This study examined second language (L2) Chinese learners’ developmental patterns of pragmatic competence in two
computer-mediated communication (CMC) conditions: (1) CMC with data-driven instruction embedded in the course of CMC and (2) CMC
without data-driven instruction. Learners’ pragmatic competence was operationalized as their ability to use a Chinese sentence
final particle (SFP) ne during CMC with a native speaker partner. The study investigated: (1) whether learners
(as a group) developed their use of ne over time in the two CMC conditions, and (2) how individual learners
changed their use of ne (if any) in the two conditions. The quantitative analysis (token and type frequency of
ne) revealed that CMC itself did not promote learners’ use of ne. However, it promoted
learners’ production of ne when data-driven instruction was incorporated into CMC. Supporting the quantitative
findings, the qualitative analysis showed that one learner in the CMC with data-driven instruction outperformed his counterpart in
the CMC without data-driven instruction group in the diverse use of ne.
(2013) Say what?! L2 sociopragmatic competence in CMC: Skill transfer and development. CALICO Journal, 301, 423–445.
Belz, J. A., & Kinginger, C.
(2003) Discourse options and the development of pragmatic competence by classroom learners of German: The case of address forms. Language Learning, 531, 591–647.
Belz, J. A., & Vyatkina, N.
(2005) Learner corpus analysis and the development of L2 pragmatic competence in networked inter-cultural language study: The case of German modal particles. Canadian Modern Language Review, 621, 17–48.
Belz, J. A., & Vyatkina, N.
(2008) The pedagogical mediation of a developmental learner corpus for classroom-based language instruction. Language Learning & Technology, 121, 33–52.
(1984) Beef it up with NE. Journal of Chinese Language Teachers’ Association, 191, 87–91.
Culpeper, J., Mackey, A. & Taguchi, N.
(2018) Second language pragmatics: From theory to research. London: Routledge.
Cunningham, D. J.
(2016) Request modification in synchronous computer-mediated communication: The role of focused instruction. The Modern Language Journal, 1001, 1–24.
Cunningham, D. J.
(2017) Second language pragmatic appropriateness in telecollaboration: The influence of discourse management and grammaticality. System, 641, 46–57.
Cunningham, D. J.
(2019) L2 pragmatics learning in computer-mediated communication. In N. Taguchi (Ed.), The Routledge handbook of second language acquisition and pragmatics (pp. 371–386). New York, NY: Routledge.
Cunningham, D. J., & Vyatkina, N.
(2012) Telecollaboration for professional purposes: Towards developing a formal register in the foreign language classroom. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 681, 422–450.
(2014) Interactional competence and the development of alignment activity. The Modern Language Journal, 981, 742–756.
Ellis, N. C.
(2016) Constructions and usage-based approaches to language acquisition. Language Learning, 661, 23–44.
Eskildsen, S. W.
(2015) What counts as a developmental sequence? Exemplar-based L2 learning of English questions. Language Learning, 651, 33–62.
(1981) Mandarin Chinese: A functional reference grammar. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
(2016) Variations in developmental patterns across pragmatic features. Studies of Second Language Learning and Teaching, 61, 587–617.
Li, Q., Taguchi, N., & Tang, X.
(2018) Pragmatic development via CMC-based data-driven instruction: Chinese sentence final particles. In A. Sanchez & A. Herraiz Martinez (Eds.), Learning second language pragmatics beyond traditional contexts (pp. 49–86). Bern: Peter Lang.
Li, Q., Zhang, H., & Taguchi, N.
(2017) The use of mitigation devices in heritage learners of Chinese. Heritage Language Journal, 141, 150–170.
(1984) What does the Mandarin particle NE communicate?Cahiers de Linguistique – Asie Orientale, 321, 219–240.
Lin, W., Huang, H., & Liou, H.
(2013) The effects of text-based SCMC on SLA: A meta-analysis. Language Learning & Technology, 171, 123–142.
Nguyen, T. T. M.
(2013) Instructional effects on the acquisition of modifiers in constructive criticism by EFL learners. Language Awareness, 221, 76–94.
Satar, H., & Ozdener, N.
(2008) The effect of synchronous CMC on speaking proficiency and anxiety: Text versus voice-chat. The Modern Language Journal, 921, 595–613.
(2014) Understanding the Chinese language: A comprehensive linguistic introduction. London: Routledge.
(2010) Longitudinal studies in interlanguage pragmatics. In A. Trosborg (Ed.), Handbook of pragmatics, Vol.7: Pragmatics across languages and cultures (pp. 333–361). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
(2015a) “Contextually” speaking: A survey of pragmatic learning abroad, in class, and online. System, 481, 3–20.
(2015b) Instructed pragmatics at a glance: Where instructional studies were, are, and should be going. Language Teaching, 481, 1–50.
(2017) Interlanguage pragmatics: a historical sketch and future directions. In A. Barron, G. J. Steen, & Y. Gu (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of pragmatics. London: Routledge.
Taguchi, N., Li, Q., & Tang, X.
(2017) Learning Chinese formulaic expressions in a scenario-based interactive environment. Foreign Language Annals, 501, 641–660.
Taguchi, N., Naganuma, N., & Budding, C.
(2015) Does instruction alter the naturalistic pattern of pragmatic development? A case of request speech act. TESL-EJ, 191, 1–25.
Taguchi, N., Zhang, H., Li, Q.
(2017) Pragmatic competence of heritage learners of Chinese and its relationship to social contact. Chinese as a Second Language Research, 61, 7–37.
Vyatkina, N., & Belz, J. A.
(2006) A learner corpus-driven intervention for the development of L2 pragmatic competence. In K. Bardovi-Harlig, C. Félix-Brasdefer, & A. S. Omar (Eds.), Pragmatics and language learning (pp. 315–357). Honolulu, HI: University of Hawai’i, National Foreign Language Resource Center.
(2013) Acquisition of three Chinese sentence-final particles by English learners. Research on Chinese Teaching, 101, 61–88.
(2014) More than “Hello” and “Bye-bye”: Opening and closing the online chats in Mandarin Chinese. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 271, 528–54.
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