Article published in:World Englishes: New theoretical and methodological considerations
Edited by Elena Seoane and Cristina Suárez-Gómez
[Varieties of English Around the World G57] 2016
► pp. 143–172
(Semi-)modals of necessity in Hong Kong and Indian Englishes
In Standard Englishes the semi-modals need (to), want to and have to are gaining ground over central modals such as must (Leech 2013, for example). As a means of exploring the status of these verbs in Hong Kong and Indian Englishes, this paper analyses must, need (to), want to and have to from both a syntactic and a semantic point of view based on examples found in the International Corpus of English (ICE-HK and ICE-IND). It also compares these with examples drawn from the British English component of the ICE project (ICE-GB). Findings show that: (a) semantically, the behaviour of these (semi-) modals differs considerably from one variety to another; (b) the degree of grammaticalization of the semi-modals is lower in Indian English than in the other varieties; and (c) colloquialization and grammaticalization operate synergetically in the replacement of modals with semi-modals.
Keywords: Asian Englishes, colloquialization, grammaticalization, necessity, semi-modals
Published online: 25 May 2016
Cited by other publications
This list is based on CrossRef data as of 28 december 2020. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers. Any errors therein should be reported to them.
2011 Shifts in English modal verb usage in recent times. Plenary lecture presented at the 44 Meeting of the Societas Linguistica Europaea . Logroño, Spain.
Biber, Douglas & Gray, Bethany
Bolinger, Dwight L.
Davidse, Kristin & Heyvaert, Liesbet
2007– TIME Magazine Corpus: 100 million words, 1920s-2000s. http://corpus.byu.edu/time/.
2010 The Corpus of Historical American English: 400 million words, 1810–2009. http://corpus.byu.edu/coha/
Deuber, Dagmar, Biewer, Carolin, Hackert, Stephanie & Hilbert, Michaela
Hackert, Stephanie, Deuber, Dagmar, Biewer, Carolin & Hilbert, Michaela
2013. Modals of possibility, ability and permission in selected New Englishes. eVarieng 13.http://www.helsinki.fi/varieng/journal/volumes/13/hackert_deuber_biewer_hilbert/ (29 September 2014).
Heine, Bernd, Claudi, Ulrike & Hünnemeyer, Friederike
Huddleston, Rodney & Pullum, Geoffrey, et al.
Kachru, Braj B.
Krug, Manfred G.
2013 Where have all the modals gone? An essay on the declining frequency of core modal auxiliaries in recent standard English. In English Modality. Core, Periphery and Evidentiality, Juana I. Marín-Arrese, Marta Carretero, Jorge Arús Hita & Johan van der Auwera (eds), 95–115. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.
Leech, Geoffrey, Hundt, Marianne, Mair, Christian & Smith, Nicholas
2012 Speech-act participants in modality. Unpublished manuscript. http://www.christianlehmann.eu/publ/lehmann_modality.pdf (29 September 2014).
Mesthrie, Rajend & Bhatt, Rakesh M.
Nordlinger, Rachel & Traugott, Elizabeth C.
Quirk, Randolph, Greenbaum, Sidney, Leech, Geoffrey & Svartvik, Jan
Tagliamonte, Sali & D’Arcy, Alexandra
Traugott, Elizabeth C.
van der Auwera, Johan, Noël, Dirk & De Wit, Astrid