Introduction to Healthcare for Interpreters and Translators

| Auckland University of Technology
ISBN 9789027212054 | EUR 99.00 | USD 149.00
ISBN 9789027212061 | EUR 36.00 | USD 54.00
ISBN 9789027271501 | EUR 99.00/36.00*
| USD 149.00/54.00*
“Getting information off the internet is like taking a drink from a fire hydrant.” (Mitchell Kapor, n.d.). Medical concepts and terminology can be very confusing for the uninitiated interpreter or translator. This book will allow interpreters and translators to quickly read up on healthcare settings, familiarizing themselves with anatomy, physiology, medical terminology and frequently encountered conditions, investigations and treatment options. Health translators working on medical reports will be able to find commonly used abbreviations. Those who have been asked to translate health information material into community languages will be able to gain a good basic overview of related background information and crosscultural issues. Those who teach health interpreters or translators will find this book helpful for structuring their curriculum. Information is presented in a consistent, logical and informative manner, intended to support, rather than overwhelm.

Crezee was appointed an Officer of the New Zealand Order of Merit for services to interpreter and translator education in the 2020 New Year Honours list.

[Not in series, 181]  2013.  xxvi, 338 pp.
Publishing status: Available
Table of Contents
Author’s notes
Part I. Interpreting
Chapter 1. Introduction
Chapter 2. Interpreting in healthcare settings
Chapter 3. A word about culture
Chapter 4. Medical terminology
Part II. Interpreting in healthcare settings
Chapter 5. Primary physicians and General Practitioners
Chapter 6. Outpatient Clinics and specialist clinics
Chapter 7. Hospitals
Chapter 8. Emergency Departments or ERs
Chapter 9. Informed consent
Chapter 10. Pre-operative and post-operative procedures
Chapter 11. Intensive Care
Chapter 12. Obstetrics
Chapter 13. Child health
Chapter 14. Speech Language Therapy
Chapter 15. Mental health
Chapter 16. Oncology
Part III. Healthcare Specialties
Chapter 17. Neurology: Nerves and the nervous system
Chapter 18. Cardiology: Heart and the circulatory system
Chapter 19. The respiratory system
Chapter 20. Hematology: Blood and blood disorders
Chapter 21. Orthopedics: The skeletal system
Chapter 22. Muscles and the motor system
Chapter 23. The sensory system
Chapter 24. The immune and lymphatic system
Chapter 25. The endocrine system
Chapter 26. The digestive system
Chapter 27. Urology and nephrology: The urinary system
Chapter 28. The reproductive system
“Ineke Crezee’s book fills a vital gap in health interpreting, placing the extensive medical vocabulary needed within the context of interpreter’s practice and the issues they face in the very varied areas of health care. It is ideal for all training levels from short courses to postgraduate work.”
“Any healthcare interpreting student that has Ineke Crezee's book as a required text will keep it as a valued resource for the duration of their career. Experienced interpreters will want a copy of their own. It is broad in scope without skimming the details, and yet remains a concise, accessible volume.”
“Ineke Crezee has used her wide knowledge in healthcare to provide professional insight and illustrate useful terminology, which is undoubtedly beneficial for interpreters in the medical field. This book is invaluable for any advanced health interpreter who wishes to further improve their skills.”
“Practising interpreters and interpreting students will be able to achieve the author’s goal of increasing their knowledge of the medical field and apply it to the improvement of their practice by using this book as a practical guide. Introduction to Healthcare for Interpreters and Translators is a welcome addition to the training resources available.”
Introduction to Healthcare for Interpreters and Translators is a tour de force from Ineke Crekee, a well-known trainer of healthcare interpreters from New Zealand. This book includes everything from basic medical terminology by specialty area to anatomy and physiology to what to expect in the Emergency Room. I have never seen a volume like this, written about healthcare but specifically for interpreters, and I will certainly recommend it to anyone providing language services in a healthcare setting.”
“Ineke Crezee has written an exceptionally useful and easily accessible handbook - one might almost describe it as a Vade Mecum (“it goes with me”, as my indispensible companion). Any interpreter, not to mention interpreter trainer who is involved in healthcare interpreting should own this book and use it often. The book is beautifully laid out, uncluttered and in a clear, easy to read typeface. Unpretentious straightforward English and summaries offer easily assimilated new knowledge to the reader. There are terminology lists, as well as lists of acronyms, affixes and other information for terminology management and interpreters’ book and desktop research prior to work assignments. The book is very well organised and I suspect that the most-read chapters for early career interpreters are likely to be those containing the clear descriptions of diagnoses and tests. Anatomical drawings are used to good effect and are very simple, clearly labelled and easy to understand and remember. This book is the work of a true linguist and hugely knowledgeable registered nurse with long experience of working in healthcare across language and culture. I recommend this book to all interpreter training institutions who are preparing students for work in health care. The Western biomedical model of healthcare delivery is not the only one in the world. Cultures that do not follow the medico-scientific paradigm may not find the system in their new country comprehensible or trustworthy. Migration will continue to grow, increasing the demand for high standards of good practice among interpreters when relaying explanations by western clinicians. Interpreters also need empathy and insight into cultural differences affecting individuals’ emotional needs. This book is a timely and very welcome addition to the bookshelves of public service interpreters and translators. It will even ‘go with you’ in a decent sized handbag!”
Introduction to Healthcare for Interpreters and Translators by Ineke Crezee is an extremely useful resource for interpreters working in healthcare settings [...]. Crezee has done the field a favor by distilling relevant information about healthcare settings and practice into a well-organized and accessible format that interpreters and translators will find invaluable to have as an ongoing reference.”
Introduction to Healthcare for Interpreters and Translators will be of great help to interpreting teachers, as it can be used as a content resource for teaching medical translation and interpreting, as it comments on the basic and most common situations which students will encounter when they begin their professional career. It focuses on an intercultural approach which also makes readers aware of the importance of culture and the different issues which arise depending on the different background settings, making context an integral and fundamental concept of study. In summary, the book is well worth reading because it offers a valuable contribution to the basics of medical content and its terminology, the necessary information for practitioners as well as for trainees and their teachers.”
“As a practical professional aid, this highly readable book will be most useful to interpreters who work in health care settings but lack formal medical training. Reading this book is much like getting a guided tour through a busy hospital and all its departments. [...] Introduction to Healthcare for Interpreters and Translators is a fine "grand tour" of Western health care and a treasure trove for interpreters who wish to do a quick bit of preliminary research or refresh their knowledge on a particular topic.”
“This is a wonderfully practical handbook for working interpreters and translators that could easily be used as a course text for trainers and educators. [...] The medical explanations are clear and well-written without dumbing down the subject areas in any way. [...] The book is very user-friendly and is designed so that health interpreters or translators can look up the relevant chapters prior to an interpreting assignment in order to familiarise themselves with a particular area of medicine. The writing is lively and the text is punctuated with anecdotes from practicing interpreters and practical advice from the author. The frequent illustrations add clarity and the helpful and comprehensive index allows for quick and easy reference. This is an excellent resource for interpreters and educators alike. It would be welcome on my shelf as a handy medical reference book, and is an answer to the prayers of health interpreters and translators everywhere for a single volume, comprehensive and above all else practical handbook to this specialised area of interpreting.”
Introduction to Healthcare for Interpreters and Translators is a much needed comprehensive guide, which serves to introduce interpreters and translators to the world of healthcare and healthcare interpreting. The book aspires to reach a broad audience of trainers, students and practitioners in line with Crezee’s background as a health professional, practising interpreter and interpreter trainer. The book is an example of multidisciplinary cooperation at its best, with a foreword by renowned interpreting scholar Sandra Hale and contributions by trained health professionals Maureen Kearney, Dana Lui and Linda Hand.”
“I foresee this book being extremely useful to at least three groups of readers: - New interpreters preparing to work in healthcare encounters [...] - Experienced interpreters needing a quick introduction to a specific specialty area before going to an encounter [...] - Interpreter trainers looking for a text to amplify their treatment of healthcare. [...] Whether you are a student of healthcare interpreting, a working healthcare interpreter, or an interpreter educator, I recommend this book to you. Like a good map of a coral reef in the hands of a scuba diver, it will help you know where you are going, what you can expect when you get there, and how to appropriately interpret what you see to the other divers you bring with you. Happy diving!”
“My joy and exuberance are insurmountable when I find accessible, original scholarship that empowers me in my practice, research, and teaching. [...] Introduction to Healthcare for Interpreters is a must read for readers interested in pursuing a career in healthcare interpreting; it is also a must read for trained interpreters who need to reference a guide or need a book for continuing education purposes. It is also an informative book for healthcare providers who interact with patients through mediated communication. The book uses accessible language to present a clear roadmap of healthcare interpreting, healthcare systems, and healthcare specialties. [...] As a linguist and an experienced interpreter trainer, Crezee integrates her valuable insights and vision into this carefully crafted and nicely written book.”
Cited by

Cited by other publications

Albl-Mikasa, Michaela
2019. Acting upon background of understanding rather than role. Translation, Cognition & Behavior 2:2  pp. 241 ff. Crossref logo
Crezee, Ineke H.M. & Teruko Asano
2016.  In Introduction to Healthcare for Japanese-speaking Interpreters and Translators, Crossref logo
Crezee, Ineke H.M. & Shirley Jülich
2020.  In Interpreting in Legal and Healthcare Settings [Benjamins Translation Library, 151],  pp. 211 ff. Crossref logo
Delgado Luchner, Carmen & Leïla Kherbiche
2018. Without fear or favour?. Target 30:3  pp. 408 ff. Crossref logo
Delgado Luchner, Carmen & Leïla Kherbiche
2019. Ethics Training for Humanitarian Interpreters Working in Conflict and Post-Conflict Settings. Journal of War & Culture Studies 12:3  pp. 251 ff. Crossref logo
Feng, Haoda
2017. Review of Crezee, Ineke H. M. & Teruko Asano (2016) Introduction to Healthcare for Japanese-speaking Interpreters and Translators . Terminology 23:2  pp. 271 ff. Crossref logo
Hlavac, Jim, Biserka Surla & Emiliano Zucchi
2020.  In Interpreting in Legal and Healthcare Settings [Benjamins Translation Library, 151],  pp. 313 ff. Crossref logo
Mikkelson, Holly M.
2020.  In Handbook of Research on Medical Interpreting [Advances in Medical Diagnosis, Treatment, and Care, ],  pp. 1 ff. Crossref logo
Miletich, Marko
2015. Accounting for nonverbal communication in interpreter-mediated events in healthcare settings. Translation and Translanguaging in Multilingual Contexts 1:2  pp. 162 ff. Crossref logo
Ng, Eva N.S. & Ineke H.M. Crezee
2020.  In Interpreting in Legal and Healthcare Settings [Benjamins Translation Library, 151],  pp. 1 ff. Crossref logo
Ozolins, Uldis
2016. The myth of the myth of invisibility?. Interpreting 18:2  pp. 273 ff. Crossref logo
Shrestha-Ranjit, Jagamaya, Deborah Payne, Jane Koziol-McLain, Ineke Crezee & Elizabeth Manias
2020. Availability, Accessibility, Acceptability, and Quality of Interpreting Services to Refugee Women in New Zealand. Qualitative Health Research  pp. 104973232092436 ff. Crossref logo
Valero Garcés, Carmen
2020.  In Interpreting in Legal and Healthcare Settings [Benjamins Translation Library, 151],  pp. 287 ff. Crossref logo

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Sarangi, S.
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Suggested further readings for Parts II and III

Aberg, J.A., Kaplan, J.E., Libman, H., Emmanuel, P., Anderson, J.R., Stone, V.E., … & Gallant, J.E
(2009) Primary care guidelines for the management of persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus: 2009 update by the HIV medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clinical infectious diseases, 49(5), 651–681. Crossref link
Abraham, D, Cabral, N. & Tancredi, A.
(eds.) (2004) A handbook for trainers: language interpreting in the healthcare sector. Toronto, Canada: Healthcare Interpretation Network.
Alberti, K.G.M.M., & Gries, F.A.
(2009) Management of non‐insulin‐dependent diabetes mellitus in Europe: A concensus view. Diabetic Medicine, 5(3), 275–281. Crossref link
Allman, K., & Wilson, I.
(Eds.) (2011) Oxford handbook of anaesthesia. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. Crossref link
American Nurses Association
(2006) Nursing facts: Today’s Registered Nurse – Numbers and demographics. Washington, D.C.: American Nurses Association.
American Psychiatric Association
(2013) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.
Anandan C., Nurmatov U., van Schayck O. & Sheikh A.
(2010) Is the prevalence of asthma declining? Systematic review of epidemiological studies. Allergy 65 (2), 152–67. Crossref link
Anatomical Chart Company
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Apgar, V.
(1953) A proposal for a new method of evaluation of the newborn infant. Current Research in Anesthesia and Analgesia, 32 (4): 260–267.
Atkinson, F., Foster-Powell, K. & Brand-Miller, J.
(2008) International tables of Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load values. Diabetes Care, 31, 12, 2281–2283. Crossref link
Bancroft, M.
(2013) The voice of love. http://​www​.volinterpreting​.org
Beers, M. & R. Berkow
(Eds) (2000) The Merck Manual of Geriatrics (3rd ed). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Bhattacharya, V.
(2011) Postgraduate vascular surgery The candidate’s guide to the FRCS. Leiden, the Netherlands: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Biggs W., Bieck A., Pugno P. & Crosley P.
(2011) Results of the 2011 National Resident Matching Program: Family medicine. Family Medicine 43(9):619–24.
Bisno A. & Stevens D.
(2009) Streptococcus pyogenes. In: G. Mandell, J. Bennett & R. Dolin (Eds.), Principles and practice of infectious diseases (7th ed). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone.
Braddom, R.L.
(2010) Physical medicine and rehabilitation (4th ed.). Edition. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier/Saunders.
Burgers, J.S., Fervers, B., Haugh, M., Brouwers, M., Browman, G., Philip, T., & Cluzeau, F.A.
(2004) International assessment of the quality of clinical practice guidelines in oncology using the Appraisal of Guidelines and Research and Evaluation Instrument. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 22(10), 2000–2007. Crossref link
Camargo, C.A., Rachelefsky, G., & Schatz, M.
(2009) Managing Asthma Exacerbations in the Emergency Department Summary of the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program Expert Panel Report 3 Guidelines for the Management of Asthma Exacerbations. Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society, 6(4), 357–366.
Camm, A.J., Kirchhof, P., Lip, G.Y., Schotten, U., Savelieva, I., Ernst, S., … & Folliguet, T.
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Christian, S., Kraas, J., & Conway, W.
(2007) Musculoskeletal Infections. Seminars in Roentgenology 42, 92–101. Crossref link
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(2010) The effect of neonatal intensive care level and hospital volume on mortality of very low birth weight infants. Medical care, 48(7), 635–644. Crossref link
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(2005) Understanding functioning, disability, and health in rheumatoid arthritis: the basis for rehabilitation care. Current opinion in rheumatology, 17(2), 183–189. Crossref link
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(2012) Manual of neonatal care. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
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(Eds.) (2010) Davidson’s principles and practice of medicine, (21st ed.). Edinburg, Scotland: Churchill Livingstone.
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(2008) Medial tibial stress syndrome: Evidence-based prevention. Journal of Athletic Training, 43(3), 316–318. Crossref link
Crezee J., Van Haaren P., Westendorp H., De Greef, M., Kok H., Wiersma J., Van Stam G., Sijbrands J, Zum Vörde Sive Vörding P., Van Dijk, J., Hulshof M. & Bel A.
(2009) Improving locoregional hyperthermia delivery using the 3-D controlled AMC-8 phased array hyperthermia system: a preclinical study. International Journal of Hyperthermia, 25(7), 581–92. Crossref link
Davidson, J.E., Powers, K., Hedayat, K.M., Tieszen, M., Kon, A.A., Shepard, E., … & Armstrong, D.
(2007) Clinical practice guidelines for support of the family in the patient-centered intensive care unit: American College of Critical Care Medicine Task Force 2004–2005. Critical Care Medicine, 35(2), 605–622. Crossref link
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Finster M & Wood M.
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(2005) Cardiac troponin I in pre‐eclampsia and gestational hypertension. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 107(11), 1417–1420. Crossref link
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(2010) Oxford handbook of neonatology. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
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(2010) Teaching medical students to work with interpreters. JoTrans, 14.
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(2008) Is clinical prevention better than cure? Lancet, 372, 1997–99. Crossref link
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(2008) Textbook of gastrointestinal radiology (Vol. 1). Philadelphia, PA: Saunders/Elsevier.
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(2012) Preconception and prenatal care: Part of the continuum. Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies, 101.
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(2004) Interdisciplinary teamwork in the community rehabilitation of older adults: an example of flexible working in primary care. Primary Health Care Research and Development (5), 228–239. Crossref link
Hall, B. & Chantigian, R.
(2003) Anesthesia. A comprehensive review. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby.
Hammer, C., Detwiler, J.S., Detwiler, J. Blood, G., & Dean Qualls, C.
(2004) Speech-Language Pathologists’ training and confidence in serving Spanish-English Bilingual children. Journal of Communication Disorders 37, 2, 91–108. Crossref link
Hampton, J.R., Harrison, M.J., Mitchell, J.R., Prichard, J.S., & Seymour, C.
(1975) Relative contributions of history-taking, physical examination, and laboratory investigation to diagnosis and management of medical outpatients. British Medical Journal, 2(5969), 486. Crossref link
Harris, B., Lovett, L., Newcombe, R., Read, G., Walker, R. & Riad-Fahmy
D (1994) Maternity blues and major endocrine changes: Cardiff puerperal mood and hormone study II. British Medical Journal, 308:949–953. Crossref link
Hart I., Sathasivam S. & Sharshar T.
(2007) Immunosuppressive agents for myasthenia gravis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 4. Crossref link
Heaney R. & Rafferty K.
(2001) Carbonated beverages and urinary calcium excretion. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition,74 (3):343–347.
Hedrick, J.
(2003) Acute bacterial skin infections in pediatric medicine: current issues in presentation and treatment. Pediatric Drugs, 5(Supplement 1), 35–46.
Hwa-Froelich, D. & Westby, C.
(2003) Considerations when working with interpreters. Communication Disorders Quarterly 24, 2, 78–85. Crossref link
Isaac, K.
(2002) Speech pathology in cultural and linguistic diversity. London, England: Whurr.
International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC)
Jang, I., Gold, H., Ziskind, A., Fallon, J., Holt, R., Leinbach, R., May, J. & Collen, D.
(1989) Differential sensitivity of erythrocyte-rich and platelet-rich arterial thrombitolysis with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator. A possible explanation for resistance to coronary thrombolysis. Circulation, 79(4):920–8. Crossref link
Jenkins, D., Kendall, C., McKeown-Eyssen, G., Josse, R., Silverberg, J. & Booth,G
(2008) Effect of a low–glycemic index or a high–cereal fiber diet on Type 2 Diabetes. Journal of the American Medical Association, 300(23):2742–2753. Crossref link
Jenkins, D., Wolever, T., Taylor, R., Barker, H., Fielden, H. Baldwin, J., Bowling, A, Newman, H., Jenkins, A. & Goff, D.
(1981) Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 34, 362–366.
Johnston M.
(2011) Encephalopathies. In R. Kliegman, R. Behrman, H. Jenson & B. Stanton (Eds.), Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. (19th ed). Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier.
Jones, R., Hunt, C., Stevens, R., Dalrymple, J., Driscoll, R., Sleet, S., & Smith, J.B.
(2009) Management of common gastrointestinal disorders: quality criteria based on patients’ views and practice guidelines. The British Journal of General Practice, 59(563), e199. Crossref link
Kaemmerer H., Meisner H., Hess J. & Perloff J.
(2004) Surgical treatment of patent ductus arteriosus: a new historical perspective. American Journal Of Cardiology, 94(9), 1153–4. Crossref link
Kambanaros, M., van Steenbrugge, W.
(2004) Interpreters and language assessment: Confrontation naming and interpreting. Advances in Speech-Language Pathology 6, 4, 247–252. Crossref link
Kauffman, T, J. Barr, & M. Moran
(Eds.) (2007) Geriatric rehabilitation manual. Second edition. Edinburgh, Scotland & New York, NJ: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier.
Kemp, C. & Rasbridge, L.
(2004) Refugee and immigrant health: A handbook for health professionals. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Kingsnorth, A.
(2011) Fundamentals of surgical practice: A preparation guide for the Intercollegiate MRCS Examination. Leiden, the Netherlands: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Kitzmiller, J.L., Wallerstein, R., Correa, A., & Kwan, S.
(2010) Preconception care for women with diabetes and prevention of major congenital malformations. Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology, 88(10), 791–803. Crossref link
Kussmaul, W.G.
(2012) Guidelines on diagnosis and treatment of stable Ischemic Heart Disease: Keeping up with a constantly evolving evidence base. Annals of internal medicine, 157(10), 749–751. Crossref link
Langdon, H., & Quintanar-Sarellana, R.
(2003) Roles and responsibilities of the interpreter in interactions with Speech-Language Pathologists, parents, and students. Seminars in Speech and Language 24, 3, 235–244. Crossref link
Leeseberg Stamler, L. & Yiu, L.
(2005) Community health nursing: A Canadian perspective. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Longmore, M., Wilkinson, I., Davidson, E., Foulkes, A., & Mafi, A.
(2010) Oxford handbook of clinical medicine. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. Crossref link
Longo, D.
(2012) Harrisons Online: Principles of internal medicine. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Mancia, G., Laurent, S., Agabiti-Rosei, E., Ambrosioni, E., Burnier, M., Caulfield, M.J., & Zanchetti, A.
(2009) Reappraisal of European guidelines on hypertension management: a European Society of Hypertension Task Force document. Journal of Hypertension, 27(11), 2121–2158. Crossref link
Martinez, G.
(2008) Language-in-healthcare policy, interaction patterns, and unequal care on the U.S.-Mexico border. Language Policy 7,345–363. Crossref link
Marx, J., Hockberger, R., & Walls, R.
(2009) Rosen’s emergency medicine-concepts and clinical practice, (7th ed.). Maryland Heights, MI: Mosby/Elsevier.
Mayo Clinic
(2012) Cholesterol levels. Retrieved 28 June 2012 from http://​www​.mayoclinic​.com​/health​/cholesterol​-levels​/CL00001 retrieved 28 June 2012
McLatchie, G., Borley, N., & Chikwe, J.
(2007) Oxford handbook of clinical surgery. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. Crossref link
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(2011) Update on AUA guideline on the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Journal of Urology, 185(5):1793–803. Epub 2011 Mar 21. Crossref link
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(2011) A what-comes-next guide to a safe and informed recovery. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
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Miller, B.
(2010) General surgical lists and reminders. Brisbane, Australia: University of Queensland Press.
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Useful websites

Websites which are managed by bona fide professional bodies are an extremely useful source of information, as information tends to be continually updated and reviewed by the relevant (medical) professionals. Some recommended websites are:
American Association for Thoracic Surgery (AATS)
American College of Cardiology
American College of Emergency Physicians
American College of Gastroenterology
American College of Radiology
American College of Rheumatology
American College of Surgeons
American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG)
American Heart Association (AHA)
American Pregnancy Association
American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM)
American Translators Association (ATA)
Australian College of Midwives: New South Wales Branch
Australian College of Nursing
Australian Society of Interpreters and Translators
Australian Nursing and Midwifery Council
Canadian Medical Association
Cancer Topics. National Cancer Institute
Chartered Institute of linguists (IoL)
Clinical Nutrition Certification Board
Graduate Medical School Admissions Test
Health Care Interpreter Network
Health Resources and Services Administration. Maternal and Child health
International Council of Nurses (ICN)
Interpreting in health care settings
Medical Council of New Zealand
Medical Interpreting
National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health
National Council on Interpreting in Health Care
National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NDDIC)
National Eye Institute:
National Kidney Disease Education Program (NKEDEP)
New Zealand College of Midwives
New Zealand Society of Translators and Interpreters
North American Registry of Midwives
Nursing and Midwifery Council
Nursing Council of New Zealand
Royal College of General PractitionersV
Royal College of PhysiciansV
Royal College of physicians and Surgeons of CanadaV
Royal College of Midwives
Royal College of Nursing Australia (RCNA)
Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions (SCAI)V
The American Board of Family Medicine
The Merck Manual Illustrated
The Royal College of Surgeons of England
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services
U.S. National Library of Medicine. National Institutes of Health
US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
US National Library of Medicine
World Health Organization (WHO)
www​.scottishrefugeecouncil​.org​.uk. Briefing: Refugees and asylum seekers – the facts. Scottish Refugee Council.

Translation & Interpreting Studies

Translation Studies
BIC Subject: CFP – Translation & interpretation
BISAC Subject: LAN023000 – LANGUAGE ARTS & DISCIPLINES / Translating & Interpreting
U.S. Library of Congress Control Number:  2013021516