Article published in:Variation and change in the languages of Indonesia
Edited by Maya Ravindranath Abtahian and Abigail C. Cohn
[Asia-Pacific Language Variation 7:2] 2021
► pp. 120–141
Variation in Ampenan Sasak pronominal forms
This study investigates the variation of pronominal forms in Sasak, an Austronesian language spoken in eastern Indonesia. The study marks the first variationist sociolinguistic work on Sasak. Using data from eight conversations between 15 non-noble speakers, pronominal forms were coded for whether they were realized as a free pronoun or a clitic. Further, the discourse was examined to identify the referents and to observe the pragmatic effect of the forms used. The results show clitics dominate the distribution. Further, the results demonstrate that a higher percentage of clitics are preferred with the basic form for first person referents, but speakers apply a different strategy for second person referents; speakers use first person plural and third person singular forms to address their interlocutor when triggered by a Face Threatening Act (see Brown & Levinson, 1987).
Keywords: Sasak, free pronouns, clitics, language variation, politeness
Keywords: Sasak, pronomina bentuk bebas, klitik, variasi bahasa, kesopanan
Published online: 06 October 2021
Adger, David, & Trousdale, Graeme
Asikin-Garmager, Eli Scott
Austin, Peter. K.
(2004) Clitics in Sasak, Eastern Indonesia. Paper presented at Linguistics Association of Great Britain Annual Conference, Sheffield: SOAS Research Online.
[ p. 139 ]
(2014) Aksara Sasak, an endangered script and scribal practice. Paper presented at the International Workshop on Endangered Scripts of Island Southeast Asia, Tokyo, Japan. Retrieved August 30, 2016, from https://lingdy.aa-ken.jp/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/140227-intl-symp-and-ws_peter_k_austin_paper.pdf
Brown, Penelope, & Levinson, Stephen C.
Chen, Victoria, & McDonnell, Bradley
Djenar, Dwi Noverini
(2007) Self-reference and its variation in Indonesian. Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 4(1), 23–40. Retrieved February 2, 2019, from https://e-flt.nus.edu.sg/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/v4sp12007/djenar.pdf
Djenar, Dwi Noverini, & Ewing, Michael
Djenar, Dwi Noverini, Ewing, Michael, & Manns, Howard
Eberhard, David M., Simons, Gary F., & Fennig, Charles D.
(Eds) (2019) Ethnologue: Languages of the world (22nd ed.). Retrieved January 3, 2019, from https://www.ethnologue.com/
Enbe, Claudia Ruth, & Tobin, Yishai
Errington, J. Joseph
(2013) The pattern of Sasak word choice. Paper presented at International Conference on Education and Language, Bandar Lampung, Indonesia. Retrieved May 13, 2019, from http://artikel.ubl.ac.id/index.php/icel/article/view/201/201
Li, Xiaoshi[ p. 140 ]
Purwo, Bambang Kaswanti
Sneddon, James N.
Thomason, Sarah G., & Everett, Daniel L.
Wolff, John U., & Poedjosoedarmo, Soepomo
[ p. 141 ]