1.Language and spelling

  • Articles should be in English.
  • Spelling and style should be consistently either British or American throughout.
  • If you are not a native user of English, you should have your paper checked by an English language professional before submitting it.

2.Text structure

  • A. title
  • B. abstract of 100-150 words
  • C. 6-8 keywords
  • D. article's body of text
  • E. all references
  • F. appendices, if any
  • NOTE

    Do not reveal your identity anywhere in the main paper that you upload to Editorial Manager. You will be asked to identify yourself in a separate step. There is no need to put your name anywhere on the Word document you upload.
    The word count total of A through I should not exceed a total of ca. 8,000 words. Please refer to the call for papers for the issue you are targeting or else write to the editors, in case there is some variation on the general arrangements.

    3. Submission of materials

    Text Articles should be submitted electronically in Word format (preferably .docx or .doc) or Word-compatible format (e.g., .rtf, .odt) through the John Benjamins Editorial Manager system.

    Graphics files For figures, please supply both the original creation files and also copies converted to Encapsulated Postscript (EPS) or Tagged Image File Format (TIFF). Typesetters cannot work on figures supplied as graphics.

    File names Please name your files the first three characters of the first author’s last name. For example, if that name is Johnson, the respective document file should be named joh.doc. Do not use the three-character extension except for identifying the file type, as provided by the system. That is, joh.doc is OK, but not, joh.rev. Instead, use joh-art.doc, joh-r1.doc, etc.). Figures, tables, etc. should be named using the appropriate standard extensions, e.g., joh1.eps, joh2.tif, joh3.xls, etc.

    Corrections Make sure that you have deleted any previous versions within the manuscript as well any personal comments, corrections, tracks, etc., and check that all files are readable.

    Copyright assignment form If the article is accepted, authors will need to provide a copyright assignment form together with the last version.

    Open access policy Please see the John Benjamins “Open Access Policy”:

    4. Lay-out of article content and graphics

    Any formatting not called for by this stylesheet should be kept to a minimum.

    Please be consistent for all formatting or style conventions used.

    In particular, examples, quotations, tables, headings, etc. should be presented in a clear and consistent way, so that they can be identified and formatted in the style of our journal.

    • Please use ample margins and 1.5 line spacing.
    • Do not use full justification.
    • Do not use ‘stiff’ hyphenation.
    • Do not use running heads. For articles with long titles (which in general should be avoided), a shortened version (max. 55 characters + spaces), to be used as running head, may be provided on the cover sheet of your paper.
    • Notes should be kept to a minimum and should be submitted as footnotes (no Roman numbers for footnotes!).

    4.1. Fonts and font sizes

    • Body of text, Times (New) Roman 12 pts.
    • Tables and footnotes, Times Roman 10 pts.
    • Absolute lowest size for special cases, 8 pts.

    4.2. Typographical emphasis

    • Italics Use them only for words in languages other than English as well as for emphasis.
    • Boldface should be used only for headings and for highlighting words within italicized stretches.
    • FULL CAPS Please refrain from using them except for focal stress and abbreviations.
    • Underlining Do not use it except within examples, as an alternative to boldface for highlighting.

    4.3. Capitalization

    • In titles and subtitles in English, capitalize the first and last words, and all other major words (nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, some conjunctions). Do not capitalize: articles; prepositions (unless used adverbially or adjectivally, or as part of a Latin expression used adverbially or adjectivally); the conjunctions and, but, for, or, nor, to as part of the infinitive; as in any grammatical function; parts of proper names that would be lower case in normal text; and the second part of a species name.
    • Capitalization for other languages and English translations given in square brackets, use sentence-style capitalization (capitalization as in normal prose), i.e., the first word in the title, the subtitle, and any proper names or other words normally given initial capitals in the language being used.

    4.4. Headings

    Articles should be conveniently divided into sections and, if necessary, sub-sections. Please try not to use more than three levels. Please mark section headings as follows:

    Level 1 bold italics, one line space before, section number flush left. Text starts immediately below.
    Level 2 italics, one line space before, section number flush left. Text starts immediately below.
    Level 3 italics, one line space before, section number flush left. End heading with period, start text in the same line.

    • If you are not going to cross reference within your article, you don't really need to number your headings. If you do, numbering should be in Arabic numerals.
    • Do not use italics for numbering; use full stops between numbers and after the last number, thus: Section 1. ..., Section 2.3.1. ...., etc. However, do not enter a full stop after the last number when referencing (e.g., "see section 2.3.1").


    'Single quotes' Use them for conventionally used terms or expressions (e.g., ‘context of situation’). They may also be used as ‘scare quotes’ to focus attention on a particular word or expression.

    "Double quotes" Always use them for glosses and directly quoted forms and expressions. In-text quotations should be given in double quotation marks.

    Quotations longer than three lines should be set off from the main text by a line of space above and below. Also, they should be indented 1 cm left and right, without quotation marks, followed by the appropriate reference to the source on a separate line (left adjusted, indented 1 cm).

    4.6. Numbering lists, examples, etc

    • Lists that run on with the main text may be numbered using parentheses: (1)..............; (2)............., etc.
    • Lists placed apart should not be indented. If numbered, please do it as follows:
      1. (or a. .......................)
      2. (or b. .......................)
    • If you need to set more than one list close to each other, please alternate between Arabic numerals and lowercase letters. That is, one list would have all items with numbers, the next one would have all items marked with letters, the third one with numbers again, etc.
    • Examples should be numbered with Arabic numerals in parentheses, thus: (1) ...; (2) ...; etc.
    • Tables and figures should be numbered consecutively.

    4.7. Examples

    • Examples in languages other than English should be in italics; an approximate translation should be provided.
    • Between the original and the translation lines, a line with glosses may be added. In cases of more divergent languages, a line containing a morphemic breakdown may also be provided. Such interlinear information is given without punctuation or highlighting. For the abbreviations in the interlinear gloss, please use small caps and not CAPS. Please use the Leipzig Glossing Rules (

    4.8. Tables and figures

    • Each one should have a maximum size of 4.5” × 7.5” (11,5 cm × 19 cm).
    • Each table or figure should be provided with an appropriate caption below.
    • Tables and figures should be referred to in the main text as “Table 2”, “Figure 3”, etc. (avoid expressions such as “in the following table: ...” or “See the figure below.”).
    • Please indicate the preferred positioning of tables and figures in the text in this way:




    Please note that the exact position of graphics will depend on typesetting needs, although we will make an effort to place the graphic as close as possible to the position you indicated.

    4.9. Funding information

    Funding information should be provided if funding was received through a grant for the research that is discussed in the article, including funder name and grant number, in a separate section called "Funding information" before (an Acknowledgment section and) the References.

    4.10. Acknowledgments

    Acknowledgments (other than funding information, see above) should be added in a separate, unnumbered section entitled "Acknowledgments", placed before the References.

    5. Citations and references


    It is essential that the references are formatted to the specifications given in these guidelines, as these cannot be formatted automatically. This Journal uses the ‘Author-Date’ style as described in the latest edition of The Chicago Manual of Style.

    5.1. Varia

    References in the text . These should be as precise as possible, giving page references where necessary; for example (Clahsen 1991, 252) or: as in Brown et al. (1991, 252). Separate multiple citations within parentheses with a semicolon, listed first alphabetically and then chronologically, as in (Brown et al. 1991, 252; Clahsen 1991, 252).

    References section . References should be listed first alphabetically and then chronologically. The section should include all (and only!) references that are actually mentioned in the text.

    References should

    • give the names of journals in full, with page references for quoted articles.
    • be listed alphabetically in accordance with the authors’ last names. Authors’ names should be given with full first name(s) except in cases where authors consistently use initials only.
    • be listed chronologically in ascending chronological order (starting with the earliest publications).
    • not use abbreviations for names of publishers (other than dropping ‘Inc.’ etc.), titles of journals, state names (ex. NY), or use postal codes.
    • include English translations of titles not in English, between square brackets, right after the original title.

    Ordering references. In cases where two or more papers by the same author are cited, please place them in ascending chronological order, i.e., starting with the author’s earliest publication. If an author has published singly and jointly, then the multiple-author publications should follow the single-author ones (alphabetically and chronologically).

    Special care. This is a journal for Translation Studies. Special attention should be devoted to enter the correct spelling of any and all names of authors and editors. Also, please make sure that you understand the naming conventions in languages other than English so that you don't list or name an author with an incorrect name or surname. Finally, do not forget to include the names of translators in any entry of a reference that has them.

    5.2. Examples


    Görlach, Manfred. 2003. English Words Abroad. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

    Spear, Norman E., and Ralph R. Miller (eds). 1981. Information Processing in Animals: Memory Mechanisms. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

    Articles/chapters in book

    Adams, Clare A., and Anthony Dickinson. 1981. “Actions and Habits: Variation in Associative Representation during Instrumental Learning.” In Information Processing in Animals: Memory Mechanisms, edited by Norman E. Spear, and Ralph R. Miller, 143–186. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

    Articles in printed journal

    Claes, Jeroen, and Luis A. Ortiz López. 2011. “Restricciones pragmáticas y sociales en la expresión de futuridad en el español de Puerto Rico [Pragmatic and social restrictions in the expression of the future in Puerto Rican Spanish].” Spanish in Context 8: 50–72.

    Rayson, Paul, Geoffrey N. Leech, and Mary Hodges. 1997. “Social Differentiation in the Use of English Vocabulary: Some Analyses of the Conversational Component of the British National Corpus.” International Journal of Corpus Linguistics 2 (1): 120–132.

    Articles in online journal

    A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is a permanent ID that, when appended to in the address bar of an Internet browser, will lead to the source. As per Chicago Manual of Style, pleaseinclude a DOI if the journal lists one. You will be able to find most DOI at Crossref ( If no DOI is available, list a URL and include an access date.

    Kossinets, Gueorgi, and Duncan J. Watts. 2009. “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network.” American Journal of Sociology 115:405–50. Accessed February 28, 2010. DOI 10.1086/599247.

    Dynamic Language. 2010. “Google Puts Pressure on Interpreting Industry?” Dynamic Language Blog. Accessed June 1, 2012. industry/.

    Dissertation or Thesis

    Atkinson, David P. 2007. Some Psychological Competences That Predict Freelance Translator Success and Wellbeing in the Demanding Globalised Business Context. Masters Thesis, University of Auckland.

    For more details and examples, consult the Chicago Manual of Style.