Article published In:
Australian Review of Applied Linguistics
Vol. 46:1 (2023) ► pp.7698
Angelo, D., & Schultze-Berndt, E.
(2016) Beware bambai – lest it be apprehensive. In F. Meakins & C. O’Shannessy (Eds.), Loss and renewal: Australian languages since colonisation (Vol. 131, pp. 254–296). De Gruyter Mouton. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Australian Bureau of Statistics
(2017) Ngukurr. Retrieved from [URL]
Bow, C.
(2019) Collaboratively designing an online course to teach an Australian Indigenous language at university. Babel, 54(1/2), 54–60.Google Scholar
Bow, C., Christie, M., & Devlin, B.
(2014) Developing a living archive of Aboriginal languages. Language Documentation & Conservation, 81, 345–360.Google Scholar
Carr, T., Wilkinson, M., & Stansell, P.
(2017) Language revitalisation in a bilingual program – The case of Numbulwar school. In B. C. Devlin, S. Disbray, & N. R. F. Devlin (Eds.), History of bilingual education in the Northern Territory (pp. 149–163). Springer. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Department of Infrastructure, Transport, Regional Development and Communications (DITRDC)
(2019) Indigenous Languages and Arts program 2020–21 Grant Guidelines. [URL]
Department of Infrastructure, Transport, Regional Development and Communication (DITRDC)
(2020) National Indigenous languages report. [URL].Google Scholar
Dickson, G.
(2015) Marra and Kriol: The loss and maintenance of knowledge across a language shift boundary [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Australian National University.Google Scholar
Eades, D.
(2005) Beyond difference and domination? Intercultural communication in legal contexts. In S. F. Kiesling & C. Bratt Paulston (Eds.), Intercultural discourse and communication: The essential readings (pp. 304–316). Blackwell Publishing. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
(2013) Aboriginal ways of using English. Aboriginal Studies Press.Google Scholar
Eades, D., & Siegel, J.
(1999) Changing attitudes towards Australian creoles and Aboriginal English. In J. R. Rickford & S. Romaine (Eds.), Creole genesis, attitudes and discourse: Studies celebrating Charlene J. Sato (pp. 265–277). John Benjamins Publishing Company. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Evans, N.
(2001) The last speaker is dead – Long live the last speaker! In P. Newman & M. Ratliff (Eds.), Linguistic fieldwork (pp. 250–281). Cambridge University Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Grinevald, C., & Bert, M.
(2011) Speakers and communities. In P. K. Austin & J. Sallabank (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of endangered languages (pp. 45–65). Cambridge University Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Harris, J.
(1986a) Creoles – new languages and an old debate. Journal of Christian Education, Papers 851, 9–22. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
(1986b) Northern Territory pidgins and the origin of Kriol. Pacific Linguistics.Google Scholar
Harris, J., & Sandefur, J.
(1984) The creole language debate and the use of creoles in Australian schools. The Australian Journal of Indigenous Education, 12(1), 8–29. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Hendy, C.
(2020) Tight budget, big dreams: Using university course credit in the creation of an online Kriol language course for English speakers. ANU Undergraduate Research Journal, 10(1), 18–27.Google Scholar
Kuck, M. H.
(2016) The reception in Jamaica of non-native speakers of Jamaican Creole. International Journal of Christianity and English Language Teaching 31, 6–35.Google Scholar
Marlow, M. L., & Giles, H.
(2007) Who you tink you, talkin propoah? Hawaiian Pidgin Demarginalised. Journal of Multicultural Discourses 2(2), 1–17.Google Scholar
Marmion, D., Obata, K., & Troy, J.
(2014) Community, identity, wellbeing: The report of the second National Indigenous Languages survey. Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies.Google Scholar
Meakins, F.
(2014) Language contact varieties. In H. Koch & R. Nordlinger (Eds.), The Languages and Linguistics of Australia: A comprehensive guide (pp. 365–416). Mouton. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Meehan, D.
(2017) Starting out at Bamyili: Factors specific to the development of the Kriol program. In B. Devlin, S. Disbray, & N. R. F. Devlin (Eds.), History of Bilingual Education in the Northern Territory (pp. 61–71). Springer. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Meigim Kriol Strongbala
(2021) Meigim Kriol Strongbala (website). [URL]
Munro, J.
(2000) Kriol on the move: A case of language spread and shift in Northern Australia. In J. Siegel (Ed.), Processes of language contact: Studies from Australia and the South Pacific (pp. 245–270). Les Editions Fides.Google Scholar
Nash, D.
(2008, October 4). Munanga. [URL]
Ngukurr Language Centre
(2020) Welcome to the Ngukurr Language Centre. Retrieved from [URL]
Nicholls, S.
(2011) Referring expressions and referential practice in Roper Kriol (Northern Territory, Australia) [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. University of New England.Google Scholar
(2013) Cultural scripts, social cognition and social interaction in Roper Kriol. Australian Journal of Linguistics, 33(3), 282–301. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Ober, R.
(2009) Both-ways: Learning from yesterday, celebrating today, strengthening tomorrow. Australian Journal of Indigenous Education, 381 (Supplementary), 34–39. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Ponsonnet, M.
(2010) ‘Brainwash from English’?: Barunga Kriol speakers’ views on their own language. Anthropological Linguistics, 52(2), 160–183. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
(2020) Difference and repetition in language shift to a creole: The expression of emotions. Routledge.Google Scholar
Rhydwen, M.
(1993) Kriol: The creation of a written language and a tool of colonisation. In M. Walsh & C. Yallop (Eds.), Language and culture in Aboriginal Australia (pp. 155–168). Aboriginal Studies Press.Google Scholar
(1995) Kriol is the color of Thursday. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 113(1), 113–120. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
(1998) Writing on the backs of the blacks: Voice, literacy and community in Kriol fieldwork. University of Queensland Press.Google Scholar
Sandefur, J. R.
(1979) An Australian creole in the Northern Territory: A description of Ngukurr-Bamyili dialects (Part 1). Summer Institute of Linguistics.Google Scholar
(1985) Aspects of the socio-political history of Ngukurr (Roper River) and its effect on language change. Aboriginal History Journal 91, 205–219.Google Scholar
(1986a) Kriol of North Australia: A language coming of age. Summer Institute of Linguistics.Google Scholar
(1986b) Mission life, mission education and the rise of a creole language. Journal of Christian Education, os-29 (1), 23–34. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Schultze-Berndt, E., Meakins, F., & Angelo, D.
(2013) Kriol. In S. Michaelis, P. Maurer, M. Haspelmath, & M. Huber (Eds.), Atlas of pidgin and creole structures: The language surveys (Vol. I1, pp. 241–251). Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Sellwood, J., & Angelo, D.
Siegel, J.
(1995) Special report: PACE in Australia. The Pidgins and Creoles in Education (PACE) Newsletter, 61, 8–15.Google Scholar
Simpson, J.
(2014) Teaching minority Indigenous languages at Australian universities. In P. Heinrich & N. Ostler (Eds.), Proceedings of the 18th FEL Conference (pp. 54–58). Foundation for Endangered Languages.Google Scholar
Simpson, J., Angelo, D., Browne, E., Kral, I., Markham, F., O’Shannessy, C., & Venn, D.
(2018) Census data on Australian Languages. In S. Drude, N. Ostler, & M. Moser (Eds.), Endangered languages and the land: Mapping landscapes of multilingualism. Proceedings of FEL XXII/2018 (pp. 115–120). FEL & EL Publishing.Google Scholar
Smith-Christmas, C., Ó Murchadha, N. P., Hornsby, M., & Moriarty, M.
(Eds.) (2018) New speakers of minority languages: Linguistic ideologies and practices. Palgrave Macmillan. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Te Huia, A.
(2016) Pākehā learners of Māori language responding to racism directed towards Māori. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 47(5), 734–750. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Uithol, E. M.
(2020) Sociolinguistics and insider/outsider status in Hawaiʻi. Linguistics Senior Research Projects, 231. [URL]
Yugul Mangi Development Aboriginal Corporation
(2019) Stronger Communities Program: Ngukurr progress report. Stronger Communities for Children, Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet.Google Scholar
Yunupingu, M.
(1989) Language and power: The Yolngu rise to power at Yirrkala School. Ngoonjook, 21, 1–6.Google Scholar