Edited by Alessandro G. Benati and John W. Schwieter
[Bilingual Processing and Acquisition 14] 2022
► pp. 127–142
Long’s Interaction Hypothesis (1981, 1983) provides a theoretical framework for understanding how interaction can contribute to second language (L2) acquisition. Specifically, negative feedback provided during interaction is viewed as a feature that can facilitate L2 development by drawing learners’ attention to problematic forms (Long, 1996). Long’s influential hypotheses were originally formulated in the context of face-to-face conversational interaction and, therefore, negative feedback was understood as feedback that is provided immediately to the learner in oral conversation. However, negative feedback cannot always be provided immediately to L2 learners. In distance language learning settings where the L2 is learned online and where communication between learner and instructor may take place asynchronously, feedback cannot be provided during a communicative task and it is provided at a later time, for example, at the end of a teaching unit.