Article published in:Creoles, their Substrates, and Language Typology
Edited by Claire Lefebvre
[Typological Studies in Language 95] 2011
► pp. 81–103
Substrate influences in Kriyol
Guinea-Bissau and Casamance Portuguese-related Creole
Kriyol is a Portuguese-related creole language spoken in Guinea-Bissau (former Portuguese Guinea) and Senegalese Casamance. Besides being the primary language of an important community, it also serves as a lingua franca in a multilingual country where Portuguese, although being the official language, actually has little currency. Kriyol counts among the oldest Creoles in the world, having emerged probably during the sixteenth century from a pidginised variety of Portuguese used by the local intermediaries (grumetes) between the few Portuguese settlers and the local populations. Given this situation, one would expect a high degree of substrate influence. In fact, substrate influence, although readily visible, turns out to be limited as can be shown by comparing core grammatical phenomena between Kriyol and a selection of local languages (Balanta, Diola, Manjaku, Mankanya). It is proposed that the main reasons for such a limitation are (1) that the creole-creating grumetes soon formed a tightly united group with its own culture; and (2) that they were perfectly bilingual in Kriyol and one or several local languages, therefore able to keep their grammars separate.
Keywords: adstrate, Atlantic languages, Basic Varieties, Creoles, creolisation, grumetes, lançados, Mande languages, pidgins, Portuguese-related Creoles, substrate, West-African history
Published online: 17 February 2011
Cited by 1 other publications
Daval-Markussen, Aymeric, Kristoffer Friis Bøegh & Peter Bakker
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