Akhtar, N., & Menjivar, J
(2012) Cognitive and linguistic correlates of early exposure to more than one language. Advances in Child Development and Behavior, 42, 41-78. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Anderson, P
(2002) Assessment and development of executive function (EF) during childhood. Child Neuropsychology, 8(2), 71-82. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Anton, E., Duñabeitia, J., Estevez, A., Hernandez, J., Castillo, A., Fuentes, L., … Carreiras, M
(2014) Is there a bilingual advantage in the ANT task? Evidence from children. Frontiers in Psychology, 5.Google Scholar
Baker, D., Eslinger, P., Benavides, M., Peters, E., Dieckmann, N., & Leon, J
(2015) The cognitive impact of the education revolution: A possible cause of the Flynn Effect on population IQ. Intelligence, 49, 144-158. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Barac, R., Bialystok, E., Castro, D., & Sanchez, M
(2014) The cognitive development of young dual language learners: A critical review. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 29(4), 699-714. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Bedore, L., Pena, E., Summers, C., Boerger, K., Resendiz, M., Greene, K., … Gillam, R
(2012) The measure matters: Language dominance profiles across measures in Spanish-English bilingual children. Bilingualism-Language and Cognition, 15(3), 616-629. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Berguno, G., & Bowler, D
(2004) Communicative interactions, knowledge of a second language, and theory of mind in young children. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 165(3), 293-309. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Best, J., & Miller, P
(2010) A developmental perspective on executive function. Child Development, 81(6), 1641-1660. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Bialystok, E
(2010) Global-local and trail-making tasks by monolingual and bilingual children: Beyond inhibition. Developmental Psychology, 46(1), 93-105. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Bialystok, E., & Barac, R
(2012) Emerging bilingualism: Dissociating advantages for metalinguistic awareness and executive control. Cognition, 122(1), 67-73. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Bialystok, E., & Feng, X
(2009) Language proficiency and executive control in proactive interference: Evidence from monolingual and bilingual children and adults. Brain and Language, 109(2-3), 93-100. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Bialystok, E., & Viswanathan, M
(2009) Components of executive control with advantages for bilingual children in two cultures. Cognition, 112(3), 494-500. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Blackwell, K., Chatham, C., Wiseheart, M., & Munakata, Y
(2014) A developmental window into trade-offs in executive function: The case of task switching versus response inhibition in 6-year-olds. Neuropsychologia, 62, 356-364. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Blair, C., Granger, D., & Razza, R
(2005) Cortisol reactivity is positively related to executive function in preschool children attending Head Start. Child Development, 76(3), 554-567. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Bogulski, C., Rakoczy, M., Goodman, M., & Bialystok, E
(2015) Executive control in fluent and lapsed bilinguals. Bilingualism-Language and Cognition, 18(3), 561-567. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Buac, M., & Kaushanskaya, M
(2014) The relationship between linguistic and non-linguistic cognitive control skills in bilingual children from low socio-economic backgrounds. Frontiers in Psychology, 5. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Calvo, A., & Bialystok, E
(2014) Independent effects of bilingualism and socioeconomic status on language ability and executive functioning. Cognition, 130(3), 278-288. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Carlson, S., & Meltzoff, A
(2008) Bilingual experience and executive functioning in young children. Developmental Science, 11(2), 282-298. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Colombo, J
(2001) The development of visual attention in infancy. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 337-367. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Diamond, A
(2013) Executive functions. Annual Review of Psychology, 64(1), 135-168. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Dijkstra, T., & Van Heuven, V
(2002) The architecture of the bilingual word recognition system: From identification to decision. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 5(3), 175-97.Google Scholar
Duñabeitia, J., Hernández, J., Antón, E., Macizo, P., Estévez, A., Fuentes, L., & Carreiras, M
(2014) The inhibitory advantage in bilingual children revisited: Myth or reality? Experimental Psychology, 61(3), 234-251. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Esposito, A., Baker-Ward, L., & Mueller, S
(2013) Interference suppression vs. response inhibition: An explanation for the absence of a bilingual advantage in preschoolers’ Stroop Task performance. Cognitive Development, 28(4), 354-363. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Evans, G., & Kim, P
(2013) Childhood poverty, chronic stress, self-regulation, and coping. Child Development Perspectives, 7(1), 43-48. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Farah, M., Shera, D., Savage, J., Betancourt, L., Giannetta, J., Brodsky, N., … Hurt, H
(2006) Childhood poverty: Specific associations with neurocognitive development. Brain Research, 1110, 166-174. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Filippi, R., Morris, J., Richardson, F., Bright, P., Thomas, M., Karmiloff-Smith, A., & Marian, V
(2015) Bilingual children show an advantage in controlling verbal interference during spoken language comprehension. Bilingualism-Language and Cognition, 18(3), 490-501. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Friedman, S., Scholnick, E., Bender, R., Vandergrift, N., Spieker, S., Hirsh Pasek, KThe NICHD Early Child Care Research Network
… (2014) Planning in middle childhood: Early predictors and later outcomes. Child Development, 85(4), 1446-1460. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Friesen, D., Latman, V., Calvo, A., & Bialystok, E
(2015) Attention during visual search: The benefit of bilingualism. International Journal of Bilingualism, 19(6), 693-702. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Gandolfi, E., Viterbori, P., Traverso, L., & Usai, M
(2014) Inhibitory processes in toddlers: A latent-variable approach. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 381. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Garon, N., Bryson, S., & Smith, I
(2008) Executive function in preschoolers: A review using an integrative framework. Psychological Bulletin, 134(1), 31-60. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Green, D., & Abutalebi, J
(2013) Language control in bilinguals: The adaptive control hypothesis. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 25(5), 515-530. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Grosjean, F., & Li, P
(2013) The Psycholinguistics of Bilingualism. New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
Hackman, D., Gallop, R., Evans, G., & Farah, M
(2015) Socioeconomic status and executive function: Developmental trajectories and mediation. Developmental Science, 18(5), 686-702. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Hilchey, M., & Klein, R.M
(2011) Are there bilingual advantages on nonlinguistic interference tasks? Implications for the plasticity of executive control processes. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 18(4), 625-658. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Hughes, C
(2013) Chapter 24 Executive function: Development, individual differences, and clinical insights. In J. Rakic (Ed.), Neural circuit development and function in the brain (pp. 429-445). Oxford, UK: Academic Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Hughes, C., & Ensor, R
(2005) Executive function and theory of mind in 2 year olds: A family affair? Developmental Neuropsychology, 28(2), 645-668. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Hughes, C., Ensor, R., Wilson, A., & Graham, A
(2010) Tracking executive function across the transition to school: A latent variable approach. Developmental Neuropsychology, 35(1), 20-36. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Kalashnikova, M., & Mattock, K
(2014) Maturation of executive functioning skills in early sequential bilingualism. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 17(1), 111-123. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Kapa, L., & Colombo, J
(2013) Attentional control in early and later bilingual children. Cognitive Development, 28(3), 233-246. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Kaufman, A., Kaufman, NAmerican Guidance Service
., & (Firm) (2004) KBIT2 Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test. Circle Pines, MN: AGS Publishing.Google Scholar
Kovacs, A
(2007)  Beyond Language: Childhood Bilingualism Enhances High-Level Cognitive Functions . In I. Kecskes & L. Albertazzi (Eds.), Cognitive aspects of bilingualism (pp. 301-324). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Kroll, J., & Bialystok, E
(2013) Understanding the consequences of bilingualism for language processing and cognition. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 25(5), 497-514. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Kroll, J., & Stewart, E
(1994) Category interference in translation and picture naming: Evidence for asymmetric connections between bilingual memory representations. Journal of Memory and Language, 33(2), 149-174. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Kroll, J., & Tokowicz, N
(2005) Models of bilingual representation and processing. In Handbook of bilingualism: Psycholinguistic approaches (pp. 531-553). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Kuipers, J.-R., & Thierry, G
(2013) ERP-pupil size correlations reveal how bilingualism enhances cognitive flexibility. Cortex, 49(10), 2853-2860. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Ladas, A., Carroll, D., & Vivas, A
(2015) Attentional processes in low-socioeconomic status bilingual children: Are they modulated by the amount of bilingual experience? Child Development, 86(2), 557-578. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Luk, G., & Bialystok, E
(2013) Bilingualism is not a categorical variable: Interaction between language proficiency and usage. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 25(5), 605-621. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Luk, G., De Sa, E., & Bialystok, E
(2011) Is there a relation between onset age of bilingualism and enhancement of cognitive control? Bilingualism-Language and Cognition, 14(4), 588-595. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Martin-Rhee, M., & Bialystok, E
(2008) The development of two types of inhibitory control in monolingual and bilingual children. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 11(1), 81-93. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Mezzacappa, E
(2004) Alerting, orienting, and executive attention: Developmental properties and sociodemographic correlates in an epidemiological sample of young, urban children. Child Development, 75(5), 1373-1386. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Miyake, A., & Friedman, N
(2012) The nature and organization of individual differences in executive functions, four general conclusions. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21(1), 8-14. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Miyake, A., Friedman, N., Emerson, M., Witzki, A., Howerter, A., & Wager, T
(2000) The unity and diversity of executive functions and their contributions to complex “frontal lobe” tasks: A latent variable analysis. Cognitive Psychology, 41(1), 49-100. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Nguyen, T.-K., & Astington, J
(2014) Reassessing the bilingual advantage in theory of mind and its cognitive underpinnings. Bilingualism-Language and Cognition, 17(2), 396-409. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Nicolay, A.-C., & Poncelet, M
(2013) Cognitive advantage in children enrolled in a second-language immersion elementary school program for three years. Bilingualism-Language and Cognition, 16(3), 597-607. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Peirce, J
(2007) PsychoPy-Psychophysics software in Python. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 162(1-2), 8-13. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Poarch, G., & Bialystok, E
(2015) Bilingualism as a model for multitasking. Developmental Review, 35, 113-124. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Poarch, G., & van Hell, J
(2012) Executive functions and inhibitory control in multilingual children: Evidence from second-language learners, bilinguals, and trilinguals. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 113(4), 535-551. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Posner, M., Rothbart, M., & Rueda, M
(2013) Chapter 22 Developing attention and self-regulation in infancy and childhood. In J. Rakic (Ed.), Neural circuit development and function in the brain (pp. 395-411). Oxford, UK: Academic Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Rueda, M
(2013) Development of attention. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Rueda, M., Fan, J., McCandliss, B., Halparin, J., Gruber, D., Lercari, L., & Posner, M
(2004) Development of attentional networks in childhood. Neuropsychologia, 42(8), 1029-1040. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Skibbe, L., Connor, C., Morrison, F., & Jewkes, A
(2011) Schooling effects on preschoolers’ self-regulation, early literacy, and language growth. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 26(1), 42-49. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Tao, L., Taft, M., & Gollan, T
(2015) The bilingual switching advantage: Sometimes related to bilingual proficiency, sometimes not. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 21(7), 531-544. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Tse, C.-S., & Altarriba, J
(2014) The relationship between language proficiency and attentional control in Cantonese-English bilingual children: Evidence from Simon, Simon switching, and working memory tasks. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 954.Google Scholar
Vega, C., & Fernandez, M
(2011) Errors on the WCST correlate with language proficiency scores in Spanish-English bilingual children. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 26(2), 158-164. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Wiebe, S
(2014) Modeling the emergent executive: Implications for the structure and development of executive function. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 79(2), 104-115. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Wiebe, S., Sheffield, T., Nelson, J., Clark, C., Chevalier, N., & Espy, K
(2011) The structure of executive function in 3-year-olds. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 108(3), 436-452. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Wiig, E., Secord, W., & Semel, E
(2004) CELF Preschool 2, Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals Preschool. San Antonio, TX: Pearson.Google Scholar
Yeniad, N., Malda, M., Mesman, J., van Ijzendoorn, M., Emmen, R., & Prevoo, M
(2014) Cognitive flexibility children across the transition to school: A longitudinal study. Cognitive Development, 31, 35-47. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Cited by

Cited by 8 other publications

Bialystok, Ellen
2021. Bilingualism as a Slice of Swiss Cheese. Frontiers in Psychology 12 DOI logo
Luk, Gigi & Judith F. Kroll
2019. Bilingualism and Education. In The Cambridge Handbook of Cognition and Education,  pp. 292 ff. DOI logo
Oh, Julie H. J., Armando Bertone & Gigi Luk
2023. Multilingual experience and executive functions among children and adolescents in a multilingual city. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 26:2  pp. 158 ff. DOI logo
Shorbagi, Sadek Hefni, Claudia Dias Martins & Ellen Bialystok
2022. Acquiring the language of instruction: Effect of home language experience. Applied Psycholinguistics 43:2  pp. 463 ff. DOI logo
Smith, Sara Ashley, Jessica G Briggs & Holly Pothier
2018. Exploring variation in reading comprehension among young adult Spanish–English bilinguals: The role of environmental language contact and attitudes toward reading. International Journal of Bilingualism 22:6  pp. 695 ff. DOI logo
Smith, Sara Ashley, Jessica G Briggs, Holly Pothier & Jorge Nicholas Garcia
2019. ‘Mental Workouts for Couch Potatoes’: Executive Function Variation among Spanish–English Bilingual Young Adults. Applied Linguistics 40:3  pp. 413 ff. DOI logo
Verhagen, Josje, Elise de Bree & Sharon Unsworth
2020. Effects of Bilingual Language Use and Language Proficiency on 24-month-olds’ Cognitive Control. Journal of Cognition and Development 21:1  pp. 46 ff. DOI logo
Whitford, Veronica & Gigi Luk
2019. Chapter 5. Comparing executive functions in monolinguals and bilinguals. In Bilingualism, Executive Function, and Beyond [Studies in Bilingualism, 57],  pp. 67 ff. DOI logo

This list is based on CrossRef data as of 12 march 2023. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers. Any errors therein should be reported to them.