for instance, when word-classes are used in functions not their own, they manifest characteristics of the categories to which the relevant functions belong. The second part of the book discusses three distinct idealized languages types without a distinct adjectival category in which “property words” remain undifferentiated from (i) nouns, (ii) verbs, and (iii) nouns as well as verbs. These three types are shwon to represent gradations of distinctions between word-classes as they occur in natural languages and to manifest various degrees of the corresponding functional neutralizations. In the final chapter the wider theoretical implications of this work for the study of categories are discussed.
[Studies in Language Companion Series, 24]  1994.  xiii, 295 pp.
Publishing status: Available
Table of Contents
Preface
xi
List of abbreviations
xiii
1. Introduction
1
Part One Adjectives as a Distinct Category
2. Criteria for differentiation
10
2.1 Introduction
11
2.2 Notion of prototypicality
13
2.3 Need for multiple criteria
15
2.4 Interconnectedness among the criteria
16
2.5 Differentiating characteristics
18
2.6 Primary and secondary uses
19
2.7 Nature of supporting evidence
21
3. Differentiation from nouns
23
3.1 Introduction
23
3.2 Denoting a single property
24
3.3 Giving prominence to property itself
30
3.4 Being part of a unified entity
35
3.5 Inflectional differences
39
3.6 Denoting a distinct semantic prototype
40
4. Differentiation from verbs
43
4.1 Introduction
43
4.2 Claims about similarity
44
4.3 Difference in categorial usage
49
4.4 Difference in dependency status
54
4.5 Difference in the scope of modification
56
4.6 Difference in temporal status
62
5. Differentiation from adverbs
67
5.1 Introduction
67
5.2 Heterogeniety of adverbs
68
5.3 Similarities between adjectives and adverbs
72
5.4 Difference in categorial use
75
5.5 Difference in dependency status
79
5.6 Difference in semantic prototypes
82
6. Decategorization of adjectives
91
6.1 Introduction
91
6.2 Decategorization in nominal use
93
6.3 Decategorization in predicative use
102
6.4 Decategorization in adverbial use
110
6.5 Decategorization in compounding
111
7. Decategorization of other word classes
119
7.1 Introduction
119
7.2 Decategorization of nouns
121
7.3 Decategorization of verbs
131
7.4 Decategorization of adverbs
145
Part Two Adjectives as Parts of Other Categories
8. Criteria for identification
151
8.1 Introduction
151
8.2 Separation of categoriality
152
8.3 Notion of lexicalization
154
8.4 Relevance of semantic factors
155
8.5 Basis for non-lexicalization
156
8.6 Functional explanation for variability
158
8.7 Need to establish idealized language types
159
9. Identification with nouns
165
9.1 Introduction
165
9.2 Dependency status in a noun phrase
167
9.3 Basic and extended uses
173
9.4 Semantic prototypes
180
9.5 Basis for gradation
184
10. Identification with verbs
187
10.1 Introduction
187
10.2 Occurrence in predicative position
189
10.3 Occurrence in adnominal position
191
10.4 Modification and presupposed predication
193
10.5 Differentiating characteristics
200
11. Identification with nouns and verbs
211
11.1 Introduction
211
11.2 Criteria for identification
214
11.3 Possibility of “norm” connections
216
11.4 Difference in temporal status
221
11.5 Difference in relationality
226
11.6 Derivational differences
231
11.7 Reference and predication
232
11.8 Distinction in modification
235
11.9 Distinction in semantic prototypes
236
11.10 Differentiating characteristics
239
12. Theoretical implications
245
12.1 Categoriality of adjectives
245
12.2 Evaluation of mixed-category claim
248
12.3 Evaluation of X-bar theory
259
12.4 Need to recognize different strategies
269
References
277
Index of subjects
287
Index of names
293
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Subjects
BIC Subject: CF – Linguistics
BISAC Subject: LAN009000 – LANGUAGE ARTS & DISCIPLINES / Linguistics / General
U.S. Library of Congress Control Number:  94011533 | Marc record