Article published in:
Scientific Study of Literature
Vol. 11:2 (2021) ► pp. 223265
References
Abell, F., Happé, F., & Frith, U.
(2000) Do triangles play tricks? Attribution of mental states to animated shapes in normal and abnormal development. Cognitive Development, 15 (1), 1–16. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Andreychik, M. R., & Migliaccio, N.
(2015) Empathizing with others’ pain versus empathizing with others’ joy: Examining the separability of positive and negative empathy and their relation to different types of social behaviours and social emotions. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 37 (5), 274–291. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Armstrong, C. L., & McAdams, M. J.
(2009) Blogs of information: How gender cues and individual motivations influence perceptions of credibility. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 14 (3), 435–456. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bakan, D.
(1966) The duality of human existence. Rand McNally.Google Scholar
Baker, C. A., Peterson, E., Pulos, S., & Kirkland, R. A.
(2014) Eyes and IQ: A meta-analysis of the relationship between intelligence and “Reading the Mind in the Eyes”. Intelligence, 44 1, 78–92. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bal, P. M., & Veltkamp, M.
(2013) How does fiction reading influence empathy? An experimental investigation on the role of emotional transportation. PloS one, 8 (1), e55341. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Baron-Cohen, S., & Wheelwright, S.
(2004) The Empathy Quotient: An investigation of adults with Asperger syndrome or high functioning autism, and normal sex differences. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34 (2), 163–175. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., Hill, J., Raste, Y., & Plumb, I.
(2001) The “Reading the Mind in the Eyes” test revised version: A study with normal adults, and adults with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 42 (2), 241–251. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., & Jolliffe, A. T.
(1997) Is there a” language of the eyes”? Evidence from normal adults, and adults with autism or Asperger syndrome. Visual Cognition, 4 (3), 311–331. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Barrett, T. W., & Scott, T. B.
(1989) Development of the grief experience questionnaire. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 19 (2), 201–215. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bartz, J. A., & Lydon, J. E.
(2004) Close relationships and the working self-concept: Implicit and explicit effects of priming attachment on agency and communion. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30 (11), 1389–1401. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bates, D., Mächler, M., Bolker, B., & Walker, S.
(2015) Fitting linear mixed-effects models using lme4. Journal of Statistical Software, 67 (1), 1–48. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Benjamin, C. F., & Gaab, N.
(2012) What’s the story? The tale of reading fluency told at speed. Human Brain Mapping, 33 (11), 2572–2585. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bierhals, A. J., Prigerson, H. G., Fasiczka, A., Frank, E., Miller, M., & Reynolds III, C. F.
(1996) Gender differences in complicated grief among the elderly. OMEGA – Journal of Death and Dying, 32 (4), 303–317. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Black, J. E.
(2019) An IRT analysis of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test. Journal of Personality Assessment, 101 (4), 425–433. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Black, J. E., & Barnes, J. L.
(2015) The effects of reading material on social and non-social cognition. Poetics, 52 1, 32–43. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2021) Fiction and morality: Investigating the associations between reading exposure, empathy, morality, and moral judgment. Psychology of Popular Media, 10 (2), 149–164. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Black, J. E., Capps, S. C., & Barnes, J. L.
(2018) Fiction, genre exposure, and moral reality. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 12 (3), 328–340. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Blair, R. J., & Cipolotti, L.
(2000) Impaired social response reversal: A case of ‘acquired sociopathy’. Brain, 123 (6), 1122–1141. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bloom, P.
(2016) Against empathy: The case for rational compassion. Ecco.Google Scholar
Boyd, B.
(2009) On the origin of stories: Evolution, cognition, and fiction. Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Breithaupt, F.
(2018) The bad things we do because of empathy. Interdisciplinary Science Reviews, 43 (2), 166–174. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bubandt, N., & Willerslev, R.
(2015) The dark side of empathy: Mimesis, deception, and the magic of alterity. Comparative Studies in Society and History, 5–34. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bukowski, W. M., Motzoi, C., & Meyer, F.
(2009) Friendship as process, function, and outcome. In K. H. Rubin, W. M. Bukowski, & B. Laursen (Eds.), Handbook of peer interactions, relationships, and groups (pp. 217–231). Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Calarco, N., Fong, K., Rain, M., & Mar, R. A.
(2017) Absorption in narrative fiction and its possible impact on social abilities. In F. Hakemulder, M. M. Kuijpers, E. S. H. Tan, K. Balint, & M. M. Doicaru (Eds.), Narrative absorption (pp. 293–313). John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Cates, C. B., & Nicolopoulou, A.
(2019) The effects of bookreading with and without mental state themes on preschoolers’ theory of mind. In E. Veneziano & A. Nicolopoulou (Eds.), Narrative, literacy and other skills (pp. 129–159). John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Chlebuch, N., Goldstein, T. R., & Weisberg, D. S.
(2020) Fact or fiction?: Clarifying the relationship between reading and the improvement of social skills. Scientific Study of Literature, 10 (2), 167–192. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Cowan, D. G., Vanman, E. J., & Nielsen, M.
(2014) Motivated empathy: The mechanics of the empathic gaze. Cognition and Emotion, 28 (8), 1522–1530. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Cramer, D.
(1998) Close relationships: The study of love and friendship. London: Arnold.Google Scholar
Davis, M. H.
(1980) A multidimensional approach to individual differences in empathy. JSAS Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology, 10 1, 85.Google Scholar
(1983) Measuring individual differences in empathy: Evidence for a multidimensional approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44 1, 113–126. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Didion, J.
(2005) The year of magical thinking. Alfred A. Knopf.Google Scholar
Ding, X. P., Wellman, H. M., Wang, Y., Fu, G., & Lee, K.
(2015) Theory-of-mind training causes honest young children to lie. Psychological Science, 26 (11), 1812–1821. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Djikic, M., Oatley, K., & Moldoveanu, M. C.
(2013) Reading other minds: Effects of literature on empathy. Scientific Study of Literature, 3 (1), 28–47. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Dodd, J. L., Ocampo, A., & Kennedy, K. S.
(2011) Perspective taking through narratives: An intervention for students with ASD. Communication Disorders Quarterly, 33 (1), 23–33. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Dodell-Feder, D., & Tamir, D. I.
(2018) Fiction reading has a small positive impact on social cognition: A meta-analysis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 147 (11), 1713–1727. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Dziobek, I., Rogers, K., Fleck, S., Bahnemann, M., Heekeren, H. R., Wolf, O. T., & Convit, A.
(2008) Dissociation of cognitive and emotional empathy in adults with Asperger syndrome using the Multifaceted Empathy Test (MET). Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38 (3), 464–473. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Eekhof, L. S., van Krieken, K., Sanders, J., & Willems, R. M.
(2021) Reading minds, reading stories: Social-cognitive abilities affect the linguistic processing of narrative viewpoint. Frontiers in Psychology, 12 1, 698986. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Emerson, R. W.
(1850) Representative men: Seven lectures. Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Fiske, S. T., & Taylor, S. E.
(2013) Social cognition: From brains to culture. Sage. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Friend, S.
(2008) Imagining fact and fiction. In K. Stock, & K. Thomson-Jones (Eds.), New waves in aesthetics (pp. 150–169). Palgrave Macmillan. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2012) VIII – Fiction as a Genre. In Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society (Vol. 112, No. 2, pp. 179–209). Blackwell.Google Scholar
(2014) Believing in stories. In G. Currie, M. Kieran, A. Meskin, & J. Robson (Eds.), Aesthetics and the sciences of mind (pp. 227–248). Oxford University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Gamio, M.
(1930) Mexican immigration to the United States. University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Genette, G.
(1980) Narrative discourse. Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Graesser, A. C., Magliano, J. P., & Haberlandt, K.
(1994) Psychological studies of naturalistic text. Advances in Discourse Processes, 53 1, 9–34.Google Scholar
Grande, R.
(2006) Across a hundred mountains. Washington Square Press.Google Scholar
(2012) The distance between us. Washington Square Press.Google Scholar
Graesser, A. C., McNamara, D. S., & Louwerse, M. M.
(2003) What do readers need to learn in order to process coherence relations in narrative and expository text? In A. P. Sweet, & C. E. Snow (Eds.), Rethinking reading comprehension (pp. 82–98). Guilford.Google Scholar
Green, M. C., & Brock, T. C.
(2000) The role of transportation in the persuasiveness of public narratives. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79 (5), 701–721. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Greenwald, A. G., McGhee, D. E., & Schwartz, J. L.
(1998) Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: The implicit association test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74 (6), 1464–1480. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Greenwald, A. G., Nosek, B. A., & Banaji, M. R.
(2003) Understanding and using the implicit association test: I. An improved scoring algorithm. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85 (2), 197–216. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Gustafson, D.
(1989) Grief. Noûs, 23 (4), 457–479. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Hakemulder, J.
(2000) The moral laboratory: Experiments examining the effects of reading literature on social perception and moral self-concept. John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Harkrader, M. A., & Moore, R.
(1997) Literature preferences of fourth graders. Literacy Research and Instruction, 36 (4), 325–339. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Heider, F., & Simmel, M.
(1944) An experimental study of apparent behaviour. The American Journal of Psychology, 57 (2), 243–259. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Hill, S.
(1974) In the springtime of the year. Hamish Hamilton.Google Scholar
Hofmann, W., & Baumert, A.
(2010) Immediate affect as a basis for intuitive moral judgement: An adaptation of the affect misattribution procedure. Cognition and Emotion, 24 (3), 522–535. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Ilgunaite, G., Giromini, L., & Di Girolamo, M.
(2017) Measuring empathy: A literature review of available tools. BPA-Applied Psychology Bulletin (Bollettino di Psicologia Applicata), 65 (280), 2–28.Google Scholar
Imuta, K., Henry, J. D., Slaughter, V., Selcuk, B., & Ruffman, T.
(2016) Theory of mind and prosocial behavior in childhood: A meta-analytic review. Developmental Psychology, 52 (8), 1192–1205. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Johnson, D. R., Cushman, G. K., Borden, L. A., & McCune, M. S.
(2013a) Potentiating empathic growth: Generating imagery while reading fiction increases empathy and prosocial behaviour. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 7 (3), 306–312. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Johnson, D. R., Jasper, D. M., Griffin, S., & Huffman, B. L.
(2013b) Reading narrative fiction reduces Arab-Muslim prejudice and offers a safe haven from intergroup anxiety. Social Cognition, 31 (5), 578–598. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Johnson, S.
(1750) The Rambler, No. 4 Saturday, 31 March 1750.Google Scholar
Joinson, C.
(1992) Coping with compassion fatigue. Nursing, 22 (4), 116–118. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Kellehear, A.
(2002) Grief and loss: Past, present and future. The Medical Journal of Australia, 177 (4), 176–177. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Kidd, D. C., & Castano, E.
(2013) Reading literary fiction improves theory of mind. Science, 342 (6156), 377–380. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Kidd, D., & Castano, E.
(2019) Reading literary fiction and theory of mind: Three preregistered replications and extensions of Kidd and Castano (2013). Social Psychological and Personality Science, 10 (4), 522–531. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Kidd, D., Ongis, M., & Castano, E.
(2016) On literary fiction and its effects on theory of mind. Scientific Study of Literature, 6 (1), 42–58. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Killen, M., Mulvey, K. L., Richardson, C., Jampol, N., & Woodward, A.
(2011) The accidental transgressor: Morally-relevant theory of mind. Cognition, 119 (2), 197–215. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Klimecki, O., & Singer, T.
(2012) Empathic distress fatigue rather than compassion fatigue? Integrating findings from empathy research in psychology and social neuroscience. In B. Oakley, A. Knafo, G. Madhavan, & D. S. Wilson (Eds.), Pathological altruism (pp. 368–383). Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Knowles, J.
(1959) A separate peace. Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
Koopman, E. M. E.
(2015) Empathic reactions after reading: The role of genre, personal factors and affective responses. Poetics, 50 1, 62–79. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2016) Effects of “literariness” on emotions and on empathy and reflection after reading. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 10 (1), 82–98. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Kucirkova, N.
(2019) How could children’s storybooks promote empathy? A conceptual framework based on developmental psychology and literary theory. Frontiers in Psychology, 10 1, 121. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Kurby, C. A., & Zacks, J. M.
(2015) Situation models in naturalistic comprehension. In R. E. Willems (Ed.), Cognitive neuroscience of natural language use (pp. 59–76). Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Kuzmičová, A.
(2016) Does it matter where you read? Situating narrative in physical environment. Communication Theory, 26 (3), 290–308. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Lee, J. Y. S., & Imuta, K.
(2021) Lying and theory of mind: A meta-analysis. Child Development, 92 (2), 536–553. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Liu, A., & Want, S.
(2015) Literary fiction did not improve affective ToM. www​.psychfiledrawer​.org​/replication​.php​?attempt​=MjI1
Magliano, J. P., & Graesser, A. C.
(1991) A three-pronged method for studying inference generation in literary text. Poetics, 20 (3), 193–232. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Małecki, W., Pawłowski, B., & Sorokowski, P.
(2016) Literary fiction influences attitudes toward animal welfare. PLoS one, 11 (12), e0168695. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Małecki, W., Sorokowski, P., Pawłowski, B., & Cieński, M.
(2019) Human minds and animal stories: How narratives make us care about other species. Routledge. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Mar, R. A.
(2018a) Evaluating whether stories can promote social cognition: Introducing the Social Processes and Content Entrained by Narrative (SPaCEN) framework. Discourse Processes, 55 (5–6), 454–479. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2018b) Stories and the promotion of social cognition. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 27 (4), 257–262. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Mar, R. A., & Oatley, K.
(2008) The function of fiction is the abstraction and simulation of social experience. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3 (3), 173–192. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Mar, R. A., Oatley, K., Hirsh, J., Dela Paz, J., & Peterson, J. B.
(2006) Bookworms versus nerds: Exposure to fiction versus non-fiction, divergent associations with social ability, and the simulation of fictional social worlds. Journal of Research in Personality, 40 (5), 694–712. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Mar, R. A., & Rain, M.
(2015) Narrative fiction and expository non-fiction differentially predict verbal ability. Scientific Studies of Reading, 19 1, 419–433. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Matravers, D.
(2014) Fiction and narrative. Oxford University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
McCracken, J.
(2005) Falsely, sanely, shallowly: Reflections on the special character of grief. International Journal of Applied Philosophy, 19 1, 139–56. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Michalska, K. J., Kinzler, K. D., & Decety, J.
(2013) Age-related sex differences in explicit measures of empathy do not predict brain responses across childhood and adolescence. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 3 1, 22–32. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Molinari, M. C., Barreyro, J. P., Cevasco, J., & van den Broek, P. W.
(2011) Generation of emotional inferences during text comprehension: Behavioral data and implementation through the landscape model. Escritos de Psicología, 4 (1), 9–17. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Mumper, M. L., & Gerrig, R. J.
(2017) Leisure reading and social cognition: A meta-analysis. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 11 (1), 109–120. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2019) How does leisure reading affect social cognitive abilities?. Poetics Today, 40 (3), 453–473. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Nussbaum, M. C.
(1990) Love’s knowledge. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
(1995) Poetic justice: The literary imagination and public life. Beacon Press.Google Scholar
Oakley, B. F., Brewer, R., Bird, G., & Catmur, C.
(2016) Theory of mind is not theory of emotion: A cautionary note on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 125 (6), 818–823. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Oltjenbruns, K. A.
(1991) Positive outcomes of adolescents’ experience with grief. Journal of Adolescent Research, 6 (1), 43–53. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Paludi, M. A., & Strayer, L. A.
(1985) What’s in an author’s name? Differential evaluations of performance as a function of author’s name. Sex Roles, 12 (3–4), 353–361. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Panero, M. E., Weisberg, D. S., Black, J., Goldstein, T. R., Barnes, J. L., Brownell, H., & Winner, E.
(2016) Does reading a single passage of literary fiction really improve theory of mind? An attempt at replication. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 111 (5), e46. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Perugini, M., & Leone, L.
(2009) Implicit self-concept and moral action. Journal of Research in Personality, 43 (5), 747–754. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Pino, M. C., & Mazza, M.
(2016) The use of “literary fiction” to promote mentalizing ability. PloS one, 11 (8), e0160254. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Ratcliffe, M.
(2017) Grief and the unity of emotion. Midwest Studies in Philosophy, 41 (1), 157–174. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Rowe, A. D., Bullock, P. R., Polkey, C. E., & Morris, R. G.
(2001) ‘Theory of mind’ impairments and their relationship to executive functioning following frontal lobe excisions. Brain, 124 (3), 600–616. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Samur, D., Tops, M., & Koole, S. L.
(2018) Does a single session of reading literary fiction prime enhanced mentalising performance? Four replication experiments of Kidd and Castano (2013). Cognition and Emotion, 32 (1), 130–144. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Schaeffer, Jean-Marie: Fictional vs. factual narration
(2013) In Hühn, Peter et al. (eds.): The living handbook of narratology. Hamburg: Hamburg University. URL = http://​www​.lhn​.uni​-hamburg​.de​/article​/fictional​-vs​-factual​-narration
Schwab, R.
(1996) Gender differences in parental grief. Death Studies, 20 (2), 103–113. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Singer, T., & Klimecki, O. M.
(2014) Empathy and compassion. Current Biology, 24 (18), R875–R878. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Sirois, S., & Brisson, J.
(2014) Pupillometry. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science, 5 (6), 679–692. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Stanovich, K. E., & West, R. F.
(1989) Exposure to print and orthographic processing. Reading Research Quarterly, 24 (4), 402–433. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Summers, K.
(2013) Adult reading habits and preferences in relation to gender differences. Reference & User Services Quarterly, 52 (3), 243–249.Google Scholar
Tamir, D. I., Bricker, A. B., Dodell-Feder, D., & Mitchell, J. P.
(2016) Reading fiction and reading minds: The role of simulation in the default network. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 11(2), 215–224. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Telfer, E.
(1970) Friendship. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, 71 1, new series, 223–241. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Topping, K. J., Samuels, J., & Paul, T.
(2008) Independent reading: The relationship of challenge, non-fiction and gender to achievement. British Educational Research Journal, 34 (4), 505–524. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Trilling, L.
(1950) The liberal imagination. Anchor-Doubleday.Google Scholar
Tsunemi, K., Tamura, A., Ogawa, S., Isomura, T., & Masataka, N.
(2014) Intensive exposure to narrative in story books as a possibly effective treatment of social perspective-taking in schoolchildren with autism. Frontiers in Psychology, 5 , 2. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Ugazio, G., Majdandžić, J., & Lamm, C.
(2014) Are empathy and morality linked? Insights from moral psychology, social and decision neuroscience, and philosophy. In H. L. Maibom (Ed.), Empathy in morality (pp. 155–171). Oxford University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Vermeule, B.
(2010) Why do we care about literary characters?. Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
Watkins, P.
(2000) Stand before your god: An American schoolboy in England. Vintage Books.Google Scholar
Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A.
(1988) Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54 (6), 1063–1070. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Weinberg, D. B., & Kapelner, A.
(2018) Comparing gender discrimination and inequality in indie and traditional publishing. PloS one, 13 (4), e0195298. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Wellman, H. M., Cross, D., & Watson, J.
(2001) Meta-analysis of theory-of-mind development: The truth about false belief. Child Development, 72 (3), 655–684. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
White, S. J., Coniston, D., Rogers, R., & Frith, U.
(2011) Developing the Frith-Happé animations: A quick and objective test of Theory of Mind for adults with autism. Autism Research, 4 (2), 149–154. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Wimmer, L.
(2015) Das ästhetische Paradox bei der Verarbeitung von fiktionalen vs nicht-fiktionalen Texten [The aesthetic paradox when processing fictional vs non-fictional texts]. Dissertation, Heidelberg University [available at http://​www​.ub​.uni​-heidelberg​.de​/archiv​/18232].
Worden, J. W.
(2003) Grief counselling and grief therapy (3rd edition). Brunner-Routledge.Google Scholar
Znoj, H. J.
(2015) Bereavement and complicated grief across the lifespan. In J. Wright (Ed.), International encyclopedia of the social & behavioral sciences (2nd edition) (pp. 537–541). Elsevier. CrossrefGoogle Scholar