This paper provides an analysis of certain nonmanuals from a semantic perspective with respect to the different types of semantic operators they are associated with. The categories of operators include simple/monadic and tripartite/dyadic. This semantic analysis will explain different phonological spreading among upper face/head nonmanuals: negative headshake, brow lowering, and structurally varied use of brow raise. Negative headshake and [+wh]-question brow lowering spread over their c-command domain. However, brow raise does not spread over its c-command domain, and its spreading domain is harder to characterize. The operator analysis provides a coherent explanation for the spreading domain. This distinction underlies a new analysis of the derived sign understand′, and helps resolve two puzzling issues related to its use: (1) why it has brow raise; and (2) what position it occupies in CP. This solution offers additional evidence in support of the claim that ASL has the spec,CP on the left.
Krebs, Julia, Evie Malaia, Ronnie B. Wilbur & Dietmar Roehm
2018. Subject preference emerges as cross-modal strategy for linguistic processing. Brain Research 1691 ► pp. 105 ff.
Martinez, Aleix M. & Shichuan Du
2017. A Model of the Perception of Facial Expressions of Emotion by Humans: Research Overview and Perspectives. In Gesture Recognition [The Springer Series on Challenges in Machine Learning, ], ► pp. 183 ff.
2012. Quantificational Strategies across Language Modalities. In Logic, Language and Meaning [Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 7218], ► pp. 82 ff.
2021. Non-local attachment of clauses. Natural Language & Linguistic Theory 39:3 ► pp. 887 ff.
2017. Internally-headed relative clauses in sign languages. Glossa: a journal of general linguistics 2:1
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