Chapter published in:
Prediction in Second Language Processing and Learning
Edited by Edith Kaan and Theres Grüter
[Bilingual Processing and Acquisition 12] 2021
► pp. 208231


Bar, M.
(2007) The proactive brain: Using analogies and associations to generate predictions. Trends in Cognitive Science, 11(7), 280–289. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bernolet, S., Hartsuiker, R. J., & Pickering, M. J.
(2013) From language-specific to shared syntactic representations: The influence of second language proficiency on syntactic sharing in bilinguals. Cognition, 127(3), 287–306. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bock, K.
(1986) Syntactic persistence in language production. Cognitive Psychology, 18(3), 355–387. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bock, K., & Griffin, Z. M.
(2000) The persistence of structural priming: Transient activation or implicit learning? Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 129(2), 177–192. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Brothers, T., Swaab, T. Y., & Traxler, M. J.
(2017) Goals and strategies influence lexical prediction during sentence comprehension. Journal of Memory and Language, 93, 203–216. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Brown, J. D.
(1980) Relative merits of four methods for scoring cloze tests. The Modern Language Journal, 64(3), 311–317. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Brown, J. D., & Grüter, T.
(2020) The same cloze for all occasions? Using the Brown (1980) cloze test for measuring proficiency in SLA research. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching. Advance online publication. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Chambers, C. G., & Cooke, H.
(2009) Lexical competition during second-language listening: Sentence context, but not proficiency, constrains interference from the native lexicon. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 35(4), 1029–1040. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Chang, F., Dell, G. S., & Bock, K.
(2006) Becoming syntactic. Psychological Review, 113(2), 234–272. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Clark, A.
(2013) Whatever next? Predictive brains, situated agents, and the future of cognitive science. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 36(3), 181–204. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Dell, G. S., & Chang, F.
(2014) The P-chain: Relating sentence production and its disorders to comprehension and acquisition. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 369(1634), Article 20120394. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Dijkgraaf, A., Hartsuiker, R., & Duyck, W.
(2017) Predicting upcoming information in native-language and non-native-language auditory word recognition. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 20(5), 917–930. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Dussias, P. E., Valdés Kroff, J. R., Guzzardo Tamargo, R. E., & Gerfen, C.
(2013) When gender and looking go hand in hand: Grammatical gender processing in L2 Spanish. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 35(2), 353–387. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Ferreira, F., & Chantavarin, S.
(2018) Integration and prediction in language processing: A synthesis of old and new. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 27(6), 443–448. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Ferreira, F., Foucart, A., & Engelhardt, P. E.
(2013) Language processing in the visual world: Effects of preview, visual complexity, and prediction. Journal of Memory and Language, 69(3), 165–182. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Ferreira, V. S., Bock, J. K., Wilson, M. P., & Cohen, N. J.
(2008) Memory for syntax despite amnesia. Psychological Science, 19(9), 940–946. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Grüter, T., Lew-Williams, C., & Fernald, A.
(2012) Grammatical gender in L2: A production or a real-time processing problem? Second Language Research, 28(2), 191–215. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Grüter, T., Rohde, H., & Schafer, A. J.
(2017) Coreference and discourse coherence in L2: The roles of grammatical aspect and referential form. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 7(2), 199–229. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Hartsuiker, R. J., & Bernolet, S.
(2017) The development of shared syntax in second language learning. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 20(2), 219–234. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Hartsuiker, R. J., & Westenberg, C.
(2000) Word order priming in written and spoken sentence production. Cognition, 75(2), B27–B39. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Holcomb, P. J.
(1988) Automatic and attentional processing: An event-related brain potential analysis of semantic priming. Brain and Language, 35(1), 66–85. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Hopp, H.
(2013) Grammatical gender in adult L2 acquisition: Relations between lexical and syntactic variability. Second Language Research, 29(1), 33–56. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2015) Semantics and morphosyntax in L2 predictive sentence processing. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 53(3), 277–306. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Huettig, F.
(2015) Four central questions about prediction in language processing. Brain Research, 1626, 118–135. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Huettig, F., & Pickering, M. J.
(2019) Literacy advantages beyond reading: Prediction of spoken language. Trends in Cognitive Science, 23(6), 464–475. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Ito, A., Martin, A. E., & Nieuwland, M. S.
(2017) On predicting form and meaning in a second language. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 43(4), 635–652. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Ito, A., Corley, M., & Pickering, M. J.
(2018) A cognitive load delays predictive eye movements similarly during L1 and L2 comprehension. Bilingualism, Language and Cognition, 21(2), 251–264. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Jackson, C. N.
(2018) Second language structural priming: A critical review and directions for future research. Second Language Research, 34(4), 539–552. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Jackson, C. N., & Hopp, H.
(2020) Prediction error and implicit learning in L1 and L2 syntactic priming. International Journal of Bilingualism, 24(5–6), 895–911. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Jackson, C. N., & Ruf, H. T.
(2018) The importance of prime repetition among intermediate-level second language learners. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 40(3), 677–692. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Jaeger, T. F., & Snider, N. E.
(2013) Alignment as a consequence of expectation adaptation: Syntactic priming is affected by the prime’s prediction error given both prior and recent experience. Cognition, 127(1), 57–83. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Kaan, E.
(2014) Predictive sentence processing in L2 and L1: What is different? Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 4(2), 257–282. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Kaan, E., & Chun, E.
(2018) Priming and adaptation in native speakers and second-language learners. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 21(2), 228–242. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Kaan, E., Dallas, A. C., & Wijnen, F.
(2010) Syntactic predictions in second-language sentence processing. In C. J.-W. Zwart & M. de Vries (Eds.), Structure preserved: Studies in syntax for Jan Koster (pp. 207–213). John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Kaschak, M. P., Kutta, T. J., & Coyle, J. M.
(2014) Long and short term cumulative structural priming effects. Language, Cognition and Neuroscience, 29(6), 728–743. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Kaschak, M. P., Kutta, T. J., & Schatschneider, C.
(2011) Long-term cumulative structural priming persists for (at least) one week. Memory & Cognition, 39(3), 381–388. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Kim, H., & Grüter, T.
(2021) Predictive processing of implicit causality in a second language: a visual-world eye-tracking study. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 43(1), 133–154. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Kim, Y., & McDonough, K.
(2008) Learners’ production of passives during syntactic priming activities. Applied Linguistics, 29(1), 149–154. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Kuznetsova, A., Brockhoff, P. B., Christensen, R. H. B.
(2017) lmerTest Package: Tests in linear mixed effects models. Journal of Statistical Software, 82(13), 1–26. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Lau, E. F., Holcomb, P. J., & Kuperberg, G. R.
(2013) Dissociating N400 effects of prediction from association in single-word contexts. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 25(3), 484–502. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Long, J. A.
(2019) interactions: Comprehensive, user-friendly toolkit for probing interactions (R package version 1.1.0) [Computer software]. https://​cran​.r​-project​.org​/package​=interactions
Lupyan, G., & Clark, A.
(2015) Words and the world: Predictive coding and the language-perception-cognition interface. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 24(4), 279–284. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Martin, C. D., Thierry, G., Kuipers, J., Boutonnet, B., Foucart, A., & Costa, A.
(2013) Bilinguals reading in their second language do not predict upcoming words as native readers do. Journal of Memory and Language, 69(4), 574–588. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
McDonough, K.
(2006) Interaction and syntactic priming: English L2 speakers’ production of dative constructions. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 28(2), 179–207. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
McDonough, K., & Chaikitmongkol, W.
(2010) Collaborative syntactic priming activities and EFL learners’ production of wh-questions. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 66(6), 817–42. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
McDonough, K., & Fulga, A.
(2015) The detection and primed production of novel constructions. Language Learning, 65(2), 326–357. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Meijs, E. L., Slagter, H. A., de Lange, F. P., & van Gaal, S.
(2018) Dynamic interactions between top–down expectations and conscious awareness. The Journal of Neuroscience, 38(9), 2318–2327. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Mishra, R. K., Singh, N., Pandey, A., & Huettig, F.
(2012) Spoken language-mediated anticipatory eye movements are modulated by reading ability: Evidence from Indian low and high literates. Journal of Eye Movement Research, 5(1), 1–10. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Mitsugi, S.
(2018) Generating predictions based on semantic categories in a second language: A case of numeral classifiers in Japanese. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 58(3), 323–349. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Mitsugi, S., & MacWhinney, B.
(2016) The use of case marking for predictive processing in second language Japanese. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 19(1), 19–35. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Myslín, M., & Levy, R.
(2016) Comprehension priming as rational expectation for repetition: Evidence from syntactic processing. Cognition, 147, 29–56. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Peirce, J., Gray, J. R., Simpson, S., MacAskill, M., Höchenberger, R., Sogo, H., Kastman, E., & Lindeløv, J. K.
(2019) PsychoPy2: Experiments in behavior made easy. Behavior Research Methods, 51(1), 195–203. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Peters, R. E., Grüter, T., & Borovsky, A.
(2018) Vocabulary size and native speaker self-identification influence flexibility in linguistic prediction among adult bilinguals. Applied Psycholinguistics, 39(6), 1439–1469. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Pickering, M. J., & Branigan, H. P.
(1998) The representation of verbs: Evidence from syntactic priming in language production. Journal of Memory and Language, 39(4), 633–651. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Pickering, M. J., & Ferreira, V. S.
(2008) Structural priming: A critical review. Psychological Bulletin, 134(3), 427–459. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Pickering, M. J., & Gambi, C.
(2018) Predicting while comprehending language: A theory and review. Psychological Bulletin, 144(10), 1002–1044. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Potts, R., Davies, G., & Shanks, D. R.
(2019) The benefit of generating errors during learning: what is the locus of the effect? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 45(6), 1023–1041. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
R Core Team
(2019) R: A language and environment for statistical computing [Computer Software]. R Foundation for Statistical Computing. https://​www​.R​-project​.org
Rescorla, R. A., & Wagner, A. R.
(1972) A theory of Pavlovian conditioning: Variations in the effectiveness of reinforcement and nonreinforcement. In W. E. Prokasy & A. H. Black (Eds.), Classical conditioning II: Current research and theory (pp. 64–99). Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
Schoonbaert, S., Hartsuiker, R. J., & Pickering, M. J.
(2007) The representation of lexical and syntactic information in bilinguals: Evidence from syntactic priming. Journal of Memory and Language, 56(2), 153–171. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Shin, J. A., & Christianson, K.
(2012) Syntactic processing in Korean-English: Evidence from cross-linguistic structural priming. Cognition, 112(1), 175–180. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Sorensen, D. W., & Bailey, K. G. D.
(2007) The world is too much: Effects of array size on the link between language comprehension and eye movements. Visual Cognition, 15(1), 112–115. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Van Gompel, R. P., & Arai, M.
(2018) Structural priming in bilinguals. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 21(3), 448–455. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Wlotko, E. W., Federmeier, K. D., & Kutas, M.
(2012) To predict or not to predict: Age-related differences in the use of sentential context. Psychology and Aging, 27(4), 975–988. CrossrefGoogle Scholar