Principles of Generative Phonology

An introduction

| University of Ottawa
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Principles of Generative Phonology is a basic, thorough introduction to phonological theory and practice. It aims to provide a firm foundation in the theory of distinctive features, phonological rules and rule ordering, which is essential to be able to appreciate recent developments and discussions in phonological theory.

Chapter 1 is a review of phonetics; chapter 2 discusses contrast and distribution, with emphasis on rules as the mechanism for describing distributions; chapter 3 introduces distinctive features, natural classes, and redundancy; chapter 4 builds on the concept of rules and shows how these can account for alternations; chapter 5 demonstrates the use of rule ordering; chapter 6 discusses abstractness and underlying representations; chapter 7 discusses post-SPE developments, serving as a prelude to more advanced texts.

Each chapter includes exercises to guide the student in the application of the principles introduced in that chapter and to encourage thinking about theoretical issues. The text has been classroom tested.
[Current Issues in Linguistic Theory, 250]  2004.  xii, 324 pp.
Publishing status: Available
Table of Contents
Preface
ix
1. Phonetics
1
1.1 Articulatory phonetics
2
1.1.1 Consonants
4
1.1.2 Vowels
12
1.1.3 Suprasegmentals
16
1.1.4 Broad and narrow transcription
16
1.2 Acoustic phonetics
17
1.3 Phonetic alphabets
26
1.3.1 The IPA
27
1.3.2 Problems with the IPA
29
1.3.3 Compromise adopted in this book
30
1.4 Exercises
33
2. Contrast and Distribution
37
2.1 Complementary distribution
37
2.2 Coincident distribution
44
2.3 Overlapping distribution
45
2.4 Pattern congruity
47
2.5 Free variation
50
2.6 Phonological rules and notations
53
2.7 Common types of phonological processes
55
2.7.1 Assimilation
55
2.7.2 Dissimilation
55
2.7.3 Lenition
56
2.7.4 Fortition
57
2.7.5 Insertions
57
2.7.6 Deletions
57
2.7.7 Lengthening
58
2.7.8 Compensatory lengthening
59
2.7.9 Shortening
59
2.8 Problems with phonemic analysis
60
2.8.1 Neutralization
60
2.8.2 Pattern congruity
63
2.9 Summary
64
2.10 Exercises
66
3. Distinctive features
79
3.1 Features as smallest building blocks
79
3.2 Binary distinctions
79
3.3 Further vowel features
85
3.4 Major classes: major class features
89
3.5 Features of consonants
91
3.5.1 Voicing and aspiration
92
3.5.2 Manner of articulation
93
3.5.3 Place of articulation
95
3.6 Secondary articulation of consonants
99
3.7 Features for suprasegmentals
100
3.8 Redundancy and implications
100
3.9 Exercises
107
4. Alternations
113
4.1 Alternations as phonology
113
4.2 Morphology
114
4.3 Russian devoicing
115
4.4 More on phonological rules
119
4.5 ATR harmony
121
4.6 Spanish lenition; Fortition and nasal assimilation in Lumasaaba
125
4.7 Steps in phonological analysis
131
4.8 Writing up the analysis
133
4.9 Further rule writing conventions and abbreviatory devices
134
4.9.1 Curly braces
134
4.9.2 Parentheses
135
4.9.3 Greek letter variables
137
4.9.4 Angled bracket notation
139
4.9.5 Mirror image rules
142
4.9.6 Transformational rules
142
4.10 Exercises
144
5. Rule order
153
5.1 Russian
153
5.2 Methodology: discovering rule order
158
5.3 Formulation of the ordered rule hypothesis
159
5.4 Iterative rules
161
5.5 Spanish r-sounds
167
5.6 Yawelmani
173
5.6.1 Vowel Shortening and Epenthesis
173
5.6.2 Vowel Harmony
176
5.6.3 Some additional rules
183
5.7 Rule ordering relationships
189
5.7.1 Feeding order
190
5.7.2 Bleeding order
190
5.7.3 Counterfeeding order
192
5.7.4 Counterbleeding order
194
5.7.5 Mutually bleeding order
194
5.7.6 Opacity
195
5.8 Exercises
196
6. Abstractness
207
6.1 Phonetic representations
207
6.2 The null hypothesis
207
6.3 Two levels of representation
209
6.4 The simplicity criterion
212
6.5 The naturalness condition
215
6.6 Degrees of abstractness in underlying representations
217
6.6.1 Concrete underlying representations
217
6.6.2 Underlying representation as one of the phonetic alternants
218
6.6.3 Morphemes with several alternations
219
6.6.4 More abstract underlying representations
222
6.6.5 Limits on abstractness
228
6.7 Corpus-external evidence
230
6.7.1 Speech errors
231
6.7.2 Second language acquisition
231
6.7.3 Writing systems
232
6.7.4 Language games
233
6.7.5 Poetry
237
6.7.6 Language change
246
6.7.7 Maori
252
6.8 Exercises
254
7. Multilinear phonology
263
7.1 Autosegmental phonology
263
7.1.1 Tone
263
7.1.2 Vowel harmony
268
7.1.3 Stability
271
7.2 Metrical and prosodic phonology
272
7.2.1 Metrical syllable structure
273
7.2.2 Metrical stress
278
7.2.3 Higher metrical units
282
7.3 Underspecification
289
7.4 Lexical phonology
297
7.5 Exercises
305
References
309
Index
319
“[...] an abundance of well laid-out exercises at the end of every chapter. [...] Jensen's discussions on how to analyze and good argumentation are excellent models to train students.”
Subjects
BIC Subject: CF – Linguistics
BISAC Subject: LAN009000 – LANGUAGE ARTS & DISCIPLINES / Linguistics / General
U.S. Library of Congress Control Number:  2004048608
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