Chapter published in:
Developmental Perspectives in Written Language and Literacy: In honor of Ludo Verhoeven
Edited by Eliane Segers and Paul van den Broek
[Not in series 206] 2017


Biber, D.
(1988) Variation across speech and writing. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Cai, Z., Feng, S., Baer, W., & Graesser, A.
(2014) Instructional strategies in trialog-based intelligent tutoring systems. In R. Sottilare, A. C. Graesser, X. Hu, & B. Goldberg (Eds.), Design recommendations for intelligent tutoring systems: Adaptive instructional strategies (Vol. 2, pp. 225–235). Orlando, FL: Army Research Laboratory.
Cai, Z., Graesser, A. C., Forsyth, C., Burkett, C., Millis, K., Wallace, P., Halpern, D. & Butler, H.
(2011) Trialog in ARIES: User input assessment in an intelligent tutoring system. In W. Chen & S. Li (Eds.), Proceedings of the 3rd IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Computing and Intelligent Systems (pp. 429–433). Guangzhou: IEEE Press.
Clark, H. H.
(1996) Using language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, hardbound. Crossref link
Deane, P., Sheehan, K. M., Sabatini, J., Futagi, Y., & Kostin, I.
(2006) Differences in text structure and its implications for assessment of struggling readers. Scientific Studies of Reading, 10, 257–275. Crossref link
Eason, S. H., Goldberg, L. F., Young, K. M., Geist, M. C., & Cutting, L. E.
(2012) Reader-text interactions: How differential text and question types influence cognitive skills needed for reading comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 104, 515–528. Crossref link
Goldman, S. R., Braasch, J. L. G., Wiley, J., Graesser, A. C., & Brodowinska, K.
(2012) Comprehension and learning from internet sources: Processing patterns of better and poorer learners. Reading Research Quartely, 47(4), 356–381.
Graesser, A. C.
(2011) Learning, thinking, and emoting with discourse technologies. American Psychologist, 66, 743–757. Crossref link
(2016) Conversations with AutoTutor help students learn. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 26, 124–132. Crossref link
Graesser, A. C., Cai, Z., Baer, W. O., Olney, A. M., Hu, X., Reed, M., & Greenberg, D.
(2016) Reading comprehension lessons in AutoTutor for the Center for the Study of Adult Literacy. In S. A. Crossley & D. S. McNamara (Eds.), Adaptive educational technologies for literacy instruction (pp. 288–293. New York: Taylor & Francis Routledge.
Graesser, A. C., Forsyth, C., & Lehman, B.
. (in press). Two heads are better than one: Learning from agents in conversational trialogues. Teachers College Record.
Graesser, A., Jeon, M., & Duffy, D.
(2008) Agent technologies designed to facilitate interactive knowledge construction. Discourse Processes, 45(4–5), 298–322. Crossref link
Graesser, A. C., Li, H., & Forsyth, C.
(2014) Learning by communicating in natural language with conversational agents. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 23, 374–380. Crossref link
Graesser, A. C., & McNamara, D. S.
(2011) Computational analyses of multilevel discourse comprehension. Topics in Cognitive Science, 3, 371–398. Crossref link
(2012) Automated analysis of essays and open-ended verbal responses. In H. Cooper, P. M. Camic, D. L. Long, A. T. Panter, D. Rindskopf, & K. J. Sher (Eds.), APA handbook of research methods in psychology, Vol 1: Foundations, planning, measures, and psychometrics (pp. 307–325). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Crossref link
Graesser, A. C., McNamara, D. S., & Kulikowich, J.
(2011) Coh-Metrix: Providing multilevel analyses of text characteristics. Educational Researcher, 40, 223–234. Crossref link
Graesser, A. C., McNamara, D. S., Cai, Z., Conley, M., Li, H., & Pennebaker, J.
(2014) Coh-Metrix measures text characteristics at multiple levels of language and discourse. Elementary School Journal, 115, 210–229. Crossref link
Graesser, A. C., Singer, M., & Trabasso, T.
(1994) Constructing inferences during narrative text comprehension. Psychological Review, 101(3), 371–395. Crossref link
Greenberg, D.
(2008) The challenges facing adult literacy programs. Community Literacy Journal, 3, 39–54.
Haberlandt, K. F., & Graesser, A. C.
(1985) Component processes in text comprehension and some of their interactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 114(3), 357–374. Crossref link
Halliday, M. A. K., & Hasan, R.
(1976) Cohesion in English. London: Longman Group Ltd.
Haviland, S. E., & Clark, H. H.
(1974) What’s new? Acquiring new information as a process in comprehension. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 13, 512–521. Crossref link
Hiebert, E. H., & Mesmer, H. A.
(2013) Upping the ante of text complexity in the Common Core State Standards: Examining its potential impact on young readers. Educational Researcher, 42(1), 44–51. Crossref link
Jackson, G. T., & McNamara, D. S.
(2013) Motivation and performance in a game-based intelligent tutoring system. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105, 1036–1049. Crossref link
Jurafsky, D., & Martin, J. H.
(2008) Speech and language processing: An introduction to natural language processing, computational linguistics, and speech recognition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Just, M. A., & Carpenter, P. A.
(1987) The psychology of reading and language comprehension. Newton, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Kintsch, W.
(1998) Comprehension: A paradigm for cognition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Landauer, T. K., Kireyev, K., & Panaccione, C.
(2011) Word maturity: A new metric for word knowledge. Scientific Studies of Reading, 15(1), 92–108. Crossref link
Landauer, T., McNamara, D. S., Dennis, S., Kintsch, W.
(Eds.) (2007) Handbook of latent semantic analysis. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Lovett, M. W., Lacerenza, L., De Palma, M., & Frijters, J. C.
(2012) Evaluating the efficacy of remediation for struggling readers in high school. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 45, 151–169. Crossref link
Magliano, J. P., & Graesser, A. C.
(2012) Computer-based assessment of student-constructed responses. Behavioral Research Methods, 44, 608–621. Crossref link
McNamara, D. S., Boonthum, C., Levinstein, I. B., & Millis, K.
(2007) Evaluating self-explanations in iSTART: Comparing word-based and LSA algorithms. In T. Landauer, D. S. McNamara, S. Dennis, & W. Kintsch (Eds.), Handbook of latent semantic analysis (pp. 227–241). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
McNamara, D. S., Graesser, A. C., McCarthy, P. M., & Cai, Z.
(2014) Automated evaluation of text and discourse with Coh-Metrix. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
McNamara, D. S., & Kintsch, W.
(1996) Learning from text: Effects of prior knowledge and text coherence. Discourse Processes, 22, 247–288. Crossref link
McNamara, D. S., Louwerse, M. M., McCarthy, P. M., & Graesser, A. C.
(2010) Coh-Metrix: Capturing linguistic features of cohesion. Discourse Processes, 47, 292–330. Crossref link
Meyer, B. F., Wijekumar, K., Middlemiss, W., Higley, K., Lei, P., & Meier, C., & Spielvogel, J.
(2010) Web-based tutoring of the structure strategy with or without elaborated feedback or choice for fifth- and seventh-grade readers. Reading Research Quarterly, 45(1), 62–92. Crossref link
National Research Council [NRC]
(2011) Improving adult literacy instruction: Options for practice and research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
Nelson, J., Perfetti, C., Liben, D., & Liben, M.
(2011) Measures of text difficulty: Testing their predictive value for grade levels and student performance. New York, NY: Student Achievement Partners.
Nye, B. D., Graesser, A. C., & Hu, X.
(2014) AutoTutor and family: A review of 17 years of natural language tutoring. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 24(4), 427–469. Crossref link
(2013) Time for the U.S. to Reskill?: What the survey of adult skills says. OECD Skills Studies, OECD Publishing. Crossref link
O’Brien, E. J., Rizzella, M. L., Albrecht, J. E., & Halleran, J. G.
(1998) Updating a situation model: A memory-based text processing view. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 24, 1200–1210. Crossref link
Olney, A., D’Mello, S. K., Person, N., Cade, W., Hays, P., Williams, C., Lehman, B., & Graesser, A. C.
(2012) Guru: A computer tutor that models expert human tutors. In S. Cerri, W. Clancey, G. Papadourakis, & K. Panourgia (Eds.), Proceedings of Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) 2012 (pp. 256–261). Berlin, Germany: Springer.
Perfetti, C. A.
(1999) Comprehending written language: A blueprint of the reader. In C. M. Brown & P. Hagoort (Eds.), The neurocognition of language (pp. 167–208). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Perfetti, C.
(2007) Reading ability: Lexical quality to comprehension. Scientific Studies of Reading, 11(4), 357–383. Crossref link
Rapp, D. N., van den Broek, P., McMaster, K. L., Kendeou, P., & Espin, C. A.
(2007) Higher-order comprehension processes in struggling readers: A perspective for research and intervention. Scientific studies of reading, 11, 4, 289–312. Crossref link
Rouet, J.
(2006) The skills of document use: From text comprehension to Web-based learning. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Rus, V., D’Mello, S., Hu, X., & Graesser, A. C.
(2013) Recent advances in intelligent systems with conversational dialogue. AI Magazine, 34, 42–54. Crossref link
Sabatini, J. P., & Albro, E.
(2012) Assessing reading in the 21st century: Aligning and applying advances in the reading and measurement sciences. Lanham, MD: R&L Education.
Sheehan, K. M., Kostin, I., Napolitano, D., & Flor, M.
(2014) The TextEvaluator Tool: Helping teachers and test developers select texts for use in instruction and assessment. Elementary School Journal, 115(2), 184–209. Crossref link
Snow, C.
(2002) Reading for understanding: Toward an R&D program in reading comprehension. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation.
Van den Broek, P. W., White, M. J., Kendeou, P., & Carlson, S.
(2009) Reading between the lines. Developmental and individual differences in cognitive processes in reading comprehension. In R. K. Wagner, C. Schatschneider, & C. Phythian-Sence (Eds.), Beyond decoding. The behavioral and biological foundations of reading comprehension (pp. 107–123). New York: The Guilford Press.
van Dijk, T. A., & Kintsch, W.
(1983) Strategies of discourse comprehension. New York: Academic Press.
VanLehn, K.
(2011) The relative effectiveness of human tutoring, intelligent tutoring systems and other tutoring systems. Educational Psychologist, 46, 197–221. Crossref link
VanLehn, K., Graesser, A. C., Jackson, G. T., Jordan, P., Olney, A., & Rose, C. P.
(2007) When are tutorial dialogues more effective than reading? Cognitive Science, 31, 3–62. Crossref link
Verhoeven, L., & Graesser, A. C.
(2008) Introduction: Cognitive and linguistic factors in interactive knowledge construction. Discourse Processes, 45, 289–297. Crossref link
Verhoeven, L.
(1994) Transfer in bilingual development: The linguistic interdependence hypothesis revisited. Language Learning, 44(3), 381–415. Crossref link
(2000) Components in early second language reading and spelling. Scientific Studies of Reading, 4(4), 313–330. Crossref link
Verhoeven, L., & van Elsacker, W.
(2016) Home and school predictors of reading achievement in linguistically diverse learners in the intermediate primary grades. Written and Spoken Language Development across the Lifespan, 11, 65–76. Crossref link
Verhoeven, L., & van Leeuwe, J.
(2008) Prediction of the development of reading comprehension: A longitudinal study. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 22(3), 407–423. Crossref link
Wiley, J., Goldman, S., Graesser, A., Sanchez, C., Ash, I., & Hemmerich, J.
(2009) Source evaluation, comprehension, and learning in internet science inquiry tasks. American Educational Research Journal, 46, 1060–1106. Crossref link
Williamson, G. L., Fitzgerald, J., & Stenner, A. J.
(2014) Student reading growth illuminates the Common Core text-complexity standard: Raising both bars. Elementary School Journal, 115, 230–254. Crossref link
Williams, J. P., Stafford, K. B., Lauer, K. D., Hall, K. M., & Pollini, S.
(2009) Embedding reading comprehension training in content-area instruction. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101(1), 1–20. Crossref link
Zapata-Rivera, D., Jackson, T., & Katz, I. R.
(2015) Authoring conversation-based assessment scenarios. In R. Sottilare, A. C. Graesser, X. Hu, & K. Brawner (Eds.), Design recommendations for intelligent tutoring systems: Authoring tools (Vol. 3, pp. 191–200). Orlando, FL: Army Research Laboratory.
Zwaan, R. A., & Radvansky, G. A.
(1998) Situation models in language comprehension and memory. Psychological Bulletin, 123, 162–185. Crossref link