Article published in:Language and Citizenship: Broadening the agenda
Edited by Tommaso M. Milani
[Benjamins Current Topics 91] 2017
► pp. 17–40
Integration in Flanders (Belgium) – Citizenship as achievement
How intertwined are ‘citizenship’ and ‘integration’ in Flemish language policies?
In this article we will show, with Flanders (Belgium) as a concrete case, how intertwined integration and citizenship discourses and policies have become in contemporary super-diverse societies. Flanders is a clear example of how integration is gradually being replaced by virtual or moral citizenship. The fact that (moral) citizenship has replaced integration, has as a consequence that the concept of citizenship has shifted, in a subtle way, from a dynamic and contextualized process, which shapes itself in daily practice through social networks, into ‘citizenship as achievement’. This is an achievement that is the sole responsibility of certain groups in society. It is also an impossible achievement, because some are exempt from it and others will always be perceived as not yet belonging to the category of ‘true citizens’.
Keywords: language and integration policies, language ideologies, moral citizenship, social networks, super diversity
Published online: 09 June 2017