World Englishes on the Web

The Nigerian diaspora in the USA

| University of Freiburg
ISBN 9789027207395 | EUR 105.00 | USD 158.00
e-BookOrdering information
ISBN 9789027260888 | EUR 105.00 | USD 158.00
World Englishes on the Web focuses on linguistic practices at the intersection of international migration and social media, examining the language repertoires of Nigerians living in the United States, and their negotiations of identity and authenticity on a Nigerian web forum. Based on a large corpus of informal, multilingual, interactive, online writing, this book describes how diasporic Nigerians employ African-American Vernacular English, Nigerian English, Nigerian Pidgin, and ethnic Nigerian languages in an online community of practice. The project combines corpus linguistic methods—relying on a corpus management tool custom-made for web forum data—with ethnographically-informed qualitative analyses of morphosyntactic, lexical, and orthographic features, and immigrants’ language attitudes and ideologies. It is relevant particularly for linguists and other social scientists interested in World Englishes, the sociolinguistics of globalization and computer-mediated communication, corpus linguistics, and pidgin and creole languages
[Varieties of English Around the World, G63]  Expected August 2020.  vii, 338 pp.
Publishing status: In production
Table of Contents
This is a provisional table of contents, and subject to changes.
Chapter 1. Introduction
Chapter 2. The sociolinguistics of the Nigerian diaspora
Chapter 3. Resources, repertoires, and authenticity in times of globalization
Chapter 4. Data and methods
Chapter 5. African Americans and their vernacular English
Chapter 6. African-American linguistic resources in diasporic Nigerian repertoires
Chapter 7. Nigerian linguistic resources in diasporic Nigerian repertoires
Chapter 8. Discussion
Chapter 9. Conclusion


Abrahams, R. D.
1983The Man-of-Words in the West Indies: Performance and the Emergence of Creole Culture. Baltimore MD: John Hopkins University Press.
Adesanoye, F. A.
1979Formality as an aspect of unreadability in Nigerian journalistic English. In Varieties and Functions of English in Nigeria, E. Ubahakwe (ed.), 184–199. Ibadan, Nigeria: African Universities Press & The Nigerian English Studies Association.
Akande, A. T.
2012Globalization and English in Africa: Evidence from Nigerian Hip-Hop. New York NY: Nova Science Publishers.
Akande, A. T. & Salami, O. L.
2010Use and attitudes towards Nigerian Pidgin English among Nigerian university students. In Marginal Dialects: Language Varieties on Linguistic Boundaries in Scotland, Ireland and Beyond, R. Millar (ed.), 70–89. Aberdeen: Forum for Research on the Languages of Scotland and Ulster.
Akere, F.
1995Languages in the curriculum: An assessment of the role of English and other languages in the education delivery process in Nigeria. In New Englishes: A West African Perspective, A. Bamgbose, A. Banjo & A. Thomas (eds), 178–199. Ibadan, Nigeria: Mosuro.
Alexa Traffic, demographics and competitors. Alexa. 26 December 2014, <http://​www​.alexa​.com​/siteinfo​/nairaland​.com (13 March 2020). Traffic, demographics and competitors. Alexa. 13 March 2020, <http://​www​.alexa​.com​/siteinfo​/nairaland​.com (13 March 2020).
Alim, H. S.
2003“We are the streets”: African American Language and the strategic construction of a street conscious identity. In Black Linguistics: Language, Society, and Politics in Africa and the Americas, S. Makoni, G. Smitherman, A. F. Ball & A. K. Spears (eds), 40–59. London: Routledge.
2004aHip Hop Nation Language. In Language in the USA: Themes for the Twenty-First Century, E. Finegan & J. R. Rickford (eds), 387–409. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
2004bYou Know My Steez: An Ethnographic and Sociolinguistic Study of Styleshifting in a Black American Speech Community. Durham NC: Duke University Press for the American Dialect Society.
2006Roc the Mic Right: The Language of Hip Hop Culture. New York NY: Routledge. Crossref link
2015Hip Hop Nation Language: Localization and globalization. In The Oxford Handbook of African American Language, J. Bloomquist, L. J. Green & S. L. Lanehart (eds), 1–16. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Alim, H. S., Ibrahim, A. & Pennycook, A.
(eds) 2009Global Linguistic Flows: Hip Hop Cultures, Youth Identities, and the Politics of Language. New York NY: Routledge.
Alim, H. S. & Smitherman, G.
2012Articulate While Black: Barack Obama, Language, and Race in the U.S. New York NY: Oxford University Press.
Alo, M. A. & Mesthrie, R.
2008Nigerian English: Morphology and syntax. In Varieties of English: Africa, South and Southeast Asia, Vol. 4, R. Mesthrie (ed.), 323–339. Berlin: De Gruyter.
Anderson, M.
2017African immigrant population in U.S. steadily climbs. Pew Research Center (blog). 14 February 2017, <http://​www​.pewresearch​.org​/fact​-tank​/2017​/02​/14​/african​-immigrant​-population​-in​-u​-s​-steadily​-climbs/ (13 March 2020).
Androutsopoulos, J. K.
2000Non-standard spellings in media texts: The case of German fanzines. Journal of Sociolinguistics 4(4): 514–533. Crossref link
2006Introduction: Sociolinguistics and computer-mediated communication. Journal of Sociolinguistics 10(4): 419–438. Crossref link
2007Language choice and code switching in German-based diasporic web forums. In The Multilingual Internet: Language, Culture, and Communication Online, B. Danet & S. C. Herring (eds), 340–361. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Crossref link
2008Potentials and limitations of discourse-centred online ethnography. Language at Internet 5: 1–20.
2013Online data collection. In Data Collection in Sociolinguistics: Methods and Applications, C. Mallinson, B. Childs & G. Van Herk (eds), 236–249. New York NY: Routledge.
2015Negotiating authenticities in mediatized times. Discourse, Context & Media 8: 74–77. Crossref link
Appadurai, A.
1990Disjuncture and difference in the global cultural economy. Theory, Culture & Society 7: 295–310. Crossref link
1996Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization. Minneapolis MN: University of Minnesota Press.
Auer, P.
1999From codeswitching via language mixing to fused lects: Toward a dynamic typology of bilingual speech. International Journal of Bilingualism 3(4): 309–332. Crossref link
Austin, J. L.
1962How to Do Things with Words, 2nd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Awolowo, O.
1960Awo: The Autobiography of Chief Obafemi Awolowo. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Awonusi, V. O.
1994The Americanization of Nigerian English. World Englishes 13(1): 75–82. Crossref link
Ayittey, G. B. N.
1999Africa in Chaos. New York NY: Palgrave Macmillan.
Bad Nigerian English
. n.d. If I hear pim, you go hear ween. NigerianDictionary. https://​nigeriandictionary​.com​/if​-i​-hear​-pim​-you​-go​-hear​-ween (28 February 2020).
Bakhtin, M. M.
1929Problems of Dostoevsky’s Poetics. Minneapolis MN: University of Minnesota Press.
1981The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays. Austin TX: University of Texas Press.
Bakker, P.
2008Pidgins versus creoles and pidgincreoles. In The Handbook of Pidgin and Creole Studies, S. Kouwenberg & J. V. Singler (eds), 130–157. Oxford: Blackwell.
Bamgbose, A.
1971The English language in Nigeria. In The English Language in West Africa, J. Spencer (ed.), 35–48. London: Longman.
1995English in the Nigerian environment. In New Englishes: A West African Perspective, A. Bamgbose, A. Banjo & A. Thomas (eds), 9–26. Ibadan, Nigeria: Mosuro.
1996Post-imperial English in Nigeria 1940–1990. In Post-Imperial English: Status Change in Former British and American Colonies, 1940–1990, J. A. Fishman, A. W. Conrad & A. Rubal-Lopez (eds), 357–372. Berlin: De Gruyter. Crossref link
Banjo, A.
1991Foreword. In Nigerian English Usage: An Introduction, D. Jowitt, vii–viii. Nigeria: Longman.
Baron, N.
2008Always on: Language in an Online and Mobile World. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Crossref link
Bastian, M. L.
1999Nationalism in a virtual space: Immigrant Nigerians on the internet. West African Review 1(1): 1–21.
Baugh, J. G.
1984Steady: Progressive aspect in Black Vernacular English. American Speech 59(1): 3–12. Crossref link
Beers Fägersten, K.
2008A corpus approach to discursive constructions of a hip-hop identity. In Corpora and Discourse: The Challenges of Different Settings, A. Ädel & R. Reppen (eds), 211–242. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Beißwenger, M. & Storrer, A.
2008Corpora of computer-mediated communication. In Corpus Linguistics: An International Handbook [Handbooks of Linguistics and Communication Science 1], A. Lüdeling & M. Kytö (eds), 292–308. Berlin: De Gruyter.
Bell, A.
1984Language style as audience design. Language in Society 13(2): 145–204. Crossref link
2001Back in style: Reworking the audience design. In Style and Sociolinguistic Variation, P. Eckert & J. R. Rickford (eds), 139–169. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Benor, S. B.
2010Ethnolinguistic repertoire: Shifting the analytic focus in language and ethnicity. Journal of Sociolinguistics 14(2): 159–183. Crossref link
Bergh, G. & Zanchetta, E.
2008Web linguistics. In Corpus Linguistics: An International Handbook [Handbooks of Linguistics and Communication Science 1], A. Lüdeling & M. Kytö (eds), 309–327. Berlin: De Gruyter.
Bickerton, D.
1973The nature of a creole continuum. Language 49(3): 640–669. Crossref link
Blake, R. & Shousterman, C.
2010Diachrony and AAE: St. Louis, hip-hop, and sound change outside of the mainstream. Journal of English Linguistics 38(3): 230–247. Crossref link
Blench, R.
2005A Dictionary of Nigerian English (draft circulated for comment). http://​www​.rogerblench​.info​/Language​/English​/Nigerian%20English%20Dictionary​.pdf (13 March 2020).
Blommaert, J.
2005Discourse: A Critical Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
2010The Sociolinguistics of Globalization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Blommaert, J. & Backus, A.
2012Repertoires revisited: “Knowing language” in superdiversity. Working Papers in Urban Language & Literacies 67: 1–26.
Blommaert, J., Collins, J. & Slembrouck, S.
2005Spaces of multilingualism. Language & Communication 25: 197–216. Crossref link
Blommaert, J. & Varis, P.
2013Enough is enough: The heuristics of authenticity in superdiversity. In Linguistic Superdiversity in Urban Areas: Research Approaches [Hamburg Studies on Linguistic Diversity 2], J. Duarte & I. Gogolin (eds), 143–160. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
boyd, d. m. & Ellison, N. B.
2007Social network sites: Definition, history, and scholarship. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 13(1): 210–230. Crossref link
Bucholtz, M.
1999You da man: Narrating the racial other in the production of white masculinity. Journal of Sociolinguistics 3(4): 443–460. Crossref link
2003Sociolinguistic nostalgia and the authentication of identity. Journal of Sociolinguistics 7(3): 398–416. Crossref link
Bucholtz, M. & Hall, K.
2005Identity and interaction: A sociocultural linguistic approach. Discourse Studies 7(4–5): 585–614. Crossref link
Burridge, K. & Kortmann, B.
(eds) 2008Varieties of English: The Pacific and Australasia, Vol. 3. Berlin: De Gruyter. Crossref link
Canagarajah, S. A.
2006The place of World Englishes in composition: Pluralization continued. College Composition and Communication 57(4): 586–619.
Carter, D.
2003Preface. In New African Diasporas, K. Koser (ed.), ix–xix. London: Routledge.
Cassidy, F. G. & Le Page, R. B.
1967Dictionary of Jamaican English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Central Intelligence Agency
2019The World Factbook: Nigeria. 3 November 2019, <https://​www​.cia​.gov​/library​/publications​/the​-world​-factbook​/geos​/ni​.html (19 March 2020).
Chambers, J. K. & Trudgill, P.
1998Dialectology, 2nd edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Cheshire, J.
1981Variation in the use of ain’t in an urban British English dialect. Language in Society 10: 365–381. Crossref link
Cheshire, J., Kerswill, P., Fox, S. & Torgersen, E. N.
2011Contact, the feature pool and the speech community: The emergence of Multicultural London English. Journal of Sociolinguistics 15(2): 151–196. Crossref link
Chicago Manual of Style
2003Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edn. Chicago IL: University of Chicago Press.
Chiluwa, I.
2010Nigerian English in informal email messages. English World-Wide 31(1): 40–61. Crossref link
CLARIN-D Legal Help Desk
2012Corpora from open internet forums. 20 June 2012 (Unpublished letter).
Cohen, R.
1997Global Diasporas: An Introduction. London: University College London. Crossref link
Coleman, J.
2014Contemporary slang in the United States and England. In Global English Slang: Methodologies and Perspectives, J. Coleman (ed.), 11–14. New York NY: Routledge. Crossref link
Comrie, B.
1976Aspect: An Introduction to the Study of Verbal Aspect and Related Problems. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Conteh, J.
2013How African-Americans and African immigrants differ. The Globalist – Daily Online Magazine on the Global Economy, Politics and Culture (blog). 16 November 2013, <https://​www​.theglobalist​.com​/african​-americans​-african​-immigrants​-differ/ (13 March 2020).
Coulmas, F.
2014Authentic writing. In Indexing Authenticity: Sociolinguistic Perspectives, V. Lacoste, J. Leimgruber & T. Breyer (eds), 289–303. Berlin: De Gruyter.
Coupland, N.
2001Stylization, authenticity and TV news review. Discourse Studies 3(4): 413–442. Crossref link
2003Sociolinguistic authenticities. Journal of Sociolinguistics 7(3): 417–431. Crossref link
2007Style: Language Variation and Identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
2014Language, society and authenticity: Themes and perspectives. In Indexing Authenticity: Sociolinguistic Perspectives, V. Lacoste, J. Leimgruber & T. Breyer (eds), 14–42. Berlin: De Gruyter.
Croom, A. M.
2015Slurs, stereotypes, and in-equality: A critical review of “How epithets and stereotypes are racially unequal”. Language Sciences 52: 139–154. Crossref link
Crystal, D.
2001Language and the Internet. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Czopp, A. M. & Monteith, M. J.
2006Thinking well of African Americans: Measuring complimentary stereotypes and negative prejudice. Basic and Applied Social Psychology 28(3): 233–250. Crossref link
Davidson, S. V.
2006Babylon in Rastafarian discourse: Garvey, Rastafari, and Marley. SBL Forum. https://​www​.sbl​-site​.org​/publications​/article​.aspx​?articleId​=496 (13 March 2020).
Davies, M.
2008–The Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA): One Billion Words, 1990–2019. https://​www​.english​-corpora​.org​/coca/ (15 May 2020).
2013Corpus of Global Web-Based English: 1.9 Billion Words from Speakers in 20 Countries (GloWbE). https://​www​.english​-corpora​.org​/glowbe/ (13 March 2020).
2015The Wikipedia Corpus: 4.6 Million Articles, 1.9 Billion Words, adapted from Wikipedia. https://​www​.english​-corpora​.org​/wiki/ (13 March 2020).
2016Corpus of Online Registers of English (CORE). https://​www​.english​-corpora​.org​/core/ (13 March 2020).
2016–Corpus of News on the Web (NOW): 10 Billion Words from 20 Countries, Updated Every Day. https://​www​.english​-corpora​.org​/now/ (15 May 2020).
Davies, M. & Fuchs, R.
2015Expanding horizons in the study of World Englishes with the 1.9 billion word Global Web-based English corpus (GloWbE). English World-Wide 36(1): 1–28. Crossref link
Davis, T. J. & Kalu-Nwiwu, A.
2001Education, ethnicity and national integration in the history of Nigeria: Continuing problems of Africa’s colonial legacy. The Journal of Negro History 86(1): 1–11. Crossref link
de Swaan, A.
2002The World Language System: A Political Sociology and Political Economy of Language. Cambridge: Polity.
DeBose, C. & Faraclas, N. G.
1993An Africanist approach to the linguistic study of Black English: Getting to the roots of the tense-aspect-modality and copula systems in Afro-American. In Africanisms in Afro-American Language Varieties, S. S. Mufwene (ed.), 364–387. Athens GA: University of Georgia Press.
DeCamp, D.
1971Toward a generative analysis of a post-creole speech continuum. In Pidginization and Creolization of Languages. Proceedings of a Conference Held at the University of the West Indies Mona, Jamaica, April 1968, H. Dell (ed.), 349–370. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Deuber, D.
2005Nigerian Pidgin in Lagos: Language Contact, Variation and Change in an African Urban Setting. London: Battlebridge.
Deuber, D. & Hinrichs, L.
2007Dynamics of orthographic standardization in Jamaican Creole and Nigerian Pidgin. World Englishes 26(1): 22–47. Crossref link
Dillard, J. L.
1972Black English: Its History and Usage in the United States. New York, NY: Random House.
1977Lexicon of Black English. New York NY: The Seabury Press.
Domonoske, C.
2014Segregated from its history, how “ghetto” lost its meaning. Code Switch: Race and Identity, Remixed (blog). 27 April 2014, <http://​www​.npr​.org​/sections​/codeswitch​/2014​/04​/27​/306829915​/segregated​-from​-its​-history​-how​-ghetto​-lost​-its​-meaning (13 March 2020).
Donath, J. S.
1999Identity and deception in the virtual community. In Communities in Cyberspace, M. A. Smith & P. Kollock (eds), 29–59. London: Routledge.
Du Bartell, D.
1995Discourse features of computer-mediated communication: “Spoken-like” and “written-like”. In Organization in Discourse: Proceedings from the Turku Conference [Anglicana Turkuensia 14], B. Wårvik, S. Tanskanen & R. Hiltunen (eds), 231–239. Turku: University of Turku.
Du Bois, J. W.
2007The stance triangle. In Stancetaking in Discourse: Subjectivity, Evaluation, Interaction, R. Englebretson (ed.), 139–182. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Eckert, P.
2003Sociolinguistics and authenticity: An elephant in the room. Journal of Sociolinguistics 7(3): 392–397. Crossref link
2006Communities of practice. In Encyclopedia of Language & Linguistics, 2nd edn, E. K. Brown, A. H. Anderson, L. Bauer, M. Berns, G. Hirst & J. Miller (eds), 683–685. New York NY: Elsevier. Crossref link
2008aVariation and the indexical field. Journal of Sociolinguistics 12(4): 453–476. Crossref link
2008bWhere do ethnolects stop? International Journal of Bilingualism 12(1–2): 25–42. Crossref link
2012Three waves of variation study: The emergence of meaning in the study of sociolinguistic variation. Annual Review of Anthropology 41: 87–100. Crossref link
2014Ethics in linguistic research. In Research Methods in Linguistics, R. J. Podesva & D. Sharma (eds), 11–26. New York NY: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Edwards, W.
2001Aspectual dәn in African American Vernacular English in Detroit. Journal of Sociolinguistics 5(3): 413–427. Crossref link
Elugbe, B. & Omamor, A. P.
1991Nigerian Pidgin: Background and Prospects. Ibadan, Nigeria: Heineman Educational Books Nigeria PLC.
Embrick, D. G. & Henricks, K.
2013Discursive colorlines at work: How epithets and stereotypes are racially unequal. Symbolic Interaction 36(2): 197–215. Crossref link
Englebretson, R.
(ed.) 2007Stancetaking in Discourse: Subjectivity, Evaluation, Interaction. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Ewing, D. R., Allen, C. T. & Ewing, R. L.
2012Authenticity as meaning validation: An empirical investigation of iconic and indexical cues in a context of “green” products. Journal of Consumer Behavior 11: 381–390. Crossref link
Faraclas, N. G.
1996Nigerian Pidgin. London: Routledge.
2008Nigerian Pidgin English: Morphology and syntax. In Varieties of English: Africa, South and Southeast Asia, Vol. 4, R. Mesthrie (ed.), 340–367. Berlin: De Gruyter.
2013Nigerian Pidgin. In The Survey of Pidgin and Creole Languages: English-Based and Dutch-Based Languages, Vol. 1, S. Michaelis, M. Haspelmath & M. Huber (eds), 176–183. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
2020Nigerian Pidgin. In The Electronic World Atlas of Varieties of English, B. Kortmann, K. Lunkenheimer & K. Ehret (eds). Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. https://​ewave​-atlas​.org​/languages​/42 (6 May 2020).
Faraclas, N. G., Ibim, O., Worukwo, G., Minah, A. & Tariah, A.
1984Rivers state Pidgin English. Journal of the Linguistic Association of Nigeria 2: 187–198.
Farquharson, J. T.
2005Faiya-bon: The socio-pragmatics of homophobia in Jamaican (dancehall) culture. In Politeness and Face in Caribbean Creoles [Varieties of English Around the World 34], S. Mühleisen & B. Migge (eds), 101–118. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Fasold, R. W.
1981The relation between Black and White speech in the South. American Speech 56(3): 163–189. Crossref link
Federal Republic of Nigeria
1979The Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1979. http://​www​.constitutionnet​.org​/files​/nig​_const​_79​.pdf (13 March 2020).
1981National Policy on Education, rev. edn. Lagos, Nigeria: Federal Government Press/Federal Ministry of Information.
Fickett, J. G.
1970Aspects of Morphemics, Syntax, and Semology of an Inner City Dialect (MERICAN). PhD dissertation, State University of New York.
1972Tense and aspect in Black English. Journal of English Linguistics 6(1): 17–19. Crossref link
Fishman, J. A.
1977Language and ethnicity. In Language, Ethnicity and Intergroup Relations [European Monographs in Social Psychology 13], H. Giles (ed.), 15–57. London: Academic Press.
Foucault, M.
1981The order of discourse. In Untying the Text: A Post-Structuralist Reader, R. Young (ed.), 48–78. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Friedrich, P. & Diniz de Figueiredo, E. H.
2016The Sociolinguistics of Digital Englishes. London: Routledge. Crossref link
Fuchs, R., Gut, U. & Soneye, T.
2013“We just don’t even know”: The usage of the pragmatic focus particles even and still in Nigerian English. English World-Wide 34(2): 123–145. Crossref link
García, O.
2009aBilingual Education in the 21st Century: A Global Perspective. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
2009bEducation, multilingualism and translanguaging in the 21st century. In Social Justice through Multilingual Education, A. Mohanty, M. Panda, R. Philipson & T. Skutnabb-Kangas (eds), 140–158. Bristol: Multilingual Matters. Crossref link
Gee, J. P.
1999An Introduction to Discourse Analysis: Theory and Method. London: Routledge.
Genius Media Group
2002Jay Z – Bitches & Sisters Lyrics | Genius Lyrics. Genius | Song Lyrics & Knowledge. https://​genius​.com​/Jay​-z​-bitches​-and​-sisters​-lyrics (13 March 2020).
Georgakopoulou, A.
1997Self-presentation and interactional alliances in e-mail discourse: The style- and code-switches of Greek messages. International Journal of Applied Linguistics 7(2): 141–164. Crossref link
Giles, H.
(ed.) 1977Language, Ethnicity and Intergroup Relations [European Monographs in Social Psychology 13]. London: Academic Press.
Giles, H., Bourhis, R. & Taylor, D.
1977Towards a theory of language in ethnic group relations. In Language, Ethnicity and Intergroup Relations, H. Giles (ed.), 307–344. London: Academic Press.
Gill, M.
2011Authenticity. In Pragmatics in Practice [Handbook of Pragmatics Highlights 9], J. Östman & J. Verschueren (eds), 46–65. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Goffman, E.
1981Forms of Talk. Pennsylvania PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Green, L. J.
1998Remote past and states in African-American English. American Speech 73: 115–138. Crossref link
2002African American English: A Linguistic Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Greenbaum, S.
(ed.) 1996Comparing English Worldwide: The International Corpus of English. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Greenbaum, S. & Quirk, R.
1990A Student’s Grammar of the English Language. Harlow: Longman.
Gumperz, J. J.
1964Linguistic and social interaction in two communities. American Anthropologist 66(6): 137–153. Crossref link
1982Discourse Strategies. New York NY: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Gut, U. B.
2005Nigerian English prosody. English World-Wide 26(2): 153–177. Crossref link
2008Nigerian English: Phonology. In Varieties of English: Africa, South and Southeast Asia, Vol. 4, R. Mesthrie (ed.), 35–54. Berlin: De Gruyter.
2012Towards a codification of Nigerian English: The ICE Nigeria project. Journal of the Nigeria English Studies Association 15(1): 1–13.
Hardaker, C.
2013“Uh... not to be nitpicky,,,,,but... the past tense of drag is dragged, not drug.”: An overview of trolling strategies. Journal of Language of Aggression and Conflict 1(1): 58–86. Crossref link
Hartman, J.
1999hhh: Nitpickers r us (Reader comments and addenda). Words & Stuff (blog). 20 April 1999, <http://​www​.kith​.org​/logos​/words​/lower3​/hhhyphen​.comments​.html (13 March 2020).
Herring, S. C.
2013Discourse in Web 2.0: Familiar, reconfigured, and emergent. In Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics: Discourse 2.0: Language and New Media, D. Tannen & A. M. Trester (eds), 1–26. Washington DC: Georgetown University Press.
2004Computer-mediated discourse analysis: An approach to researching online communities. In Designing for Virtual Communities in the Service of Learning, S. A. Barab, R. Kling & J. H. Gray (eds), 338–376. New York NY: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
2007A faceted classification scheme for computer-mediated discourse. Language at Internet 4(1): 1–37.
Heyd, T.
2014Doing race and ethnicity in a digital community: Lexical labels and narratives of belonging in a Nigerian web forum. Discourse, Context & Media 4–5: 38–47. Crossref link
2015The metacommunicative lexicon of Nigerian Pidgin. World Englishes 34(4): 669–687. Crossref link
2016Narratives of belonging in the digital diaspora: Corpus approaches to a cultural concept. Open Linguistics 2(1): 287–299. Crossref link
Heyd, T. & Alcón, D.
2013CyberCreole/RomWeb: An overview. Presentation at TU Dortmund University. 14 February 2013, <http://​www​.studiger​.tu​-dortmund​.de​/images​/Ccmcdo13​-heyd​-alcon​.pdf> (13 March 2020).
Heyd, T. & Honkanen, M.
2015From Naija to Chitown: The New African Diaspora and digital representations of place. Discourse, Context & Media 9: 14–23. Crossref link
Heyd, T. & Mair, C.
2014From vernacular to digital ethnolinguistic repertoire: The case of Nigerian Pidgin. In Indexing Authenticity: Sociolinguistic Perspectives, V. Lacoste, J. Leimgruber & T. Breyer (eds), 244–268. Berlin: De Gruyter.
Himelman, F.
20105 present tenses of AAE. Word: The Online Journal of African American English (blog). 19 May 2010, <https://​aaenglish​.wordpress​.com​/2010​/05​/19​/5​-present​-tenses​-of​-aae/ (13 March 2020).
Hine, C.
2000Virtual Ethnography. Thousand Oaks CA: Sage. Crossref link
Hinrichs, L.
2006Codeswitching on the Web: English and Jamaican Creole in E-Mail Communication. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
2011The sociolinguistics of diaspora: Language in the Jamaican Canadian community. Texas Linguistic Forum, Proceedings of the Nineteenth Annual Symposium about Language and Society 54: 1–22.
2015aTropes of exile in everyday Caribbean-diasporic speech: The reindexicalization of Dread Talk in the Jamaican diaspora. In Censorship and Exile, J. Hartmann & H. Zapf (eds), 65–84. Göttingen: V&R unipress. Crossref link
2015bApproaches to language variation. In The Routledge Handbook of Language and Digital Communication, A. Georgakopoulou & T. Spilioti (eds), 19–35. London: Routledge.
Holpuch, A.
2014Almost 100 hate-crime murders linked to single website, report finds. The Guardian. 18 April 2014, <https://​www​.theguardian​.com​/world​/2014​/apr​/18​/hate​-crime​-murders​-website​-stormfront​-report (13 March 2020).
Holt, G. S.
1972“Inversion” in Black communication. In Rappin’ and Stylin’ out: Communication in Urban Black America, T. Kochman (ed.), 152–159. Urbana IL: University of Illinois Press.
Honkanen, M.
Forthcoming a. Nigerian Pidgin in authenticating Nigerian immigrant identities. In Current Trends in Nigerian Pidgin English: A Sociolinguistic Perspective, A. T. Akande & O. L. Salami (eds) Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.
Forthcoming b. “This word no get concrete meaning oo”: Pragmatic markers in Nigerian multilingual online communication. In Communicative Action and Interaction in Africa, S. Mohr, J. A. Anderson & K. Schneider (eds) Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
2013Spelling English Elements in Finnish CMC: Orthography as Social Practice in a Music Forum. Master’s thesis, University of Freiburg.
Hope, D. P.
2001Of “chi chi” men – The threat of male homosexuality to Afro-Jamaican masculine identity. Presentation at the 26th annual Caribbean Studies Association Conference, Maho Bay, St. Maarten. http://​ufdc​.ufl​.edu​/CA00400251​/00001​/2x (13 March 2020).
Ibrahim, A.
2003“Whassup, homeboy?” Joining the African diaspora: Black English as a symbolic site of identification and language learning. In Black Linguistics: Language, Society, and Politics in Africa and the Americas, S. Makoni, G. Smitherman, A. F. Ball & A. K. Spears (eds), 169–185. London: Routledge.
Igboanusi, H.
2003Knowledge, use, and attitudes towards Americanisms in Nigerian English. World Englishes 22(4): 599–604. Crossref link
Imoagene, O.
2015Broken bridges: An exchange of slurs between African Americans and second generation Nigerians and the impact on identity formation among the second generation. Language Sciences 52: 176–186. Crossref link
2017Beyond Expectations: Second-Generation Nigerians in the United States and Britain. Oakland CA: University of California Press. Crossref link
Internal Revenue Service
2017Immigration terms and definitions involving aliens. Internal Revenue Service. 27 January 2017, <https://​www​.irs​.gov​/individuals​/international​-taxpayers​/immigration​-terms​-and​-definitions​-involving​-aliens (13 March 2020).
Internet Live Stats
2016Nigeria internet users. Internet Live Stats. http://​www​.internetlivestats​.com​/internet​-users​/nigeria/ (16 March 2020).
Jacquemet, M.
2005Transidiomatic practices: Language and power in the age of globalization. Language & Communication 25: 257–277. Crossref link
Jaffe, A.
(ed.) 2009Stance: Sociolinguistic Perspectives. New York NY: Oxford University Press. Crossref link
Jaworski, A., Coupland, N. & Galasinski, D.
(eds) 2004aMetalanguage: Social and Ideological Perspectives. Berlin: De Gruyter. Crossref link
2004bMetalanguage: Why now? In Metalanguage: Social and Ideological Perspectives, A. Jaworski, N. Coupland & D. Galasinski (eds), 3–8. Berlin: De Gruyter. Crossref link
Johnson, F.
2008The chasm is wide: Unspoken antagonisms between African Americans and West Africans. In The United States and West Africa: Interactions and Relations, A. Jalloh & T. Falola (eds), 189–199. Rochester NY: University of Rochester Press.
Jones, T.
2015Toward a description of African American Vernacular English dialect regions using “Black Twitter”. American Speech 90(4): 403–440. Crossref link
2016Tweets as graffiti: What the reconstruction of Vulgar Latin can tell us about Black Twitter. In English in Computer-Mediated Communication: Variation, Representation, and Change [Topics in English Linguistics 93], L. Squires (ed.), 43–68. Boston: De Gruyter. Crossref link
Jørgensen, J. N., Karrebæk, M. S., Madsen, L. M. & Møller, J. S.
2011Polylanguaging in super-diversity. Diversities 13(2): 23–38.
Jowitt, D.
1991Nigerian English Usage: An Introduction. Nigeria: Longman.
1995Nigeria’s national language question: Choices and constraints. In New Englishes: A West African Perspective, A. Bamgbose, A. Banjo & A. Thomas (eds), 34–56. Ibadan, Nigeria: Mosuro.
2019Nigerian English [Dialects of English 18]. Boston: De Gruyter.
Kachru, B. B.
1985Standards, codification and sociolinguistic realism: The English language in the Outer Circle. In English in the World: Teaching and Learning the Language and Literatures, R. Quirk & H. G. Widdowson (eds), 11–30. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kautzsch, A.
2013Earlier African American Vernacular English. In The Electronic World Atlas of Varieties of English, B. Kortmann, K. Lunkenheimer & K. Ehret (eds). Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. http://​ewave​-atlas​.org​/languages​/17 (6 May 2020).
Kent, M. M.
2007Immigration and America’s Black population. Population Bulletin 62(4): 1–16.
Keyes, C. L.
1984Verbal art performance in rap music: The conversation of the 80’s. Folklore Forum 17(2): 143–152.
Kloss, H.
1967 “Abstand languages” and “Ausbau languages”. Anthropological Linguistics 9(7): 29–41.
Koch, P. & Oesterreicher, W.
1994Funktionale Aspekte der Schriftkultur (Functional aspects of literacy). In Schrift und Schriftlickeit: Ein interdisziplinäres Handbuch internationaler Forschung (Writing and Its Use: An Interdisciplinary Handbook of International Research), H. Günther & O. Ludwig (eds), 587–604. Berlin: De Gruyter.
Kortmann, B., Lunkenheimer, K. & Ehret, K.
(eds) 2013The Electronic World Atlas of Varieties of English. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. http://​ewave​-atlas​.org/ (6 May 2020).
Kortmann, B. & Upton, C.
(eds) 2008Varieties of English: The British Isles, Vol. 1. Berlin: De Gruyter.
Koser, K.
(ed.) 2003aNew African Diasporas. London: Routledge. Crossref link
2003bNew African Diasporas: An introduction. In New African Diasporas, K. Koser (ed.), 1–16. London: Routledge. Crossref link
Kperogi, F. A.
2014Top 10 university student slang words in Popular Nigerian English. Notes from Atlanta (blog). 19 October 2014, <http://​www​.farooqkperogi​.com​/2014​/10​/top​-10​-university​-student​-slang​-words​.html (13 March 2020).
2015Glocal English: The Changing Face and Forms of Nigerian English in a Global World. Bern: Peter Lang. Crossref link
Kretsedemas, P.
2008Redefining “race” in North America. Current Sociology 56(6): 826–844. Crossref link
Kujore, O.
1985English Usage: Some Notable Nigerian Variations. Ibadan, Nigeria: Evans Brothers.
Kytölä, S.
2012Multilingual web discussion forums: Theoretical, practical and methodological issues. In Language Mixing and Code-Switching in Writing: Approaches to Mixed-Language and Written Discourse, M. Sebba, S. Mahootian & C. Jonsson (eds), 106–127. New York NY: Routledge.
Kytölä, S. & Androutsopoulos, J. K.
2012Ethnographic perspectives on multilingual computer-mediated discourse: Insights from Finnish football forums on the web. In Multilingualism, Discourse, and Ethnography, S. Gardner & M. Martin-Jones (eds), 179–198. New York NY: Routledge.
Kytölä, S. & Westinen, E.
2015“I be da reel gansta” – A Finnish footballer’s Twitter writing and metapragmatic evaluations of authenticity. Discourse, Context & Media 8: 6–19. Crossref link
Labaran, B.
2010Nigeria at 50: What does Naija mean? BBC News. 1 October 2010, <http://​www​.bbc​.co​.uk​/news​/world​-africa​-11447252 (13 March 2020).
Labov, W.
1966The Social Stratification of English in New York City. Washington DC: Center of Applied Linguistics.
1972aLanguage in the Inner City: Studies in the Black English Vernacular. Philadelphia PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
1972bSome principles of linguistic methodology. Language in Society 1(1): 97–120. Crossref link
Labov, W., Cohen, P., Robins, C. & Lewis, J.
1968A Study of the Non-Standard English of Negro and Puerto Rican Speakers in New York City: Phonological and Grammatical Analysis. New York NY: Columbia University.
Lacoste, V., Leimgruber, J. & Breyer, T.
(eds) 2014Indexing Authenticity: Sociolinguistic Perspectives. Berlin: De Gruyter. Crossref link
Lacoste, V. & Mair, C.
2012Authenticity in creole-speaking contexts: An introduction. Zeitschrift für Anglistik und Amerikanistik 60(3): 211–215. Crossref link
Lanehart, S. L.
2015African American language and identity: Contradictions and conundrums. In The Oxford Handbook of African American Language, J. Bloomquist, L. J. Green & S. L. Lanehart (eds). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Crossref link
Lave, J. & Wenger, E.
1991Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Le Page, R. B. & Tabouret-Keller, A.
1985Acts of Identity: Creole-Based Approaches to Language and Ethnicity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Leech, G.
2004Meaning and the English Verb, 3rd edn. London: Longman.
Leppänen, S., Møller, J. S. & Nørreby, T. R.
(eds) 2015Discourse, Context & Media 8. Special issue: Authenticity, Normativity and Social Media.
Lewin, A.
2013TRIBE vs. ETHNIC GROUP. Africa Unlimited – Africa Knows No Boundaries (blog). 21 March 2013, <http://​africaunlimited​.com​/blog​/tribe​-vs​-ethnic​-group​-2/ (13 March 2020).
Lippi-Green, R.
2012English with an Accent: Language, Ideology and Discrimination in the United States, 2nd edn. London: Routledge. Crossref link
Lipski, J. M.
1993Y’all in American English: From Black to White, from phrase to pronoun. English World-Wide 14(1): 23–56. Crossref link
Mair, C.
2011Corpora and the new Englishes: Using the “Corpus of Cyber-Jamaican” to explore research perspectives for the future. In A Taste for Corpora: In Honour of Sylviane Granger [Studies in Corpus Linguistics 45], F. Meunier, S. De Cock, G. Gilquin & M. Paquot (eds), 209–236. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
2013aCorpus-approaches to the new English web: Post-colonial diasporic forums in West Africa and the Caribbean. Covenant Journal of Language Studies 1(1): 17–30.
2013bThe World System of Englishes: Accounting for the transnational importance of mobile and mediated vernaculars. English World-Wide 34(3): 253–278. Crossref link
2015Responses to Davies and Fuchs. English World-Wide 36(1): 29–33. Crossref link
2016Beyond and between the “Three Circles”: World Englishes research in the age of globalization. In World Englishes: New Theoretical and Methodological Considerations [Varieties of English Around the World 57], E. Seoane & C. Suárez-Gómez (eds), 17–36. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Mair, C. & Pfänder, S.
2013Vernacular and multilingual writing in mediated spaces: Web-forums for post-colonial communities of practice. In Space in Language and Linguistics: Geographical, Interactional, and Cognitive Perspectives [Linguae & Litterae 24], P. Auer, M. Hilpert, A. Stukenbrock & B. Szmrecsanyi (eds), 529–556. Berlin: De Gruyter. Crossref link
Makoni, S. & Pennycook, A.
(eds) 2007Disinventing and Reconstituting Languages. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Mann, C. C.
1993The sociolinguistic status of Anglo-Nigerian Pidgin: An overview. International Journal of Sociology of Language 100–101: 167–178.
1996Anglo-Nigerian Pidgin in Nigerian education: A survey of policy, practices and attitudes. In Language, Education and Society in a Changing World, T. Hickey & J. Williams (eds), 93–106. Philadelphia PA: Multilingual Matters.
2000Reviewing ethnolinguistic vitality: The case of Anglo-Nigerian Pidgin. Journal of Sociolinguistics 4(3): 458–474. Crossref link
2009Attitudes toward Anglo-Nigerian Pidgin in urban, southern Nigeria: The generational variable. Revue Roumaine de Linguistique (3–4): 349–364.
Mark, M.
2012Nigeria’s love of pidgin dey scatter my brain yet ginger my swagger. The Guardian. 24 September 2012, <https://​www​.theguardian​.com​/world​/2012​/sep​/24​/nigeria​-pidgin​-scatter​-brain​-swagger (13 March 2020).
Markman, K. M.
2013Exploring the pragmatic functions of the acronym LOL in instant messenger conversations. Presentation at the International Communication Association Annual Conference, London. https://​osf​.io​/preprints​/socarxiv​/3du86/ (13 March 2020).
Marvick, A. E. & boyd, d. m.
2010I tweet honestly, I tweet passionately: Twitter users, context collapse, and the imagined audience. New Media Society 13(1): 114–133. Crossref link
Mazzoli, M.
2017Language nativization and ideologies in Ajégúnlè (Lagos). Language & Communication 52: 88–101. Crossref link
Mensah, E. O.
2011Lexicalization in Nigerian Pidgin. Concentric: Studies in Linguistics 37(2): 209–240.
Mesthrie, R.
(ed.) 2008Varieties of English: Africa, South and Southeast Asia, Vol. 4. Berlin: De Gruyter. Crossref link
Metcalf, A.
2011OK: The Improbable Story of America’s Greatest Word. New York NY: Oxford University Press.
Migration Policy Institute
2015RAD Diaspora Profile: The Nigerian Diaspora in the United States, rev. edn. Washington DC: Migration Policy Institute. www​.migrationpolicy​.org​/sites​/default​/files​/publications​/RAD​-Nigeria​.pdf (13 March 2020).
Milroy, J. & Milroy, L.
1999Authority in Language: Investigating Standard English, 3rd edn. London: Routledge.
Minaya, M.
2010Jill Scott “pained by mixed-race couples”. Digital Spy (blog). 28 March 2010, <http://​www​.digitalspy​.com​/showbiz​/news​/a211077​/jill​-scott​-pained​-by​-mixed​-race​-couples/ (13 March 2020).
Mittelberg, D. & Waters, M. C.
1992The process of ethnogenesis among Haitian and Israeli immigrants in the United States. Ethnic and Racial Studies 15(3): 412–435. Crossref link
Moll, A.
2015Jamaican Creole Goes Web: Sociolinguistic Styling and Authenticity in a Digital “Yaad” [Creole Language Library 49]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Møller, J. S. & Jørgensen, J. N.
2009From language to languaging: Changing relations between humans and linguistic features. Acta Linguistica Hafniensia 41(1): 143–166. Crossref link
Montgomery, M.
2001Defining “authentic talk”. Discourse Studies 3(4): 397–405. Crossref link
Morgan, M.
2002Language, Discourse and Power in African American Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Morris, M. W.
2014aBlack Stats: African Americans by the Numbers in the Twenty-First Century. New York NY: New Press.
2014b25 things everyone needs to know about the lives of Black people in America. AlterNet. 25 February 2014, <http://​www​.alternet​.org​/books​/25​-statistics​-paint​-picture​-black​-america (13 March 2020).
Murray, J. A. H.
(ed.) 1888New English Dictionary on Historical Principles. Oxford: Clarendon.
Mwakikagile, G.
2007Relations between Africans and African Americans: Misconceptions, Myths and Realities, 3rd edn. Dar es Salaam & Pretoria: New Africa Press.
2020Rap battles – Nigeria – Nairaland. Nairaland. http://​www​.nairaland​.com​/rap​-battles (16 March 2020).
Nurmi, A., Rütten, T. & Pahta, P.
(eds) 2017Challenging the Myth of Monolingual Corpora [Language and Computers 80]. Amsterdam: Brill. Crossref link
Nwaubani, A. T.
2017Letters from Africa: Nigeria’s art of flowery language. BBC News. 5 February 2017, <http://​www​.bbc​.com​/news​/world​-africa​-38827888 (13 March 2020).
Nyong’o, L.
2017Lupita Nyong’o teaches how to do an African finger snap (video). Vanity Fair: Secret Talent Theatre. http://​video​.vanityfair​.com​/watch​/secret​-talent​-theatre​-lupita​-nyong​-o​-teaches​-how​-to​-do​-an​-african​-finger​-snap (13 March 2020).
Ochs, E.
1990Indexicality and socialization. In Cultural Psychology: Essays on Comparative Human Development, J. W. Stigler, R. A. Schweder & G. Herdt (eds), 287–308. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
1992Indexing gender. In Rethinking Context: Language as an Interactive Phenomenon [Studies in the Social and Cultural Foundations of Language 11], A. Duranti & C. Goodwin (eds), 335–358. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
2009Linguistic resources for socializing humanity. In The New Sociolinguistics Reader, N. Coupland & A. Jaworski (eds), 405–423. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan. Crossref link
OED Online
2019aauthentic, adj. and n. OED Online. Oxford University Press. http://​www​.oed​.com​/view​/Entry​/13314 (27 February 2020).
2019bbadass, adj. and n. OED Online. Oxford University Press. http://​www​.oed​.com​/view​/Entry​/240626 (27 February 2020).
2019cboo, n.3. OED Online. Oxford University Press. <> (27 February 2020).
2019dghetto, n. OED Online. Oxford University Press. https://​www​.oed​.com​/view​/Entry​/78056 (27 February 2020).
2019eholler, v. OED Online. Oxford University Press. http://​www​.oed​.com​/view​/Entry​/87748 (27 February 2020).
2019fhomie, n. OED Online. Oxford University Press. http://​www​.oed​.com​/view​/Entry​/248676 (27 February 2020).
2019gjackass, n.1. OED Online. Oxford University Press. http://​www​.oed​.com​/view​/Entry​/248676 (27 February 2020).
2019hnation, n.1. OED Online. Oxford University Press. http://​www​.oed​.com​/view​/Entry​/125285 (27 February 2020).
2019inationality, n. OED Online. Oxford University Press. http://​www​.oed​.com​/view​/Entry​/125292 (27 February 2020).
2019jnation-state, n. OED Online. Oxford University Press. http://​www​.oed​.com​/view​/Entry​/255438 (27 February 2020).
2019kOxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. http://​www​.oed​.com/ (27 February 2020).
2019lpo-po, n. OED Online. Oxford University Press. http://​www​.oed​.com​/view​/Entry​/272037 (27 February 2020).
2019mrepertoire, n. OED Online. Oxford University Press. http://​www​.oed​.com​/view​/Entry​/162782 (27 February 2020).
2019nsmart-ass, adj. and n. OED Online. Oxford University Press. http://​www​.oed​.com​/view​/Entry​/182452 (27 February 2020).
2019otribe, n. OED Online. Oxford University Press. http://​www​.oed​.com​/view​/Entry​/205725 (27 February 2020).
2019pwack, n.1. OED Online. Oxford University Press. http://​www​.oed​.com​/view​/Entry​/224928 (27 February 2020).
2019qyou-all, pron. OED Online. Oxford University Press. http://​www​.oed​.com​/view​/Entry​/232148 (27 February 2020).
Office of Refugee Resettlement
2012Office of Refugee Resettlement annual report to Congress 2012. U.S. Dept of Health and Human Services. http://​www​.acf​.hhs​.gov​/sites​/default​/files​/orr​/fy​_2012​_orr​_report​_to​_congress​_final​_041014​.pdf (13 March 2020).
Ofulue, C. I. & Esizimetor, D. O.
2010Guide to standard Naijá orthography: An NLA harmonized writing system for common Naijá publications. IFRA Nigeria. https://​www​.ifra​-nigeria​.org​/ongoing​-research​-programs​/naijasyncor​/naija​-languej​-akedemi (16 March 2020).
Ogbaa, K.
2003The Nigerian Americans. Westport CT: Greenwood.
Olaleye, D.
2017Ghana must go: Containing the mayhem of #migration. Africa at LSE (blog). 14 August 2017, <http://​blogs​.lse​.ac​.uk​/africaatlse​/2017​/08​/14​/ghana​-must​-go​-containing​-the​-mayhem​-of​-migration/ (13 March 2020).
Olofinlua, O.
2015How mobile internet killed off cyber cafés in Nigeria. Quartz Africa (blog). 31 May 2015, <https://​qz​.com​/412745​/how​-mobile​-internet​-killed​-off​-cyber​-cafes​-in​-nigeria/ (13 March 2020).
Omoniyi, T.
2009“So I choose to do am Naija style”: Hip hop, language, and postcolonial identities. In Global Linguistic Flows: Hip Hop Cultures, Youth Identities, and the Politics of Language, H. S. Alim, A. Ibrahim & A. Pennycook (eds), 113–135. New York NY: Routledge.
Osewa, O.
2005aAbout Nairaland, the Nigerian forum. Nairaland. 14 March 2005 <http://​www​.nairaland​.com​/4​/nairaland​-nigerian​-forum (15 March 2020).
2005bNairaland forum participation guidelines. Nairaland. 25 March 2005 <http://​www​.nairaland​.com​/6​/nairaland​-forum​-participation​-guidelines (15 March 2020).
2014Topic sharing on Nairaland (shared topics). Nairaland. 25 August 2014, <http://​www​.nairaland​.com​/1872858​/topic​-sharing​-nairaland​-shared​-topics (15 March 2020).
O’Sullivan, P. & Flanagin, A. J.
2003Reconceptualizing “flaming” and other problematic messages. New Media & Society 5(1): 69–94. Crossref link
Otsuji, E. & Pennycook, A.
2010Metrolingualism: Fixity, fluidity and language in flux. International Journal of Multilingualism 7(3): 240–254. Crossref link
Patrick, P.
2020Jamaican Creole. In The Electronic World Atlas of Varieties of English, B. Kortmann, K. Lunkenheimer & K. Ehret (eds). Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. https://​ewave​-atlas​.org​/languages​/27 (6 May 2020).
Pennycook, A.
2007Global Englishes and Transcultural Flows. Oxon: Routledge.
Pew Research Center
2007Blacks see growing values gap between poor and middle class: Optimism about black progress declines. Pew Research Center. 13 November 2007, <https://​www​.pewsocialtrends​.org​/2007​/11​/13​/blacks​-see​-growing​-values​-gap​-between​-poor​-and​-middle​-class/ (15 March 2020).
Plag, I.
2003Word-Formation in English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Pollard, V.
1980Dread Talk – The speech of the Rastafarian in Jamaica. Caribbean Quarterly 26(4): 32–41. Crossref link
2000Dread Talk: The Language of Rastafari, 2nd edn. Kingston: Canoe Press.
Polzenhagen, F.
2007Cultural Conceptualisations in West African English: A Cognitive-Linguistic Approach [Duisburger Arbeiten zur Sprach- und Kulturwissenschaft 69]. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.
Poplack, S.
(ed.) 1999The English History of African American English. Oxford: Blackwell.
Pratt, M. L.
1987Linguistic utopias. In The Linguistics of Writing: Arguments between Language and Literature, N. Fabb, D. Attridge, A. Durant & C. MacCabe (eds), 48–66. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Rampton, B.
1995Crossing: Language and Ethnicity among Adolescents. London: Longman.
2000Crossing. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 9(1–2): 54–56. Crossref link
2009Crossing, ethnicity and code-switching. In The New Sociolinguistics Reader, N. Coupland & A. Jaworski (eds), 287–298. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan. Crossref link
Rampton, B. & Charalambous, C.
2000Crossing: A review of research. Working Papers in Urban Language & Literacies 58: 1–16.
Rheingold, H.
2000The Virtual Community: Homesteading on the Electronic Frontier, rev. edn. Cambridge MA: The MIT Press. Crossref link
Rickford, J. R.
1973Been in Black English. PhD dissertation, University of Pennsylvania.
1975Carrying the new wave into syntax: The case of Black English been. In Variation in the Form and Use of Language, R. W. Fasold (ed.), 98–119. Washington DC: Georgetown University Press.
(ed.) 1999African American Vernacular English: Features, Evolution, Educational Implications. Oxford: Blackwell.
Rickford, J. R. & Rickford, R. J.
2000Spoken Soul: The Story of Black English. New York NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Ronkin, M. & Karn, H. E.
1999Mock Ebonics: Linguistic racism in parodies of Ebonics on the internet. Journal of Sociolinguistics 3(3): 360–380. Crossref link
Safire, W.
2008Safire’s Political Dictionary, rev. edn. New York NY: Oxford University Press.
Salmela, M.
2014True Emotions. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Sand, A.
2020Jamaican English. In The Electronic World Atlas of Varieties of English, B. Kortmann, K. Lunkenheimer & K. Ehret (eds). Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. https://​ewave​-atlas​.org​/languages​/26 (6 May 2020).
Saro-Wiwa, K.
1994Sozaboy: A Novel in Rotten English. Harlow: Longman.
Scannell, P.
2001Authenticity and experience. Discourse Studies 3(4): 405–411. Crossref link
Schmidt, T. & Wörner, K.
(eds) 2012Multilingual Corpora and Multilingual Corpus Analysis [Hamburg Studies on Multilingualism 14]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Schneider, E. W.
(ed.) 1996Focus on the USA [Varieties of English Around the World 16]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
(ed.) 2008Varieties of English: The Americas and the Caribbean, Vol. 2. Berlin: De Gruyter. Crossref link
Schneider, E. W., Burridge, K., Kortmann, B., Mesthrie, R. & Upton, C.
(eds) 2004A Handbook of Varieties of English: Phonology, Vol. 1. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.
Seargeant, P. & Tagg, C.
2011English on the internet and a “post-varieties” approach to language. World Englishes 30(4): 496–514. Crossref link
(eds) 2014The Language of Social Media: Identity and Community on the Internet. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan. Crossref link
Sebba, M.
1993London Jamaican: Language Systems in Interaction. London: Longman.
1998Phonology meets ideology: The meaning of orthographic practices in British Creole. Language Problems and Language Planning 22(1): 19–47. Crossref link
2007Spelling and Society: The Culture and Politics of Orthography around the World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
2012Researching and theorizing multilingual texts. In Language Mixing and Code-Switching in Writing: Approaches to Mixed-Language and Written Discourse, M. Sebba, S. Mahootian & C. Jonsson (eds), 1–26. New York NY: Routledge. Crossref link
Sebba, M. & Le Page, R. B.
1983Sociolinguistics of London Jamaican English: Report on the pilot project (1981–82) (mimeo). University of York, Department of Language.
Sharma, D.
2011Style repertoire and social change in British Asian English. Journal of Sociolinguistics 15(4): 464–492. Crossref link
Shenk, P. S.
2007“I’m Mexican, remember?” Constructing ethnic identities via authenticating discourse. Journal of Sociolinguistics 11(2): 194–220. Crossref link
Silverstein, M.
1976Shifters, linguistic categories, and cultural description. In Meaning in Anthropology, K. H. Basso & H. A. Selby (eds), 11–55. Albuquerque NM: University of New Mexico Press.
2003Indexical order and the dialectics of sociolinguistic life. Language & Communication 23: 193–229. Crossref link
Simo Bobda, A.
1997The phonologies of Nigerian English and Cameroon English. In New Englishes: A West African Perspective, A. Bamgbose, A. Banjo & A. Thomas (eds), 248–268. Ibadan, Nigeria: Mosuro.
Simon, B. L.
2020Colloquial American English. In The Electronic World Atlas of Varieties of English, B. Kortmann, K. Lunkenheimer & K. Ehret (eds). Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. http://​ewave​-atlas​.org​/languages​/14 (6 May 2020).
Smitherman, G.
1977Talkin and Testifyin: The Language of Black America. Boston MA: Houghton Mifflin Co.
1997“The chain remain the same”: Communicative practices in the Hip Hop Nation. Journal of Black Studies 28(1): 3–25. Crossref link
2000Black Talk: Words and Phrases from the Hood to the Amen Corner, rev. edn. Boston MA: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Sode, Y.
2016Johnny just come – Africans in the UK. BBC News. 11 May 2016, <http://​www​.bbc​.com​/news​/av​/world​-africa​-36265356​/johnny​-just​-come​-africans​-in​-the​-uk (15 March 2020).
Spady, J. G. & Alim, H. S.
1999Street Conscious Rap. Philadelphia PA: Black History Museum Pub.
Spears, A. K.
1998African-American language use: Ideology and so-called obscenity. In African-American English: Structure, History and Use, S. S. Mufwene, J. R. Rickford, G. Bailey & J. G. Baugh (eds), 226–250. London: Routledge.
2002African American communicative practices: Performativity, semantic license, and augmentation (prepublication version). http://​www​.arthurkspears​.com​/papers​/communicative​-practicesv2​.pdf (15 March 2020).
2007African American communicative practices: Improvisation, semantic license, and augmentation. In Talkin Black Talk: Language, Education, and Social Change, J. G. Baugh & H. S. Alim (eds), 100–111. New York NY: Columbia Teachers College Press.
2014aAfrican American English. In Languages and Dialects in the U.S.: Focus on Diversity and Linguistics, M. Di Paolo & A. K. Spears (eds), 101–114. New York NY: Routledge. Crossref link
2014bThinking about diversity. In Languages and Dialects in the U.S.: Focus on Diversity and Linguistics, M. Di Paolo & A. K. Spears (eds), 21–34. New York NY: Routledge. Crossref link
Spencer, J. W.
1971West Africa and the English language. In The English Language in West Africa [English Language Series], J. W. Spencer (ed.), 1–34. London: Longman.
Squires, L.
2010Enregistering internet language. Language and Society 39: 457–492. Crossref link
Stevens, M.
1954The derivation of “ain’t”. American Speech 29(3): 196–201. Crossref link
Storch, A.
2018Ruination and amusement – dialect, youth and revolution in Naija. In Identity and Dialect Performance: A Study of Communities and Dialects, R. Bassiouney (ed.), 303–320. New York NY: Routledge.
Swann, J.
2007English voices. In Changing English, D. Graddol, D. Leith, J. Swann, M. Rhys & J. Gillen (eds), 5–38. Oxford: Routledge.
Tagg, C.
2015Exploring Digital Communication: Language in Action. London: Routledge. Crossref link
Tagg, C. & Seargeant, P.
2014Audience design and language choice in the construction and maintenance of translocal communities on social network sites. In The Language of Social Media: Identity and Community on the Internet, P. Seargeant & C. Tagg (eds), 161–185. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan. Crossref link
Taiwo, R.
2010The dynamics of language mixing in Nigerian digital communication. In Handbook of Research on Discourse Behavior and Digital Communication: Language Structures and Social Interaction, R. Taiwo (ed.), 180–190. Hershey PA: IGI Global. Crossref link
2012Nigerian English. In The Mouton World Atlas of Variation in English, B. Kortmann, K. Lunkenheimer & K. Ehret (eds), 410–416. Berlin: De Gruyter. Crossref link
2020Nigerian English. In The Electronic World Atlas of Varieties of English, B. Kortmann, K. Lunkenheimer & K. Ehret (eds). Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. http://​ewave​-atlas​.org​/languages​/41 (6 May 2020).
Telep, S.
2014Le camfranglais sur Internet: Pratiques et représentations. Le Français en Afrique 28: 27–145.
Terry, M. J.
2010Variation in the interpretation and use of the African American English preverbal done construction. American Speech 85(1): 3–32. Crossref link
Thornborrow, J. & van Leeuwen, T.
(eds) 2001Authenticity in Media Discourse. Special issue of Discourse Studies 3(4): 392–397.
Thorne, T.
2014Dictionary of Contemporary Slang, 4th edn. London: Bloomsbury.
Thurlow, C., Lengel, L. & Tomic, A.
2004Computer Mediated Communication: Social Interaction and the Internet. Thousand Oaks CA: Sage.
Todd, L.
1974Pidgins and Creoles. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Crossref link
Turkle, S.
1995Life on the Screen: Identity in the Age of the Internet, paperback reprint from 1997. New York NY: Simon & Schuster.
U.S. Census Bureau
2018ACS demographic and housing estimates: 2018 American Community Survey 1-year estimates. United States Census Bureau. https://​data​.census​.gov​/cedsci​/table​?q​=population​&tid​=ACSDP1Y2018​.DP05​&vintage​=2018 (15 March 2020).
Ueberwasser, S. & Stark, E.
2017What’s up, Switzerland? A corpus-based research project in a multilingual country. Linguistik Online 84(5). https://​bop​.unibe​.ch​/linguistik​-online​/article​/view​/3849​/5833
2018UNICEF Nigeria equity reports: Education. UNICEF Nigeria, 28 September 2018 <https://​www​.unicef​.org​/nigeria​/media​/1631​/file​/Nigeria​-equity​-profile​-education​_0​.pdf​.pdf (15 March 2020).
United Nations Dept. of Economic and Social Affairs
2006World Urbanization Prospects: The 2005 Revision. New York NY: UNDESA. http://​citeseerx​.ist​.psu​.edu​/viewdoc​/download​?doi​=10​.1​.1​.445​.9975​&rep​=rep1​&type​=pdf (15 March 2020).
2015World population prospects: The 2015 revision, key findings and advance tables. United Nations. https://​www​.denoffentlige​.dk​/sites​/default​/files​/suppliers​/news​/files​/key​_findings​_wpp​_2015​.pdf (15 March 2020).
Unuabonah, F. O. & Gut, U. B.
2018Commentary pragmatic markers in Nigerian English. English World-Wide 39(2): 190–213. Crossref link
Urban Dictionary
2003adead ass. Urban Dictionary. 20 June 2003, <http://​www​.urbandictionary​.com​/define​.php​?term​=dead+ass (15 March 2020).
2003bPOPO. Urban Dictionary. 2 September 2003, <http://​www​.urbandictionary​.com​/define​.php​?term​=POPO (15 March 2020).
2003cboo. Urban Dictionary. 4 November 2003, <http://​www​.urbandictionary​.com​/define​.php​?term​=boo (15 March 2020).
2004ahella. Urban Dictionary. 27 May 2004, <http://​www​.urbandictionary​.com​/define​.php​?term​=hella (15 March 2020).
2004bwhatcha. Urban Dictionary. 1 August 2004, <http://​www​.urbandictionary​.com​/define​.php​?term​=whatcha (15 March 2020).
2004cboo. Urban Dictionary. 6 August 2004, <http://​www​.urbandictionary​.com​/define​.php​?term​=boo (15 March 2020).
2005ashake them haters off. Urban Dictionary. 11 January 2005, <http://​www​.urbandictionary​.com​/define​.php​?term​=shake%20them%20haters%20off (15 March 2020).
2005bshaniqua. Urban Dictionary. 25 March 2005, <http://​www​.urbandictionary​.com​/define​.php​?term​=shaniqua (15 March 2020).
2005cbitch ass. Urban Dictionary. 1 November 2005, <http://​www​.urbandictionary​.com​/define​.php​?term​=bitch+ass (15 March 2020).
2005daiight. Urban Dictionary. 20 December 2005, <http://​www​.urbandictionary​.com​/define​.php​?term​=aiight (15 March 2020).
2006agot nothing on me. Urban Dictionary. 1 July 2006, <http://​www​.urbandictionary​.com​/define​.php​?term​=got%20nothing%20on%20me (15 March 2020).
2006bNah. Urban Dictionary. 3 July 2006, <http://​www​.urbandictionary​.com​/define​.php​?term​=Nah (15 March 2020).
2006cjjc. Urban Dictionary. 8 July 2006, <http://​www​.urbandictionary​.com​/define​.php​?term​=jjc (15 March 2020).
2006dbutter your muffin. Urban Dictionary. 22 October 2006, <http://​www​.urbandictionary​.com​/define​.php​?term​=butter%20your%20muffin (15 March 2020).
2006esucks balls. Urban Dictionary. 8 November 2006, <http://​www​.urbandictionary​.com​/define​.php​?term​=sucks%20balls (15 March 2020).
2007aphat. Urban Dictionary. 5 July 2007, <http://​www​.urbandictionary​.com​/define​.php​?term​=phat (15 March 2020).
2007bhaterade. Urban Dictionary. 16 October 2007, <http://​www​.urbandictionary​.com​/define​.php​?term​=haterade (15 March 2020).
2009aswagger. Urban Dictionary. 11 February 2009, <http://​www​.urbandictionary​.com​/define​.php​?term​=swagger (15 March 2020).
2009byou ain’t never lied. Urban Dictionary. 15 June 2009, <http://​www​.urbandictionary​.com​/define​.php​?term​=you%20ain%27t%20never%20lied (15 March 2020).
2011where they do that at. Urban Dictionary. 9 April 2011, <http://​www​.urbandictionary​.com​/define​.php​?term​=where%20they%20do%20that%20at (15 March 2020).
2014thats my shit. Urban Dictionary, 17 December 2014 <http://​www​.urbandictionary​.com​/define​.php​?term​=thats%20my%20shit (15 March 2020).
van Leeuwen, T.
2001What is authenticity? Discourse Studies 3(4): 392–397. Crossref link
Velupillai, V.
2015Pidgins, Creoles and Mixed Languages: An Introduction [Creole Language Library 48]. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Wallerstein, I. M.
1983Historical Capitalism. London: Verso.
Waters, M. C.
1999Black Identities: West Indian Immigrant Dreams and American Realities. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press.
Weinreich, F.
1997Establishing a point of view toward virtual communities. CMC Magazine 3(2). https://​www​.december​.com​/cmc​/mag​/1997​/feb​/weinon​.html
Weldon, T.
1995Variability in negation in African American Vernacular English. Language Variation and Change 6: 359–397. Crossref link
Wells, J. C.
1982aAccents of English: An Introduction, Vol. 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
1982bAccents of English: The British Isles, Vol. 2. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Wenger-Trayner, E. & Wenger-Trayner, B.
2015Introduction to communities of practice: A brief overview of the concept and its uses. Wenger-Trayner (blog). http://​wenger​-trayner​.com​/introduction​-to​-communities​-of​-practice/ (15 March 2020).
Whitman, N.
2010aThoughts on Imma. Literal-Minded (blog). 25 April 2010, <https://​literalminded​.wordpress​.com​/2010​/04​/25​/thoughts​-on​-imma/ (15 March 2020).
2010bBehind the dictionary: Prime Time for “Imma”. Thinkmap Visual Thesaurus (blog). 26 April 2010, <https://​www​.visualthesaurus​.com​/cm​/dictionary​/prime​-time​-for​-imma/ (15 March 2020).
Wiltz, T.
2008Obama has Jay-Z on his IPod and the moves to prove it. The Washington Post. 19 April 2008, <http://​www​.washingtonpost​.com​/wp​-dyn​/content​/article​/2008​/04​/18​/AR2008041803282​.html> (15 March 2020).
Wolfram, W.
2004The grammar of Urban African American Vernacular English. In Handbook of Varieties of English, B. Kortmann & E. W. Schneider (eds), 111–132. Berlin: De Gruyter.
2008aRural and ethnic varieties in the Southeast: Morphology and syntax. In Varieties of English: The Americas and the Caribbean, Vol. 2, E. W. Schneider (ed.), 468–491. Berlin & New York: De Gruyter.
2008bUrban African American Vernacular English: Morphology and syntax. In Varieties of English: The Americas and the Caribbean, Vol. 2, E. W. Schneider (ed.), 510–533. Berlin: De Gruyter.
2020Urban African American Vernacular English. In The Electronic World Atlas of Varieties of English, B. Kortmann, K. Lunkenheimer & K. Ehret (eds). Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. http://​ewave​-atlas​.org​/languages​/15 (6 May 2020).
Wolfram, W. & Schilling-Estes, N.
2006American English: Dialects and Variation, 2nd edn. Malden, MA & Oxford: Blackwell.
Woolard, K. A.
1999Simultaneity and bivalency as strategies in bilingualism. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 8(1): 3–29. Crossref link
Zong, J. & Batalova, J.
2019Caribbean immigrants in the United States. Migration Policy Institute, 13 February 2019 <http://​www​.migrationpolicy​.org​/article​/caribbean​-immigrants​-united​-states (15 March 2020).
Zong, J., Batalova, J. & Hallock, J.
2018Frequently requested statistics on immigrants and immigration in the United States. Migration Information Source: The Online Journal of the Migration Policy Institute. 8 February 2018, <https://​www​.migrationpolicy​.org​/article​/frequently​-requested​-statistics​-immigrants​-and​-immigration​-united​-states​-7 (15 March 2020).
BIC Subject: CFB – Sociolinguistics
BISAC Subject: LAN009050 – LANGUAGE ARTS & DISCIPLINES / Linguistics / Sociolinguistics
U.S. Library of Congress Control Number:  2020019601