Geschlechtsunterschiede; Sprechen Und Denken; Emotionen Und Beziehungen.
In this article it is assumed that verbal and nonverbal aspects of communication should be accounted for in one integrative theory, as is for instance proposed by Watzlawick et al. (1967). The article examines the question whether Maccoby & Jacklin's (1973) hypotheses concerning sex differences hold when we also take pragmatic and non-digital but analogue nonverbal aspects of communication into account. In considering these hypotheses (1) observational data of pre school and primary school interaction; (2) observational data of communication in a behavior therapy setting; and (3) the observational capacity of nonverbal communication with respect to the PONS-test, a test for emotions and one for human relations, are dealt with. It is found amongst other things that (1) boys communicate more abstractly and therefore more succesfully in a school situation than girls do; (2) male therapists communicate more effectively with their clients than female therapists do; (3) female clients communicate more effectively than the male clients; (4) communicative capacity depends on situation, role, and on who is the addressee, and is to a large extent sex-specific; (5) male, female, and androgynous are effective self-attributions in a differential psychology sense in differentiating between achievements in tests on observational capacity with respect to nonverbal communication; (6) androgyny is generally advantageous for woman and disadvantageous for men; and (7) Maccoby and Jacklin's hypotheses should be reconsidered.
Published online: 24 March 2014