References

References

Abby-Alphah Mama Ouro-Djobo, F.
(1978) Erstellung eines Korpus von dreissig Märchen in Tem (Zentral Togo) mit phonetischer Transkription, Interlinearversion und freier Übersetzung [Creation of a corpus of thirty fairy tales in Tem (Central Togo) with phonetic transcription, interlinear version and free translation] (Masters dissertation), Universität des Saarlandes, Saarbrücken.Google Scholar
Afeli, A.
(2003) Politique et aménagement linguistiques au Togo : Bilan et perspectives [Language politics and planning in Togo: Review and prospects]. (Thèse d’état), Université de Lomé, Lomé.Google Scholar
Akinlabi, Akinbiyi, & Liberman, Mark
(2007) Tonal complexes: The prosodic organization of tones. Rutgers Optimal Archive, 911.Google Scholar
Arouna, Sahouti
(1998) A contrastive study of English and Tem phonological systems: Problems of interference. (Mémoire de maîtrise), Université de Lomé, Lomé.Google Scholar
Atta, Essosimna
(2005) A comparative analysis of noun phrases in English and Tem. (Mémoire de maîtrise), Université of Lomé, Lomé.Google Scholar
Bawa-Bocco, A.
(1981) La syntaxe du tem, langue du Togo: essai de systématisation par groupes. (Thèse de troisième cycle), Université de Bordeaux III, Bordeaux.Google Scholar
Bird, Steven
(1999) When marking tone reduces fluency: An orthography experiment in Cameroon. Language and Speech, 42, 83–115.Google Scholar
Bybee, Joan L., Perkins, Revere, & Pagliuca, William
(1994) The evolution of grammar: Tense, aspect and modality in the languages of the world. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Cahill, Michael
(2001) Avoiding tone marks: A remnant of English education? Notes on Literacy, 27(1), 13–22.Google Scholar
(2004) Tonal polarity in Kɔnni nouns. Studies in African Linguistics, 33(1), 1–34.Google Scholar
CLTem, & SIL-Togo
(2012) Tɔ́m bíya kpeewú (Dictionnaire tem-français)>. Sokodé: SIL Togo et Comité de Langue Tem.Google Scholar
Copans, M.
(1971) Essai de phonologie du tem [A trial Tem phonology]. (Certificat de linguistique africaine), Institut de phonétique, Université de la Sorbonne Nouvelle, Paris III.Google Scholar
De Craene, Robert
(1986) Le verbe conjugé en tem [The Tem conjugated verb]. Studies in African Linguistics, 17(1), 1–37.Google Scholar
(1989) Lexique du marche, tem – français, français – tem [Tem-French French-Tem market lexicon]. Sokodé: EDITem.Google Scholar
De Craene, Robert, Ouradëi, T. Lambo, & Médjésirbi, Agoro
(2008) Tem ŋmáádɩ [Tem primer, vol. 1–3], 6th ed. Sokodé: Sokodé, Togo: ADELME-Tem.Google Scholar
De Craene, Robert, & Tchagbra, L. Soli Nʼgobou
(1996a) Tem ŋmáádɩ : 1 ŋmáádɩ-bíya na ɖaazɩ́tɩ [Writing Tem : 1 alphabet and punctuation]. SIL-Sokodé.Google Scholar
(1996b) Tem ŋmáádɩ : 2 lowú (Writing Tem : 2 Tone). Sokodé: ADELME-Tem and SIL Togo.Google Scholar
(1997a) Apprendre à lire tem en 15 leçons, version Braille [Learn to read Tem in 15 lessons, Braille version]. Sokodé: ADELME-Tem.Google Scholar
(1997b) Tem ŋmáádɩ : 3 Kʊnʊŋ máádɩ-dɛ́ɛ sááfʊ́wá (Writing Tem : 3 Grammatical categories). SIL-Sokodé.Google Scholar
(1997c) Tem ŋmáádɩ : 4 Lakásɩ tɔmbíya-dɛ́ɛ tɩmɛ́ (Writing Tem : 4 verb conjugations). Sokodé, Togo: SIL.Google Scholar
(1998) Tem ŋmáádɩ : 5 Lóóni-dɛ́ɛ ɖamá mám (Writing Tem, 5 : Tone perturbation). Sokodé: ADELME-Tem and SIL Togo.Google Scholar
(2009) Apprendre à lire tem en 15 leçons, 3e édition [Learn to read Tem in 15 lessons, 3rd edition]. Sokodé: Comité de Langue Tem.Google Scholar
Delord, Jacques
(1988) Les dialectes kabiyè : étude synoptique et comparative [Kabiye dialects: a synoptic and comparative study]. Lomé: Université du Bénin (renommée Université de Lomé).Google Scholar
Der-Houssikian, Haig
(1980a) Tem communication and cultural handbook. Brattleboro, VT: Peace Corps.Google Scholar
(1980b) Tem grammar handbook. Brattleboro, VT: Peace Corps.Google Scholar
(1980c) Tem special skills handbook. Brattleboro, VT: Peace Corps.Google Scholar
Derman, Mohamed Tankaré
(2017) Tombia dee Takarida Tem ná Fáránsi ná Jááma (Tem-French-German dictionary). Frankfurt: Zambon.Google Scholar
Derman, Tankaré
(1983) Dictionnaire Tem-français-allemand / Tem-Französisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch [Tem-French-German dictionary]. Universität des Saarlandes: Saarbrücken.Google Scholar
Dryer, M. S., & Haspelmath, M.
(2013) The World Atlas of Language Structures Online. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. http://​wals​.info​/languoid​/lect​/wals​_code​_tem (accessed 3 September 2016).
Eberhard, David M., Simons, Gary F., & Fennig, Charles D.
(Eds.) (2020) Ethnologue: Languages of the World, 23rd edition. Dallas, TX: SIL International. On-line version : http://​www​.ethnologue​.com
Gblem-Poidi, Honorine, & Kantchoa, Laré
(2012) Les langues du Togo : Etat de la recherche et perspectives [The languages of Togo: State of the art and prospects]. Paris: Harmattan.Google Scholar
Hartell, Rhonda L.
(Ed.) (1993) Alphabets of Africa. Dakar: UNESCO and SIL.Google Scholar
Kabore, Raphaël, & Tchagbalé, Zakari
(1998) ATR, ouverture et arrondissement vocaliques dans quelques systèmes africains [ATR, aperture and vowel rounding in some African systems]. Fait de langues: les langues d’afriques subsahariennes, 6(11), 467–490.Google Scholar
Kleinewillinghöfer, Ulrich
(1997) The gurunsi languages : A summary of the state of the art. Gur papers / Cahiers voltaïques, 2, 43–52.Google Scholar
Koelle, S. W.
(1854) Polyglotta Africana: Or a comparative vocabulary of nearly three hundred words and phrases, in more than one hundred distinct African languages. London: Church Missionary House.Google Scholar
Köhler, O.
(1964) Gur languages in the Polyglotta Africana. Sierra Leone Revue, 3, 65–73.Google Scholar
Kordow, H. Moubashir
(2006) Juz Amma: Essai d’interprétation du Coran en langue Kotokoli (Tem) [Juz Amma: Trial interpretation of the Quran in the Kotokoli (Tem) language. Qatar: Ligue des Oulema du Togo et Ministère des Affaires Islamiques.Google Scholar
(2007) Tem Ŋmáádɩ Kpɛlɛḿ tákárɩɖá sɩ́ɩ́lɛ́ ńgɩ: Apprendre l’écriture en Tem – lettres Romains et Arabes. [Learn to read in Tem – Roman and Arabic letters]. Sokodé: Publisher unspecified.Google Scholar
(2013) Traduction Tem du livre Al-Akhdari [Tem translation of the Al-Akhdari book]. Sokodé: Publisher unspecified.Google Scholar
Lange, M-F.
(1991) Cent cinquante ans de scolarisation au Togo : bilan et perspectives [150 years of schooling in Togo: Summary and prospects]. Lomé: Presses de l’Université du Bénin (devenue Université de Lomé).Google Scholar
Lelièvre, R. P.
(1950a) Grammaire du tem [Tem grammar]. Aledjo: Mission Catholique d’Aledjo.Google Scholar
(1950b) Grammaire et dictionnaire tem [Tem Grammar and dictionary]. Mission Catholique d’Alédjo.Google Scholar
Manessy, Gabriel
(1969) Les langues gurunsi : Essai d’application de la méthode comparative à un groupe de langues voltaiques [The Gurunsi languages: An attempt to apply the comparative method to a group of Gur languages]. Paris: SELAF.Google Scholar
(1995) Le verbe dans les langues de groupe Tem: essai d’interprétation génétique [The verb in the Tem group of languages: a trial genetic interpretation]. Afrika und Ubersee, 49, 237–256.Google Scholar
MAS
(1986) Kʊ́bɔnáa Sukúúli wɩlɩɖʊ́ dɛ́ɛ tákaraɖá (Tem literacy guide). Lomé: Section régionale d’alphabétisation et d’éducation des adultes du Ministère des Affaires Sociales et comité de langue tem.Google Scholar
MAS, & SIL
(1981) Livret de lecture Tem [Tem reading booklet]. Lomé: Ministère des Affaires sociales et SIL.Google Scholar
Muller, F.
(1905) Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Tem Sprache (Nord-Togo) [Contribution to the knowledge of the Tem language (North Togo)]. Mitteilungn Seminars für orientalische Sprachen zu Berlin, 8, 251–286.Google Scholar
Nikiéma, Norbert, Silué, J. Sassango, Takassi, Issa, Tchagbalé, Zakari, Kassan, Balaïbaou, Mawani, A. Matthieu, … Kedrebéogo, Gérard
(2005) Orthographe standard et harmonisée des langues gur [Standard harmonised orthography of Gur languages] (Vol. 44). Cape Town, RSA: Centre for Advanced Studies of African Society.Google Scholar
Olsson, Bruno
(2013) Iamatives: Perfects in Southeast Asia and beyond. (Masters thesis), University of Stockholm, Stockholm.Google Scholar
Plunkett, Gray
(2009) An overview of Foodo, a linguistic island in Benin. Journal of West African Languages, 36(1–2), 107–137.Google Scholar
Roberts, David
(2016) Word tone and tonal overwriting in Kabiye nouns. Journal of African Languages and Linguistics, 37(1), 131–160.Google Scholar
Sama, Aboubakari
(2001) L’énoncé Tem [The Tem utterence]. (Maîtrise Mémoire de maîtrise), Université de Lomé.Google Scholar
Sama, Aboubakari G.
(2004) Etude comparative des systèmes consonantiques des langues du gurunsi oriental [A comparative study of consonantal systems in the eastern Gurunsi languages]. (Mémoire de DEA), Université de Lomé, Lomé.Google Scholar
SOTOCO
(1974) Yɔɔtɩ farɩm Togo Nda [Cotton farming in Togo]. Sokodé: SOTOCO.Google Scholar
Tchadouwa, Colibou
(1996) Contribution of borrowing to Tem vocabulary: The case of English borrowed words. (Mémoire de maîtrise), Université de Lomé, Lomé.Google Scholar
Tchagbalé, Zakari
(1972) Les catégories grammaticales du tem [Tem grammatical categories]. (Mémoire de maîtrise), Université de la Sorbonne Nouvelle, Paris III.Google Scholar
(1976) Phonologie et tonologie du Tem [Tem phonology and tonology]. (Thèse de doctorat de troisième cycle), Université de la Sorbonne Nouvelle, Paris III., Paris.Google Scholar
Tchagbalé, Zakari
(1998) Le verbe tem [The Tem verb]. Gur papers / Cahiers voltaïques, 3, 129–142.Google Scholar
(2000) L’infinitif tem, statut et structure [The Tem infinitive: status and structure]. Cahiers voltaïques / Gur Papers, 5, 169–180.Google Scholar
(2001) L’accent tonal du tem [Tem pitch accent]. Proceedings of the Typology of African prosodic systems colloquium, University of Bielefeld, Germany, May 18–20, 2001.Google Scholar
(2003) Les relateurs à consonne ‘n’ : Parenté génétique, transcatégorialité et problématique de la coordination en tem [Relators containing the consonant ‘n’: Genetic kinship, transcategoriality and coordination issues in Tem] Cahiers voltaïques / Gur Papers, 6, 143–159.Google Scholar
(2006) Topicalisation et focalisation en tem [Topicalistion and focalisation in Tem]. Gur papers / Cahiers voltaïques, 7, 122–135.Google Scholar
Warren-Rothlin, Andy
(2014) West African scripts and Arabic-script orthographies in socio-political context. In M. Mumin & K. Versteegh (Eds.), The Arabic script in Africa: Studies in the use of a writing system (Vol. 71, pp. 261–292). Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
Weathers, Andy
(2018) Vers une orthographe appropriée pour le tem: Rapport sur atelier sur la graphie tonale, Kara (Togo), du 25 octobre au 11 novembre 2016 [Towards an appropriate orthography for Tem: Tone orthography workshop report, Kara, Togo, 25 October – 11 November 2016]. Unpublished report. SIL Togo-Bénin, Kara.Google Scholar
Westerman, Diedrich
(1933) Drei dialekete des Tem in Togo : Tchala, Delo, Bago [Three Tem dialects in Togo: Tchala, Delo and Bago]. Mitteilungen des Seminas für orientalische Sprachen zu Berlin, 36, 7–33.Google Scholar
Wouro-Banna, Tchagafou
(1994) Sémantisme du corps humain en tem [The semantics of the human body in Tem]. (Mémoire de maîtrise), Université de Lomé, Lomé.Google Scholar