Chapter published in:
Argumentation in Actual Practice: Topical studies about argumentative discourse in context
Edited by Frans H. van Eemeren and Bart Garssen
[Argumentation in Context 17] 2019
► pp. 137156


ABC News
(2016, March 4). Trump v. Rubio: Trump defends the size of his manhood, ‘little hands.’ [Video file]. https://​www​.youtube​.com​/watch​?v​=Ve6I92hEozo
Associated Press
(2016, May 25). Trump bashes “Crazy Bernie,” “Crooked Hillary.” [Video file]. https://​www​.youtube​.com​/watch​?v​=5r92qx9p9wM
Azari, J. R.
(2016) How the news media helped to nominate Trump [The Forum]. Political Communication, 33, 677–680. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Blake, A.
(2018, March 27). John Paul Stevens’s supremely unhelpful call to repeal the Second Amendment. Washington Post. Retrieved from https://​www​.washingtonpost​.com​/news​/the​-fix​/wp​/2018​/03​/27​/john​-paul​-stevenss​-supremely​-unhelpful​-call​-to​-repeal​-the​-second​-amendment/ Google Scholar
Brinton, A.
(1986) Ēthotic argument. History of Philosophy Quarterly, 3, 245–258.Google Scholar
Cliff, J.
(2017) Fallacious Trump: The Donald J. Trump guide to logical fallacies. Colchester, UK: Antbear.Google Scholar
(2016, April 18). Donald Trump’s nicknames for his opponents [Video file]. Retrieved from https://​www​.youtube​.com​/watch​?v​=l6LN​_-HjjE
Conway, B. A., Kenski, K., & Wang, D.
(2015) The rise of Twitter in the political campaign: Searching for intermedia agenda-setting effects in the presidential primary. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 20, 363–380. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Copi, I. M.
(1972) Introduction to logic. (4th ed.) New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
(2015, December 30). Donald Trump campaign rally in Hilton Head, South Carolina [Video file]. Retrieved from https://​www​.c​-span​.org​/video​/?402610​-1​/donald​-trump​-campaign​-rally​-hilton​-head​-south​-carolina​&start​=375
(2016a, January 28). Presidential Candidate Donald Trump rally in Des Moines, Iowa [Video file]. Retrieved from https://​www​.c​-span​.org​/video​/?403832​-1​/presidential​-candidate​-donald​-trump​-rally​-des​-moines​-iowa​&start​=794
(2016b, March 5). Donald Trump’s news conference in West Palm Beach, Florida [Video file]. Retrieved from https://​www​.c​-span​.org​/video​/?406062​-1​/donald​-trump​-news​-conference​-west​-palm​-beach​-florida​&start​=1337
(2016c, April 26). Presidential Candidate Donald Trump primary speech night [Video file]. Retrieved from https://​www​.c​-span​.org​/video​/?408719​-1​/donald​-trump​-primary​-night​-speech
(2016d, June 10). Donald Trump remarks at Faith and Freedom Coalition Conference [Video file]. Retrieved from https://​www​.c​-span​.org​/video​/?410912​-4​/donald​-trump​-addresses​-faith​-freedom​-coalition​-conference
(2016e, June 28). Donald Trump remarks in Monessen, Pennsylvania [Video file]. Retrieved from https://​www​.c​-span​.org​/video​/?411870​-1​/donald​-trump​-delivers​-remarks​-us​-economy
(2016f, July 5). Presidential Candidate Donald Trump rally in Raleigh, North Carolina [Video file]. Retrieved from https://​www​.c​-span​.org​/video​/?412232​-1​/senator​-bob​-corker​-campaigns​-donald​-trump
(2016g, July 11). Donald Trump remarks on veterans issues [Video file]. Retrieved from https://​www​.c​-span​.org​/video​/?412560​-1​/donald​-trump​-delivers​-remarks​-veterans​-issues
van Eemeren, F. H., & Grootendorst, R.
(2015) The history of the argumentum ad hominem since the seventh century. In Reasonableness and Effectiveness in Argumentative Discourse (Argumentation Library, vol 27), 611–629. Springer. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
van Eemeren, F. H., Garssen, B., & Meuffels, B.
(2012) The disguised abusive ad hominem empirically investigated: Strategic manoeuvring with direct personal attacks. Thinking & Reasoning, 18, 344–364. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Fox News
(2015, September 10). Trump on Fiorina flap: Not about looks, but ‘whole persona.’ [Video file, “On the Record.”] Retrieved https://​video​.foxnews​.com​/v​/4476717359001​/#sp​=show​-clips.
Govier, T.
(2013) A Practical Study of Argument, 7th ed. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.Google Scholar
Hinman, L. M.
(1982) The case for ad hominem arguments. Australasian Journal of Philosophy, 60, 338–345. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Johnson, C. M.
(2009) Reconsidering the ad hominem . Philosophy, 84, 251–266. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Kelly, J.
(2016, October 26). What’s with all Trump’s talk about “draining the swamp”? . Retrieved from https://​slate​.com​/human​-interest​/2016​/10​/why​-do​-trump​-and​-his​-supports​-keep​-talking​-about​-draining​-the​-swamp​.html
Kiley, J.
(October 23 2017) In polarized era, fewer Americans hold a mix of conservative and liberal views. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://​www​.pewresearch​.org​/fact​-tank​/2017​/10​/23​/in​-polarized​-era​-fewer​-americans​-hold​-a​-mix​-of​-conservative​-and​-liberal​-views​/.ewGoogle Scholar
Los Angeles Times
(2018, February 9). President Trump’s Nicknames. [Video file]. Retrieved from https://​www​.youtube​.com​/watch​?v​=fPb7oxdF5XQ
Lee, J. C., & Quealy, K.
(2018a, July 10). The 487 People, Places and Things Donald Trump Has Insulted on Twitter: A Compilation. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://​www​.nytimes​.com​/interactive​/2016​/01​/28​/upshot​/donald​-trump​-twitter​-insults​.html Google Scholar
Lee, J. C., & Quealy, K.
(2018b, December 28). The 551 People, Places and Things Donald Trump Has Insulted on Twitter: A Compilation. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://​www​.nytimes​.com​/interactive​/2016​/01​/28​/upshot​/donald​-trump​-twitter​-insults​.html Google Scholar
Lee, M.
(2016, October 19). Fact check: Trump’s views on abortion rights. The Washington Post.Google Scholar
Minot, W. S.
(1981) A rhetorical view of fallacies: ad hominem and ad populum . Rhetoric Society Quarterly, 11, 222–235. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Mercieca, J.
Ott, B. L.
(2017) The age of Twitter: Donald J. Trump and the politics of debasement. Critical Studies in Media Communication, 34, 59–68. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Pelled, A., Lukito, J., Boehm, F., Yang, J., & Shah, D.
(2019) “Little Marco,” “Lyin’ Ted,” pe“Crooked Hillary,” and the “Biased” media: How Trump used Twitter to attack and organize. In N. J. Stroud, & S. C. McGregor (Eds.), Digital Discussions: How Big Data Informs Political Communication, 176–196. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Republican National Committee [GOP]
(2016, May 26). Crooked Hillary gets caught lying again [Video file]. Retrieved from https://​www​.youtube​.com​/watch​?v​=rpdYgXz4esQ
Rescher, N.
(1964) Introduction to logic. New York: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
van Sant, S.
(2018, June 24). Saudi Arabia lifts its ban on female drivers. Retrieved from https://​www​.npr​.org​/2018​/06​/24​/622990978​/saudi​-arabia​-lifts​-ban​-on​-women​-drivers Google Scholar
Solotaroff, P.
(2015, September 9). Trump seriously: On the trail with the GOP’s tough guy. Rolling Stone. Retrieved from https://​www​.rollingstone​.com​/politics​/politics​-news​/trump​-seriously​-on​-the​-trail​-with​-the​-gops​-tough​-guy​-41447/ Google Scholar
Schwartz, I.
(2016, February 3). Trump: Cruz puts down bible and goes around lying; ‘dishonest’ media probably worse than Cruz. RealClearPolitics. Retrieved from https://​www​.realclearpolitics​.com​/video​/2016​/02​/23​/trump​_cruz​_puts​_down​_bible​_and​_goes​_around​_lying​_dishonest​_media​_probably​_worse​_than​_cruz​.html Google Scholar
Team Fix
(2016, February 13). The CBS news Republican debate transcript, annotated. The Washington Post. Retrieved from https://​www​.washingtonpost​.com​/news​/the​-fix​/wp​/2016​/02​/13​/the​-cbs​-republican​-debate​-transcript​-annotated/ Google Scholar
Tewksbury, D., & Rittenberg, J.
(2012) News on the internet: Information and citizenship in the 21st century. New York: Oxford University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Trump, D. J.
(2015a, October 31). Black Lives Matter protesters totally disrupt Hillary Clinton event. She looked lost. This is not what we need with ISIS, CHINA, RUSSIA etc. [Tweet] Retrieved from https://​twitter​.com​/realDonaldTrump​/status​/660417693758156800
(2015b, November 30). How is Chris Christie running the state of NJ, which is deeply troubled, when he is spending all his time in NH? New Jerseyans not happy! [Tweet] Retrieved from https://​twitter​.com​/realDonaldTrump​/status​/671330229596659712
(2015c, December 9). Hillary Clinton does not have the STRENGTH or STAMINA to be President. We need strong and super smart for our next leader – or trouble [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://​twitter​.com​/realDonaldTrump​/status​/674578580681134080.
(2015d, December 22). Weak and low energy,  at JebBush, whose campaign is a disaster, is now doing ads against me where he tries to look like a tough guy [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://​twitter​.com​/realDonaldTrump​/status​/679410900751802368
(2016a, January 2).  at JebBush is a low energy “stiff” who should focus his special interest money on the many people ahead of him in the polls. Has no chance! [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://​twitter​.com​/realDonaldTrump​/status​/683260753810440192
(2016b, February 26). Lightweight choker Marco Rubio looks like a little boy on stage. Not presidential material! [Tweet] Retrieved from https://​twitter​.com​/realDonaldTrump​/status​/703252241487036417
(2016c, February 28). While I hear the Koch brothers are in big financial trouble (oil), word is they have chosen little Marco Rubio, the lightweight from Florida [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://​twitter​.com​/realdonaldtrump​/status​/703904675289042945
(2016d, February 28). Little Marco Rubio, the lightweight no show Senator from Florida, is set to be the “puppet” of the special interest Koch brothers. WATCH! [Tweet] Retrieved from https://​twitter​.com​/realDonaldTrump​/status​/703974892237135873
(2016e, March 7). I will be using Facebook and Twitter to expose dishonest lightweight Senator Marco Rubio. A record no-show in Senate, he is scamming Florida [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://​twitter​.com​/realdonaldtrump​/status​/706829345143316480
(2016f, May 3). Wow, Lyin’ Ted Cruz really went wacko today. Made all sorts of crazy charges. Can’t function under pressure – not very presidential. Sad! [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://​twitter​.com​/realDonaldTrump​/status​/727634574298255361
(2016g, May 11). I don’t want to hit Crazy Bernie Sanders too hard yet because I love watching what he is doing to Crooked Hillary. His time will come! [Tweet] Retrieved from https://​twitter​.com​/realDonaldTrump​/status​/730343346204508160
(2016h, August 26). Crooked Hillary will NEVER be able to solve the problems of poverty, education and safety within the African-American & Hispanic communities [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://​twitter​.com​/realDonaldTrump​/status​/769170204941164544
(2016i, September 17). Crooked Hillary wants to take your 2nd Amendment rights away. Will guns be taken from her heavily armed Secret Service detail? Maybe not! [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://​twitter​.com​/realDonaldTrump​/status​/777022559367770112
(2016j, October 18). I Will Make Our Government Honest Again – believe me. But first, I’m going to have to #DraintheSwamp in DC. [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://​twitter​.com​/realDonaldTrump​/status​/788402585816276992
Walton, D.
(1998) Ad hominem arguments. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press Google Scholar
Woods, J.
(2007) Lightening up on the ad hominem . Informal Logic, 27, 109–134. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Zarefsky, D.
(2002) Felicity conditions for the circumstantial ad hominem: The case of Bush v. Gore. ISSA Proceedings 2002. Retrieved from http://​rozenbergquarterly​.com​/issa​-proceedings​-2002​-felicity​-conditions​-for​-the​-circumstantial​-ad​-hominem​-the​-case​-of​-bush​-v​-gore/ Google Scholar