Article published in:Spelling Acquisition in Cross-linguistic Settings
Edited by Susie Russak and Elena Zaretsky
[Written Language & Literacy 25:1] 2022
► pp. 67–98
How can a fine-grained analysis of spelling errors inform our understanding of the development of spelling in EFL?
Becoming a proficient speller in English is a challenging task requiring integration of knowledge from multiple linguistic and cognitive sources. Spelling in English as a foreign language (EFL) is more complex when the distance between the different languages of the speller is great. Whereas binary scoring practices are prevalent, they are not as informative as analyses of errors based on linguistic characteristics. The present longitudinal study examined the development of spelling in EFL among speakers of Semitic L1, Arabic and Hebrew (N = 354). A dictation task on a one-word level assessed spelling from 4th–6th grades. Spellings were first scored for accuracy and then analyzed based primarily on phonological and orthographic characteristics. Errors were then grouped according to four predominant developmental trends. While similarities with L1 spelling development were noted, some of the error types could be attributed to unique characteristics of linguistic distance between Semitic languages and English. Both theoretical and practical implications are considered.
Keywords: spelling development, EFL, fine-grained, qualitative error analysis, levels of orthography, spelling stages, Semitic languages
- 1.1The development of spelling skills
- 1.2The cross-linguistic development of spelling skills
- 1.3Assessing spelling
- 1.4The linguistic setting and EFL instruction in Israel
- 1.5Current study
- 2.2Spelling measure
- 2.4Data analysis
- 2.4.1Quantitative data analysis
- 2.4.2Qualitative data analysis
- 4.1The development of EFL spelling skills across the beginning years of literacy instruction
- 4.2Analysis of spelling errors according to linguistic categories
- 4.3Errors by developmental trends
- 5.Limitations of the present study
Published online: 07 June 2022
Abdelhadi, Soaad & Raphiq Ibrahim & Zohar Eviatar
Allaith, Zainab A. & R. Malatesha Joshi
Arab-Moghaddam, Narges & Monique Sénéchal
Arfe, Barbara & Robin Danzak
Bahr, Ruth. H., Elaine R. Silliman & Virginia W. Berninger
Bahr, Ruth. H., Elaine R. Silliman, Robin Danzak & Louise C. Wilkinson
Bahr, Ruth H., Elaine R. Silliman, Virginia W. Berninger & Dow, M.
Bosman, Anna M. T., & Guy C. van Orden
Bourassa, Derek & Rebecca Treiman
Bryant, Peter, S. Helene Deacon, Hélène & Terezinha Nunes
Carlisle, Joanne F.
Central Bureau of Statistics
Daffern, Tessa & Robert Fleet
Daffern, Tessa & Noella M. Mackenzie
Daniels, Peter T., & David L. Share
Darcy, Isabella & Franzi Krüger
Deacon, Hélène & John Kirby & Melissa Casselman-Bell
Ehri, Linnea. C.
Ehri, Linnea C.
Eviatar, Zohar, Haitham Taha & Mila Shwartz
(2018) Metalinguistic awareness and literacy among semitic-bilingual learners: a cross-language perspective. Reading & Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 31 (8), 1869–1891. https://ezproxy.beitberl.ac.il:2922/10.1007/s11145-018-9850-9.
Fender, Michael F.
Fuchs, Stephanie, Janina Kahn-Horwitz & Tami Katzir
Garcia, Noelia P., Robert, D Abbott & Virginia W. Berninger
Gentry, J. Richard
Gillis, Steven & Dorit Ravid
Holes, Clive D.
Houghton, George & Marco Zorzi
Ibrahim, Raphiq & Zohar Eviatar, & Judith Aharon-Peretz
Invernizzi, Marcia & Latisha Hayes
Joshi, R. Malatesha, Rebecca Treiman, Suzanne Carreker & Louisa C. Moats
Kahn-Horwitz, Janina, Sara Kuash, Rafik Ibrahim, & Mila Schwartz
Kahn-Horwitz, Janina & Fern Levitt
(2020) Optimizing English as a Foreign Language Reading and Spelling Acquisition: Mapping Orthographic Conventions in Frequent Vocabulary. Poster presented at the ARWA conference (online).
Kessler, Brett & Rebecca Treiman
Lennox, Carolyn & Linda. S. Siegel
Levesque, Kyle, Helen Breadmore & S. Helene Deacon
Martin, Katherine I.
Martin, Katherine I., Emily Lawson, Katherine Carpenter & Elisa Hummer
Metsala, Jamie L., & Amanda C. Walley
Moats, Louisa C.
Nagy, William, Virginia W. Berninger & Robert, D.
National Reading Panel
Ness, Molly K.
Nevo, Einat & Vered Vaknin-Nusbaum
Pollo, Tatiana C., Rebecca Treiman & Brett Kessler
Robinson-Kooi, Sally & Lorraine Hammond
Russak, Susie & Janina Kahn-Horwitz
Russak, Susie & Saiegh-Haddad, Elinor
Saiegh-Haddad, Elinor, & Roni Henkin-Roitfarb
Seymour, Philip H. K., Mikko Aro & Jane M. Erskine
Share, David L.
Share, David L. & Iris Levin
Sheriston, Lee, Sarah Critten & Emily Jones
State of Israel Ministry of Education English Inspectorate
(2018) Revised English Curriculum Including Band III Lexis Principles and Standards for Learning English as an International Language for All Grades. Available from: http://meyda.education.gov.il/files/Mazkirut_Pedagogit/English/curriculum2018.pdfEnglish/Publications
Templeton, Shane & Darrell Morris
Treiman, Rebecca, Jessica Gordon, Richard Boada, Robin L. Peterson, & Bruce F. Pennington
Treiman, Rebecca & Brett Kessler
Treiman, Rebecca, Iris Levin, & Brett Kessler
Turnbull, Katheryn, S. Helene Deacon & Elizabeth Kay-Raining Bird
van Berkel, Ans. J.
Venezky, Richard L.
Wang, Min. & Esther Geva
Wawire, Brenda A. & Young-Suk G. Kim
Wiley, Robert. W. & Brenda Rapp