The lexicon in writing–speech-differentiation
The study analyzed text-embedded lexical usage as diagnostic of writing-speech-distinctions in stories and discussions produced in the two modalities by English-speaking grade-school children, middle-school pre-adolescents, high-school adolescents, and adults. We assumed that (1) while children master writing as a notational system by age 9 to 10 years, command of written language as a special style of discourse has a long developmental trajectory, and (2) distinct processing constraints and communicative circumstances combine to affect texts produced in the two modalities. Across the board, written texts scored higher than their spoken counterparts produced by the same participants on all five measures that we applied — Word Length, Register, Density, Diversity, and Abstractness — reflecting a more elevated and carefully monitored style of expression. With regard to development, high school students emerged as distinct from the two younger groups, demonstrating adolescence as a developmental watershed in discourse-embedded lexical usage as in other domains of text construction. When task order (written texts produced before or after spoken ones, respectively) is taken into account, however, a more complex, multi-faceted picture emerges with respect to the variables of age, specific lexical measure, and order effects.
Cited by 14 other publications
Aparici, Melina, Rocío Cuberos, Naymé Salas & Elisa Rosado
. Linguistic indicators of text quality in analytical texts: developmental changes and sensitivity to pedagogical work (Indicadores lingüísticos de la calidad textual en los textos analíticos: cambios evolutivos y sensibilidad al trabajo pedagógico)
. Journal for the Study of Education and Development
pp. 9 ff.
Ben-Zvi, Galit & Ronit Levie
Berman, Ruth A.
. Linguistic Literacy and Later Language Development
. In Written and Spoken Language Development across the Lifespan
, 11], ►
pp. 181 ff.
Brisk, María Estela
. Young Bilingual Writers' Control of Grammatical Person in Different Genres
. The Elementary School Journal
pp. 445 ff.
. Studying children's writing development with a corpus
. Applied Corpus Linguistics
pp. 100026 ff.
Durrant, Philip & Mark Brenchley
. Development of vocabulary sophistication across genres in English children’s writing
. Reading and Writing
pp. 1927 ff.
Durrant, Philip, Joseph Moxley & Lee McCallum
Gilbert, Rebecca A. & Jennifer M. Rodd
. Dominance Norms and Data for Spoken Ambiguous Words in British English
. Journal of Cognition
Laks, Lior & Ruth A. Berman
. A New Look at Diglossia: Modality-Driven Distinctions between Spoken and Written Narratives in Jordanian Arabic
. In Handbook of Arabic Literacy
, 9], ►
pp. 241 ff.
Ravid, Dorit, Amalia Bar-On & Elitzur Dattner
Rosado, Elisa, Naymé Salas, Melina Aparici & Liliana Tolchinsky
. Production and judgment of linguistic devices for attaining a detached stance in Spanish and Catalan
. Journal of Pragmatics
pp. 36 ff.
van Velzen, Marjolein H., Luca Nanetti & Peter P. de Deyn
. Data modelling in corpus linguistics: How low may we go?
pp. 192 ff.
Zaytseva, Victoria, Imma Miralpeix & Carmen Pérez-Vidal
. Because words matter: Investigating vocabulary development across contexts and modalities
. Language Teaching Research
pp. 162 ff.
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