An interest in investigating the effect of instruction on interlanguage development prompted me to conduct a study on a small group of adult migrant learners of English. As a first step, the learners were assessed for their stage of syntactic development. This assessment showed that a structure-do-fronted questions – had not been acquired by some of the learners but was one for which they were syntactically ready. Because questioning is an important and complex speech act, the learners were then given instruction which focused their attention on do-fronting. The follow-up assessment indicated that instruction can be successful because the learners acquired do-fronting. The study supports the claim that form-focused instruction can make a difference. It also lends weight to Pienemann’s claim that the effectiveness of instruction depends on whether a structure is learnable for an individual learner. The study shows that form-focused instruction can provide an innovative linguistic focus to communicative language teaching and give important assistance with the second language acquisition of the learners.
(1991) An Introduction to Second Language Acquisition Research. New York, Longman.
Lightbown, P. M.
(1983) Exploring relationships between developmental and instructional sequences in L2 acquisition. In H. Seliger and M. Long (eds) Classroom oriented research on second language acquisition. Rowley Mass., Newbury House.
Lightbown, P. M. and N. Spada
(1990) Focus on form and corrective feedback in communicative language teaching: effects on second language learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 121: 429–448.
Long, M. H.
(1983) Does second language instruction make a difference? A review of research. TESOL Quarterly 17,3: 359–82
(1984) The acquisition of relative clauses in a formal and in an informal setting: further evidence in support of the markedness hypothesis. In D. Singleton, and D. Little, (eds) Language learning in formal and informal contexts. Dublin, IRAAL.
(1983) Adult acquisition of English as a second language under different conditions of exposure. Language Learning 33, 4: 465–497.
(1984a) Psychological constraints on the teachability of languages. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 6, 2:186–214.
(1984b) Learnability and syllabus construction. In K. Hyltenstam and M. Pienemann. (eds) Modelling and Assessing Second Language Acquisition. Clevedon, Multilingual Matters.
(1989) Is Language Teachable? Psycholinguistic Experiments and Hypotheses. Applied Linguistic s 10,1:52–79.
(1992) Assessing Second Language Acquisition Through Rapid Profile. LARC Occassional Papers 3.
Pienemann, M. and M. Johnston
(1987) Factors influencing the development of language proficiency. In D. Nunan (ed). Applying Second Language Acquisition Research. Adelaide, NCRC.
Pienemann, M., M. Johnston and G. Brindley
(1988) Constructing an acquisition-based procedure for second language assessment. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 10, 2:217–243.
Pienemann, M. and A. Mackey
(1992) An Empirical Study of Children’s ESL Development and Rapid Profile. In P. McKayESL Development:: Language and Literacy in Schools. National Languages and Literacy Institute of Australia: Canberra.
Pienemann, M.A. Mackey and I. Thornton
(1991) Rapid Profile. LARC Occasional Papers 2.
Spada, N. and P. Lightbown
(1993) Instruction and the development of questions in L2 classrooms. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 151:205–221.
White, L., N. Spada, P.M. Lightbown, and L. Ranta
(1991) Input enhancement and L2 question formation. Applied Linguistics 121:416–432.
This list is based on CrossRef data as of 14 may 2023. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers.
Any errors therein should be reported to them.