Beyond ‘Khoisan’

Historical relations in the Kalahari Basin

Editors
| Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin & Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology Leipzig
| Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin & Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology Leipzig
HardboundAvailable
ISBN 9789027248497 | EUR 105.00 | USD 158.00
 
e-Book
ISBN 9789027269928 | EUR 105.00 | USD 158.00
 
Greenberg’s (1954) concept of a ‘Khoisan’ language family, while heartily embraced by non-specialists, has been harshly criticized by linguists working on these languages. Evidence for Greenberg's hypothesis has proved to be seriously insufficient and little progress has been made in the intervening years in substantiating his claim by means of the standard comparative method. This volume goes beyond “Khoisan” in the linguistic sense by exploring a more complex history that includes multiple and widespread events of language contact in southern Africa epitomized in the areal concept ‘Kalahari Basin’. The papers contained herein present new data on languages from all three relevant lineages, Tuu, Kx’a and Khoe-Kwadi, complemented by non-linguistic research from molecular and cultural anthropology. A recurrent theme is to disentangle genealogical and areal historical relations — a major challenge for historical linguistics in general. The multi-disciplinary approach reflected in this volume strengthens the hypothesis that Greenberg’s “Southern African Khoisan” is better explained in terms of complex linguistic, cultural and genetic convergence.
[Current Issues in Linguistic Theory, 330]  2014.  xii, 331 pp.
Publishing status: Available
Table of Contents
Foreword and acknowledgments
ix–x
Abbreviations
xi–xii
‘Khoisan’ linguistic classification today
Tom Güldemann
1–40
PART I. Cross-areal perspectives
Molecular anthropological perspectives on the Kalahari Basin area
Brigitte Pakendorf
45–68
‘Khoisan’ sibling terminologies in historical perspective: A combined anthropological, linguistic and phylogenetic comparative approach
Gertrud Boden, Tom Güldemann and Fiona Jordan
69–102
Clicks, prosodies and Khoisan
Edward D. Elderkin
103–124
PART II. The Khoe-Kwadi family
Verb serialisation in northern dialects of Khoekhoegowab: Convergence or divergence?
Wilfrid Haacke
125–152
Areal and inherited aspects of compound verbs in Khoekhoe
Christian J. Rapold
153–180
PART III. The Kx’a family
Demonstrative and relative constructions in Ju: A diachronic account
Florian Lionnet
181–209
N!aqriaxe (ǂ’Amkoe) spatial terms from a genealogical and areal perspective
Linda Gerlach and Falko Berthold
209–232
ǂ’Amkoe body part terminology in comparative perspective
Bonny Sands and Henry Honken
233–256
PART IV. The Tuu family
The Lower Nossob varieties of Tuu: !Ui, Taa or neither?
Tom Güldemann
257–282
Towards a genealogical classification of Taa dialects
Christfried Naumann
283–302
Master list of references
303–324
Language (group) index
325–329
Subject index
329–331
“This well-designed and data-rich book is a most welcome addition to the literature, and will undoubtedly stimulate a vibrant debate. [...] [T]he book may become a catalyst for a new phase of informed and progressive multidisciplinary research touching on the pre-colonial past of southern Africa.”
References

Master list of references

Aikhenvald, Alexandra Y.
2006a “Grammars in Contact: A cross-linguistic perspective”. Grammars in Contact: A cross-linguistic typology ed. by Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald & Robert M.W. Dixon (= Explorations in Linguistic Typology, 4), 1–66. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
2006b “Serial Verb Constructions in Typological Perspective”.
Aikhenvald & Dixon, eds. 2006, 1–68.
Aikhenvald, Alexandra Y. & Robert M.W. Dixon
eds. 2006Serial Verb Constructions: A cross-linguistic typology. (= Explorations in Linguistic Typology, 2.) Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Barbieri, Chiara, Anne Butthof, Koen Bostoen & Brigitte Pakendorf
2013a“Genetic Perspectives on the Origin of Clicks in Bantu Languages from Southwestern Zambia”. European Journal of Human Genetics 21.430–436. Crossref link
Barbieri, Chiara, Mario Vicente, Jorge Rocha, et al.
2013b“Ancient Substructure in Early 
mtDNA Lineages of Southern Africa”. American Journal of Human Genetics 92.285–292. Crossref link
Barbieri, Chiara, Tom Güldemann, Christfried Naumann, et al.
2014. “Unraveling the Complex Maternal History of Southern African Khoisan Populations”. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 153.435–448. Crossref link
Barnard, Alan
1976Nharo Bushman Kinship and the Transformation of Khoi Kin Categories. Ph.D. dissertation, University College, London.
1985A Nharo Wordlist with Notes on Grammar. Durban: University of Natal.
1988“Kinship, Language and Production: A conjectural history of Khoisan social structure”. Africa 18.216–236.
1992Hunters and Herders of Southern Africa: A comparative ethnography of the Khoisan people. (= Cambridge Studies in Social and Cultural Anthropology, 5.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Baumann, Hermann
ed. 1975Die Völker Afrikas und ihre traditionellen Kulturen. Vol. I: Allgemeiner Teil und Südliches Afrika. (= Studien zur Kulturkunde, 34.) Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner.
Beach, Douglas M.
1938The Phonetics of the Hottentot Language. Cambridge: Heffer.
Behar, Doron M., Richard Villems, Himla Soodyall, et al.
2008“The Dawn of Human Matrilineal Diversity”. American Journal of Human Genetics 82.1130–1140. Crossref link
Bell, Arthur & Chris Collins
2001 “ǂHoan and the Typology of Click Accompaniments in Khoisan”. Bell & Washburn, eds. 2001, 126–153.
Bell, Arthur & Paul Washburn
eds 2001Khoisan: Syntax, phonetics, phonology, and contact. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.
Berthold, Falko & Anne-Maria Fehn
eds Forthcoming. Khoisan Languages and Linguistics: Proceedings of the 4th international symposium , July 15–17, 2011, Riezlern/Kleinwalsertal . (= Research in Khoisan Studies .) Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe.
Berthold, Falko & Linda Gerlach
. Forthcoming. “Serial Verb Constructions in N!aqriaxe”. 
Berthold & Fehn eds.
Biesele, Megan
ed. 2009Juǀ’hoan Folktales: Transcriptions and English translations. A literacy primer by and for youth and adults of the Juǀ’hoan community. Vancouver: Trafford First Voices.
Bleek, Dorothea F.
1913 “Notebooks BC_151_A3_06, BC_151_A3_07, BC_151_A3_08”. Pippa Skotnes et al., eds.
1924“Bushman Terms of Relationship”. Bantu Studies 2.57–70. Crossref link
1927 “The Distribution of Bushman Languages in South Africa”. Festschrift Meinhof ed. by Franz Boas, Otto Heinrich Dempwolff & Giulio Panconcelli-Calzia, 66–64. Glückstadt near Hamburg: J. J. Augustin.
1928–1930 “Bushman Grammar: A grammatical sketch of the language of the ǀxam-ka-!k’e”. Zeitschrift für Eingeborenen-Sprachen 19.81–98 & 20.161–174.
1929Comparative Vocabularies of Bushman Languages. Cambridge: 
Cambridge University Press.
1937 “Grammatical Notes and Texts in the ǀAuni Language, ǀAuni Vocabulary”. Rheinallt Jones & Doke, eds. 1937, 195–220.
1939/1940 “A Short Survey of Bushman Languages”. Zeitschrift für Eingeborenenen-Sprachen 30.52–72.
Bleek, Dorothea. F.
1956A Bushman Dictionary. (= American Oriental Series, 41.) New Haven, Conn.: American Oriental Society.
Bleek, Wilhelm H.I. & Lucy C. Lloyd
1968 [1911]Specimens of Bushman Folklore. (= Africana Collectanea, 28.) Cape Town: C. Struik.
Blust, Robert
1994 “Austronesian Sibling Terms and Culture History”. Austronesian Terminologies: Continuity and change ed. by Andrew Pawley & Malcolm Ross, 31–72. Canberra: Australian National University.
Boden, Gertrud
2005Prozesse sozialen Wandels vor dem Hintergrund staatlicher Eingriffe: Eine Fallstudie zu den Khwe in West Caprivi/Namibia. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Cologne.
Bonitz, Anja
2012Strategien der Satzverknüpfung in Taa-Dialekten: Relativkonstruktionen im Vergleich. M.A. thesis, University of Leipzig.
Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique, Charles L. Nunn, & Mary C. Towner
2006 “Cultural Macroevolution and the Transmission of Traits”. Evolutionary Anthropology 15:2.52–64. Crossref link
Bowden, John
1992Behind the Preposition: Grammaticalisation of locatives in Oceanic languages. (= Pacific Linguistics Series, B-107.) Canberra: Australian National University.
Brenzinger, Matthias
1998 “Moving to Survive: Kxoe communities in arid lands”, Schladt, ed. 1998, 321–357.
Brenzinger, Matthias & Christa König
eds 2010Khoisan Languages and Linguistics: Proceedings of the 1st international symposiumJanuary 4–8, 2003, Riezlern/Kleinwalsertal . (= Research in Khoisan Studies, 24.) Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe.
Brenzinger, Matthias & Anne-Maria Fehn
2013 “From Body to Knowledge: Perception and Cognition in Khwe-ǁAni and Ts’ixa”. Perception and Cognition in Language and Culture, ed. by Aikhenvald, Alexandra Y. & Anne Storch, 161–191. Leiden: Brill. Crossref link
Breton, Gwenna, Carina M. Schlebusch, Marlize Lombard, et al.
2014 “Lactase Persistence Alleles Reveal Partial East African Ancestry of Southern African Khoe Pastoralists”. Current Biology 24:8.852–858. Crossref link
Brown, Cecil H.
1976 “General Principles of Human Anatomical Partonomy and Speculations on the Growth of Partonomic Nomenclature”. American Ethnologist 3:3.400–424. Crossref link
Budack, Kuno F.R.
1986 “Die Klassifikation der Khwe-khwen (Naman) in Südwestafrika”. Vossen & Keuthmann, eds. 1986, vol. I, 107–143.
Cann, Howard M., Claudia de Toma, Lucien Cazes, et al.
2002“A Human Genome Diversity Cell Line Panel”. Science 296.261–262. Crossref link
Cavalli-Sforza, L. Luca, Paolo Menozzi & Alberto Piazza
1994The History and Geography of Human Genes. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
Chasko, William J., George Trevor Nurse, Henry C. Harpending & Trefor Jenkins
1979 “Sero-Genetic Studies on a ‘Masarwa’ Population of Northeastern Botswana”. Botswana Notes and Records11.15–23. [Cited from Jenkins 1986.]
Chebanne, Andy
2003 “Khoe and San Languages and the People of Botswana: The current situation”. Silenced Voices: Studies on minority languages of Southern Africa ed. by Kwesi Kwaa Prah(= Book Series, 34), 58–99. Cape Town: Centre for Advanced Studies of African Society.
Chebanne, Andy & Chris Collins
. Forthcoming. “Tense and Aspect in Kua: A preliminary assessment”. Berthold & Fehn eds.
Chen, Yu-Sheng, Antonel Olckers, Theodore G. Schurr, et al.
2000. “mtDNA Variation in the South African Kung and Khwe and Their Genetic Relationships to Other African Populations”. American Journal of Human Genetics 66.1362–1383. Crossref link
Coelho, Margarida, Fernando Sequeira, Donata Luiselli, et al.
2009 “On the Edge of Bantu Expansions: mtDNA, Y chromosome and lactase persistence genetic variation in southwestern Angola”. BMC Evolutionary Biology 9.80. Crossref link.
Collins, Chris
2001 “Aspects of Plurality in ǂHoan”. Language 77:3.456–476. Crossref link
Collins, Chris & Jeff Gruber
. Forthcoming. A Grammar of ǂHoã with Vocabulary, Recorded Utterances and Oral Texts. (= Research in Khoisan Studies. )Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe.
Collins, Chris & Levi Namaseb
2011A Grammatical Sketch of Nǀuuki with Stories. (= Research in Khoisan Studies, 25.) Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe.
Corbett, Greville G.
2000Number. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Crawhall, Nigel
2004!Ui-Taa Language Shift in Gordonia and Postmasburg Districts, South Africa. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Cape Town.
Dart, Raymond A.
1937 “The Hut Distribution, Genealogy and Homogeneity of the ǀ’Auni-­ǂKhomani Bushmen”. Rheinallt Jones & Doke, eds. 1937, 101–116.
Deacon, Janette & Skotnes, Pippa
eds 2014The Courage of ||kabbo: Conference proceedings. Cape Town: UCT Press.
de Filippo, Cesare, Chiara Barbieri, Mark Whitten, et al.
2011“Y-Chromosomal Variation in Sub-Saharan Africa: Insights into the history of Niger-Congo groups”. Molecular Biology and Evolution 28.1255–1269. Crossref link
de Filippo, Cesare, Patricia Heyn, Lawrence Barham, et al.
2010“Genetic Perspectives on Forager-Farmer Interaction in the Luangwa Valley of Zambia”. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 141.382–394.
Dempwolff, Otto
1916Die Sandawe: Linguistisches und ethnographisches Material aus Deutsch-­Ostafrika. (= Abhandlungen des Hamburgischen Kolonialinstituts, 34.) Hamburg: L. Friederichsen.
Deoskar, Tejaswini
2003 “Multiple Verb Constructions in Khoekhoe”. [Unpublished MS.] (http://​staff​.science​.uva​.nl​/~deoskar​/Deoskar​-khoekhoe​.pdf).
Derbyshire, Desmond
1981“A Diachronic Explanation for the Origins of OVS in Some Carib Languages”. Journal of Linguistics 17.209–220. Crossref link
1985Hixkaryana and Linguistic Typology. Dallas, Tex.: Summer Institute of Linguistics.
Dickens, Patrick J.
1991a “Juǀ’hoan Orthography in Practice”. South African Journal of African Languages 11:1.99–104.
1991b “Relative Clauses in Juǀ’hoan”. Haacke & Elderkin, eds. 1991, 107–116.
1994English – Juǀ’hoan/Juǀ’hoan – English Dictionary. (= Research in Khoisan Studies, 8.) Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe.
1996 “The Place of Lloyd’s !Kun Texts in the Ju Dialects”. Voices from the Past: ǀXam Bushmen and the Bleek and Lloyd collection ed. by Janette Deacon & Thomas A. Dowson, 161–211. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press.
2005A Concise Grammar of Juǀ’hoan. (= Research in Khoisan Studies, 17.) Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe
Diessel, Holger
1999Demonstratives: Form, function and grammaticalisation. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Dimmendaal, Gerrit J.
2011Historical Linguistics and the Comparative Study of African Languages. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Dingemanse, Mark
2009 “The Selective Advantage of Body-Part Terms”. Journal of Pragmatics, 41:10.2130–2136. Crossref link
Dixon, Robert M.W.
2003 “Demonstratives: A cross-linguistic typology”. Studies in Language27:1.61–112. Crossref link
Doke, Clement M.
1937 “An Outline of ǂKhomani Bushman Phonetics”. Rheinallt Jones & Doke, eds. 1986, 61–88.
Downing, Pamela, & Michael Noonan
1995Word Order in Discourse. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Drexel, Albert
1929/30 “Das grammatische Geschlecht im Nama und Sandawe”. Bibliotheca Africana 3:1.51–58.
Durie, Mark & Malcolm Ross
eds 1996The Comparative Method Reviewed: Regularity and irregularity in language change. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Dziebel, German V.
2007The Genius of Kinship: The phenomenon of human kinship and the global diversity of kinship terminologies. Youngstown, N.Y.: Cambria Press.
Eberhard, Etaine & Leonie Twentyman Jones
1992The Bleek Collection: A list. Cape Town: Manuscripts and Archives Department, University of Cape Town Libraries.
Ehret, Christopher
1986 “Proposals on Khoisan Reconstruction”. Rottland & Vossen, eds. 1986, vol. II, 105–130.
2003“Toward Reconstructing Proto-South Khoisan”. Mother Tongue 8.63–80.
2008 “Reconstructing Ancient Kinship in Africa”. Early Human Kinship: From sex to social reproduction ed. by Nicholas J. Allen et al., 200–231 & Appendix, 259–269. Malden, Mass. & Oxford: Blackwell. Crossref link
Elderkin, Edward D.
1978Loans in Hadza. (= Department of Foreign Languages and Linguistics, Occasional Papers, 2.) Dar es Salaam: University of Dar es Salaam.
1986a “Diachronic Inferences from Basic Sentence and Noun Phrase Structure in Central Khoisan and Sandawe”. Rottland & Vossen, eds. 1986, vol. II, 1–156.
1986b “Kxoe Tone and Kxoe ‘Jonctures’”. Vossen & Keuthmann, eds. 1986, vol. I, 225–235.
1988“Patterns of Sound in Northern Khoisan”. African Languages and Cultures 1.123–48. Crossref link
1989 The Significance and Origin of the Use of Pitch in Sandawe . Ph.D. dissertation, University of York.
2004“The Starred Tones of Central Khoisan”. Afrika und Übersee 87.3–77
2008 “Proto-Khoe Tones in Western Kalahari”. Ermisch, ed. 2008, 87–136.
. 2014. “Some Residual Problems of ProtoKhoe Lexical Tone”. Khoisan Languages and Linguistics: Proceedings of the 3rd international symposium , July 6–10, 2008, Riezlern/Kleinwalsertal ed. by Alena Witzlack-Makarevich & Martina Ernszt (= Research in Khoisan Studies ), 139–161. Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe.
. Forthcoming. “Tonal Patterns in Khwe Verb Conjugation”. Vossen & Haacke eds.
. No date a. “The Two Nasalised Accompaniments of Khwe”. Unpublished MS.
. No date b. “The Vowel System of Proto Khoe”. Unpublished MS.
Elmendorf, William W.
1961 “System Change in Salish Kinship Terminologies”. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 17:4.365–382.
Enfield, Nick J., Asifa Majid & Miriam van Staden
2006 “Cross-Linguistic Categorisation of the Body: Introduction”. Language Sciences 28:2/3.137–147. Crossref link
Engelbrecht, Jan A.
1928Studies oor Korannataal. (= Annale van die Uniwersiteit van Stellenbosch, 6, Reeks B2.) Cape Town: Nasionale Pers.
1936The Korana: An account of their customs and their history, with texts. Cape Town: Maskew Miller.
Epling, P.J., Jerome Kirk & John Paul Boyd
1973 “Genetic Relations of Polynesian Sibling Terminologies”. American Anthropologist 75:5.1596–1625. Crossref link
Ermisch, Sonja
ed. 2008 Khoisan Languages and Linguistics: Proceedings of the 2nd international symposium , January 8–12, 2006, Riezlern/Kleinwalsertal . (= Research in Khoisan Studies, 22.) Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe.
Firth, J[ohn] R[upert]
1948 “Sounds and Prosodies”. Transactions of the Philological Society 1948.127–152. Crossref link
Firth, Raymond
1970 “Sibling Terms in Polynesia”. Journal of the Polynesian Society 79:3.272–287.
Foley, William A. & Robert D. Van Valin
1984Functional Syntax and Universal Grammar. (=  Cambridge Studies in Linguistics, 38.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gardani, Francesco
2008Borrowing of Inflectional Morphemes in Language Contact. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.
Gerbault, Pascale, Anke Liebert, Yuval Itan, et al.
2011“Evolution of Lactase Persistence: An example of human niche construction”. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences 366(1566).863–877. Crossref link
Gerlach, Linda & Falko Berthold
2011 “The Sociolinguistic Situation of ǂHoan, a Moribund ‘Khoisan’ Language of Botswana”. Afrikanistik Online, 2011. (http://​www​.afrikanistik​-online​.de​/archiv​/2011​/3164/).
Gray, Russell D. & Quentin D. Atkinson
2003 “Language-Tree Divergence Times Support the Anatolian Theory of Indo-European Origin”. Nature 426:6965.435–439. Crossref link
Gray, Russell D., Alexei J. Drummond & Simon J. Greenhill
2009 “Language Phylogenies Reveal Expansion Pulses and Pauses in Pacific Settlement”. Science 323,No.5913.479–483. Crossref link
Gray, Russell D., Simon J. Greenhill & Robert M. Ross
2007 “The Pleasures and Perils of Darwinizing Culture (with Phylogenies)”. Biological Theory 2:4.360–375. Crossref link
Greenberg, Joseph H.
1950 “Studies in African Linguistic Classification VI: The click languages”. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 6:3.223–237.
1959 “Africa as a Linguistic Area”. Continuity and Change in African Cultures ed. by William R. Bascom & Melvin J. Herskovits, 15–27. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
1963The Languages of Africa. Bloomington: Indiana University.
Gruber, Jeffrey S.
1973 “ǂHṑã Kinship Terms”. Linguistic Inquiry 4:4.427–449.
1975Bushman Languages of the Kalahari: ǂHoan – Vocabulary – Stems. Technical project report to the National Endowment for the Humanities, Washington, D.C.
Güldemann, Tom
1998aSan Languages for Education: A linguistic short survey and proposal on behalf of the Molteno Early Literacy and Language Development (MELLD) Project in Namibia. Okahandja: National Institute of Educational Development, Ministry of Basic Education and Culture.
1998b “The Kalahari Basin as an Object of Areal Typology: A first approach”. Schladt, ed. 1998, 7–169.
2000a“Editor’s Introduction”. Dorothea F. Bleek, The ǁŊ !ke or Bushmen of Griqualand West; Notes on the language of the ǁŊ !ke or Bushmen of Griqualand West, ed. and introduced byTom Güldemann (= Khoisan Forum, 15), 7–13. Cologne: Institut für Afrikanistik, University of Cologne.
2000b “Noun Categorization in Non-Khoe Lineages of Khoisan”. Afrikanistische Arbeitspapiere 63.5–33. Cologne: University of Cologne.
2001Phonological Regularities of Consonant Systems across Khoisan Lineages. (= University of Leipzig Papers on Africa, Languages and Literatures, 16.) Leipzig: Institut für Afrikanistik, University of Leipzig.
2002a “Die Entlehnung pronominaler Elemente des Khoekhoe aus dem !Ui-Taa”. Aktuelle Forschungen zu Afrikanischen Sprachen: Sprachwissenschaftliche Beiträge zum 14 . Afrikanistentag, Hamburg , Oktober 11–14 2000 ed. by Theda Schumann, 
Mechthild Reh, Roland Kießling & Ludwig Gerhardt, 43–61. Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe.
2002b “Using Older Khoisan Sources: Quantifier expressions in Lower Nosop varieties of Tuu”. South African Journal of African Languages 22:3.187–196.
2002c“Welche Evidenz gibt es für eine !Ui-Sprache Namens !Khuai?”Afrika und Übersee 85.99–109.
2004a“Complex Pronominals in Tuu and Ju, with Special Reference to their Historical Significance”. Afrika und Übersee 87.79–103.
2004b “Reconstruction through ‘de-construction’: The marking of person, gender, and number in the Khoe family and Kwadi”. Diachronica 21:2.251–306. Crossref link
2005Studies in Tuu (Southern Khoisan). (= University of Leipzig Papers on Africa, Languages and Literatures, 23. ) Leipzig: Institut für Afrikanistik, University of Leipzig.
2006a “Structural Isoglosses between Khoekhoe and Tuu: The Cape as a linguistic area”. Linguistic Areas: Convergence in historical and typological perspective ed. by Yaron Matras, April McMahon & Nigel Vincent, 99–134. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.
2006b “The San Languages of Southern Namibia: Linguistic appraisal with special reference to J. G. Krönlein’s Nǀuusaa data”. Anthropological Linguistics 48:4.369–395.
2008a “A Linguist’s View: Khoe-Kwadi speakers as the earliest food-producers of southern Africa”. Sadr & Fauvelle-Aymar, eds. 2008, 93–132.
2008b “Greenberg’s ‘Case’ for Khoisan: The morphological evidence”. Problems of Linguistic-Historical Reconstruction in Africa ed. by Dymitr Ibriszimow (= Sprache und Geschichte in Afrika, 19), 123–153. Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe.
2010a “Kwadi: From family-level to family-internal isolate”. Paper presented to the International Workshop ‘Language Isolates in Africa’, Lyon, 3–4 December 2010.
2010b “Sprachraum and Geography: Linguistic macro-areas in Africa”. Language and Space: An international handbook of linguistic variation. Volume II: Language Mapping ed. by Alfred Lameli, Roland Kehrein & Stefan Rabanus (= Handbooks of Linguistics and Communication Science, 30:2), 561–585, Maps: 2901–2914. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
2010c “The Relation between Focus and Theticity in the Tuu Family”. The Expression of Information Structure: A documentation of its diversity across Africa ed. by Ines Fiedler & Anne Schwarz (= Typological Studies in Language, 91), 69–93. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Crossref link
2013Typology. Vossen, ed. 2013, 25–37.
. Forthcoming a. “Changing Profile when Encroaching on Hunter-Gatherer Territory: Towards a history of the Khoe-Kwadi family in southern Africa”. Hunter-Gatherers and Linguistic History: A global perspective ed. by Tom Güldemann, Patrick McConvell & Richard Rhodes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
. Forthcoming b. “Person-Gender-Number Marking from Proto-Khoe-­Kwadi to its Descendants: A language contact perspective”. Festschrift for Bernd Heine ed. by Christa König & Rainer Vossen. London: Routledge.
Güldemann, Tom & Edward D. Elderkin
2010 “On External Genealogical Relationships of the Khoe Family”. Brenzinger & König, eds. 2010, 15–52.
Güldemann, Tom, Roland Kießling, Gertrud Boden & Christfried Naumann
2009 “Taa”. 
DOBES Archive ed. by Peter Wittenburg & Paul Trilsbeek. Nijmegen: Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics. (www​.mpi​.nl​/DOBES​/projects​/taa).
Güldemann, Tom & Robyn Loughnane
2012 “Are there ‘Khoisan’ Roots in Body-Part Vocabulary? On Linguistic Inheritance and Contact in the Kalahari Basin”. Methodology in Linguistic Prehistory ed. by Tom Güldemann, Gary Holton, Robyn Loughnane & Laura C. Robinson (= Language Dynamics & Change, 2:2), 215–258. Leiden: Brill.
Güldemann, Tom & Sven Siegmund
2009 “The Marker /ke/ in Nǀuu: Declarative or not?”. Paper presented at the 6th World Congress of African Linguistics, Cologne, 17–21 August 2009.
Güldemann, Tom & Mark Stoneking
2008 “A Historical Appraisal of Clicks: A linguistic and genetic population perspective”. Annual Review of Anthropology 37.93–109. Crossref link
Güldemann, Tom & Rainer Vossen
2000 “Khoisan”. African Languages: An introduction ed. by Bernd Heine & Derek Nurse, 99–122. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Güldemann, Tom & Anne-Maria Fehn
. Forthcoming. “The Kalahari Basin Area as a ‘Sprachbund’ before the Bantu Expansion – an Update”. The Cambridge Handbook of Areal Linguistics ed. by Raymond Hickey. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Haacke, Wilfrid H.G.
1995 “Instances of Incorporation and Compounding in Khoekhoe (Nama/Damara)”. Traill, Vossen & Biesele, eds. 1995, 339–361.
1999The Tonology of Khoekhoe (Nama/Damara). (= Research in Khoisan Studies, 16.) Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe.
2002 “Linguistic Evidence in the Study of Origins: The case of the Namibian Khoekhoe-speakers”. Inaugural lecture. Windhoek: University of Namibia.
2008 “Linguistic Hypotheses on the Origin of Namibian Khoekhoe Speakers”. Sadr & Fauvelle-Aymar, eds. 2008, 163–177.
2013 “Namibian Khoekhoe and !Gora: Phonetics and phonology”. Vossen, ed. 2013, 51–56.
. Forthcoming. “Comparative Tonology of Serial Verbs in HaiÇom and ÇAakhoe”. Proceedings of the Conference on Phonetics and Phonology of Sub-Saharan Languages, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 7–10 July 2013 ed. byeToni Borowsky.
Haacke, Wilfrid H.G. & Edward D. Elderkin
eds. 1997Namibian Languages: Reports and papers. (= Namibian African Studies, 4.) Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe.
Haacke, Wilfrid H.G. & Eliphas Eiseb
2002A Khoekhoegowab Dictionary with an English–Khoekhoegowab index. Windhoek: Gamsberg Macmillan.
Haacke, Wilfrid H.G., Eliphas Eiseb & Levi Namaseb
1997 “Internal and External Relations of Khoekhoe Dialects: A preliminary survey”. Haacke & Elderkin, eds. 1997, 125–209.
Hage, Per
1999 “Marking Universals and the Structure and Evolution of Kinship Terminologies: Evidence from Salish”. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 5:3.423–441. Crossref link
Hagman, Roy S.
1977Nama Hottentot Grammar. (= Language and Science Monographs, 15.) Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Hahn, Theophilus
1870“Die Buschmänner: Ein Beitrag zur südafrikanischen Völkerkunde”. Globus 18.65–68, 81–85, 102–105, 120–123, 140–143, 153–155.
1881Tsuni-ǁGoam: The supreme being of the Khoi-khoi. London: Trübner.
Harmon, Luke J.., et al.
2008 “GEIGER: Investigating evolutionary radiations”. Bioinformatics 24:1.129–131. Crossref link
Haspelmath, Martin & Uri Tadmor
eds 2009Loanwords in the World’s Languages: A comparative handbook. Berlin: Mouton De Gruyter.
Hasselbring, Sue, Thabiso Segathe & Julie Munch
2001A Sociolinguistic Survey of the Languages of Botswana:. Volume II. Gaborone: Basarwa Languages Project, University of Botswana.
Hastings, Rachel
2001 “Evidence for the Genetic Unity of Southern Khoisan”. Bell & 
Washburn, eds. 2001, 225–246.
Heath, Jeffrey
1978Ngandi Grammar, Texts and Dictionary. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
Hedican, Edward J.
1986“The Evolution of Apache-Athapaskan Sibling Terminolgy: A reconsideration”. Western Canadian Anthropologist 3.1–18.
Heikkinen, Terttu
1986“Phonology of the !Xũ Dialect Spoken in Ovamboland and Western Kavango”. South African Journal of African Languages 6.18–28
1987“An Outline of the Grammar of the !Xũ Language Spoken in Ovamboland and West Kavango”. South African Journal of African Languages 7, supplement 1.
Heine, Bernd
1982 “African Noun Class Systems”. Apprehension: Das sprachliche Erfassen von Gegenständen, Teil 1: Bereich und Ordnung der Phänomene ed. by Hansjakob Seiler & Christian Lehmann (= Language Universals Series, 1), 189–216. Tübingen: Gunter Narr.
1986 “Bemerkungen zur Entwicklung der Verbaljunkturen im Kxoe und Anderen Zentral-Khoisan-Sprachen”. Vossen & Keuthmann, eds. 1986, vol. II, 9–22.
1999The ǁAni: Grammatical notes and texts. (= Khoisan Forum, 11). Cologne: Institut für Afrikanistik, University of Cologne.
2008 “A Geographical Typology of African Languages: Unity and diversity”. Paper presented at the Tokyo University of Foreign Studies, ILCAA, 16 October 2008.
Heine, Bernd, Ulrike Claudi & Friederike Hünnemeyer
1991. Grammaticalization: A conceptual framework. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Heine, Bernd & Henry Honken
2010 “The Kx’a Family: A new Khoisan genealogy”. Journal of Asian and African Studies 79.5–36.
Heine, Bernd & Christa König
2013 “!Xun: Syntax”. Vossen, ed. 2013,293–325.
. In preparation. “The !Xun Language: A dialect grammar of Northern Khoisan”.
Heine, Bernd & Tania Kuteva
2002World Lexicon of Grammaticalization. Cambridge: 
Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
2005Language Contact and Grammatical Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crossref link
Heine, Bernd, Thilo C. Schadeberg & Ekkehard Wolff
eds 1981Die Sprachen Afrikas. 
Hamburg: Helmut Buske.
Heine, Bernd & Rainer Vossen
1981 “Sprachtypologie”. Heine, Schadeberg & Wolff, eds. 1981, 407–444.
Heinz, Hans-Joachim
1994 [1966]Social Organization of the !Ko Bushmen. Ed. by Klaus 
Keuthmann. (= Research in Khoisan Studies, 10.) Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe.
. No date. “The /Xokwe Bugakwe”. Unpublished MS, Maun, Botswana.
Henn, Brenna M., Christopher R. Gignoux, & Matthew Jobin
2011 “Hunter-Gatherer Genomic Diversity Suggests a Southern African Origin for Modern Humans”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 108.5154–5162. Crossref link
Henn, Brenna M., Christopher R. Gignoux, Alice A. Lin, et al.
2008 “Y-Chromosomal Evidence of a Pastoralist Migration through Tanzania to Southern Africa”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105.10693–10698. Crossref link
Hill, Trevor
1966“The Technique of Prosodic Analysis”. InMemory of J. R. Firthed. byCharles E. Bazell, John C. Catford, Michael A.K. Halliday & Robert H. Robins, 198–226. London: Longmans.
Hockett, Charles F.
1958A Course in Modern Linguistics. New York: Macmillan.
Hoernlé, Winifred A.
1985 [1925]The Social Organization of the Nama Hottentots of Southwest Africa and Other Essays ed. by Peter Carstens. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press.
Holden, Clare. J.
2002 “Bantu Language Trees Reflect the Spread of Farming across Sub-Saharan Africa: A maximum-parsimony analysis”. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 269:1493.793–799. Crossref link
Honken, Henry
1977“Submerged Features and Proto-Khoisan”. Khoisan Linguistic Studies 3 ed. by Anthony Traill (= Communications, 6), 145–169. Johannesburg: African Studies Institute, University of the Witwatersrand.
1988 “Phonetic Correspondences among Khoisan Affricates”. New Perspectives on the Study of Khoisan ed. by Rainer Vossen (= Research in Khoisan Studies, 7), 47–65. Hamburg: Helmut Buske.
2006“Fused Loans in Khoesan”. Pula (Botswana Journal of African Studies) 20.75–85.
2013a “Genetic Relationships: An overview of the evidence”. Vossen, ed. 2013, 1–24.
2013b “Eastern ǂHoan: Morphology”. Vossen, ed. 2013, 249–261.
. Forthcoming. “Eastern ǂHoã as a NK Language”. Vossen & Haacke eds.
. No date a. “Short Grammar and Dictionary of ǁXegwi”. Unpublished MS.
. No date b. “Some Notes on the History of Khoe: A research aid”. Unpublished MS.
Jenkins, Trefor
1986 “The Prehistory of the San and the Khoikhoi as Recorded in their Blood”. Vossen & Keuthmann, eds. 1986, vol. II, 51–77.
Jenkins, Trefor, Henry C. Harpending, Hymie Gordon, et al.
1971“Red-Cell-Enzyme Polymorphisms in the Khoisan Peoples of Southern Africa”. American Journal of Human Genetics 23.513–532.
Jobling, Mark A., Matthew E. Hurles & Chris Tyler-Smith
2004Human Evolutionary Genetics. New York & Milton Park: Garland Science.
Jobling, Mark A. & Chris Tyler-Smith
2003“The Human Y Chromosome: An evolutionary marker comes of age”. Nature Reviews Genetics 4.598–612. Crossref link
Jordan, Fiona M.
2011 “A Phylogenetic Analysis of the Evolution of Austronesian Sibling Terminologies”. Human Biology 83:2.297–321. Crossref link
2013 “Comparative Phylogenetic Methods and the Study of Pattern and Process in Kinship”. Kinship Systems: Change and reconstruction ed. by Patrick McConvell, Ian Keen & Rachel Hendery, 43–58. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press.
Kießling, Roland
2008 “Noun Classification in !Xoon”. Ermisch, ed. 2008, 225–248.
Kießling, Roland, Maarten Mous & Derek Nurse
2008 “The Tanzanian Rift Valley Area”. A Linguistic Geography of Africa ed. by Heine, Bernd & Derek Nurse, 186–227. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kilian-Hatz, Christa
1999Folktales of the Kxoe (A Khoisan group in West Caprivi/Namibia). (=  Namibian African Studies, 6.) Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe.
2003Khwe Dictionary with a Supplement on Khwe Place-Names of West Caprivi by Matthias Brenzinger. (= Namibian African Studies, 7.) Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe.
2004“Verb Derivation in Khwe (Central-Khoisan)”. Annual Publication in African Linguistics 2.109–135.
2006 “Serial Verb Constructions in Khwe (Central-Khoisan)”. 
Aikhenvald & Dixon, eds. 2006, 108–123.
2008A Grammar of Modern Khwe (Central Khoisan). (= Research in Khoisan Studies, 23.) Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe.
2010 “Serial Verb Constructions vs. Converbs in Khwe”. Brenzinger & König, eds. 2010, 115–143.
Kitchen, Andrew, Christopher Ehret, Shiferaw Assefa, & Connie J. Mulligan
2009 “Bayesian Phylogenetic Analysis of Semitic Languages Identifies an Early Bronze Age Origin of Semitic in the Near East”. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 276:1668.2703–2710. Crossref link
Klocke-Daffa, Sabine
2001 “Wenn du hast, mußt du geben”: Soziale Sicherung im Ritus und im Alltag bei den Nama von Berseba/Namibia. Münster: LIT.
Köhler, Oswin
1960“Sprachkritische Aspekte zur Hamitentheorie über die Herkunft der Hottentotten”. Sociologus 10.69–77.
1971 “Die Khoe-sprachigen Buschmänner der Kalahari: Ihre Verbreitung und Gliederung”. Forschungen zur Allgemeinen und Regionalen Geographie (Festschrift Kurt Kayser), 373–411. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner.
1973/1974 “Neuere Ergebnisse und Hypothesen der Sprachforschung in ihrer Bedeutung für die Geschichte Afrikas”. Paideuma 19/20.162–199.
1975a “Geschichte und Probleme der Gliederung der Sprachen Afrikas: Von den Anfängen bis zur Gegenwart”. Baumann, ed. 1975, 5–373.
1975b “Der Khoisan-Sprachbereich”. Baumann, ed. 1975, 305–337.
1981a “Les langues Khoisan, section 1: Présentation d’ensemble”. Perrot, ed. 1981, 455–482.
1981b “La langue Kxoe”. Perrot, ed. 1981, 483–555.
1989Die Welt der Kxoé-Buschleute im südlichen Afrika: Eine Sebstdarstellung in ihrer eigenen Sprache. Volume I: Die Kxoé-Buschleute und ihre ethnische Umgebung. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer.
König, Christa
2000 “Topic in !Xun”. Ermisch, ed. 2000, 249–263.
2010 “Serial Verb Constructions in !Xun”. Brenzinger & König, eds. 2010, 144–175. Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe.
König, Christa & Bernd Heine
2001The !Xun of Ekoka: A demographic and linguistic report. (=  Khoisan Forum, 17.) Cologne: Institut für Afrikanistik, University of Cologne.
2008A Concise Dictionary of Northern !Xun. (= Research in Khoisan Studies, 21.) Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe.
Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
2008 “Approaching Lexical Typology”. From Polysemy to Semantic Change: A typology of lexical semantic associations ed. by Martine Vanhove, 3–52. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Crossref link
Kossmann, Maarten
2009 “Loanwords in Tarifiyt, a Berber Language of Morocco”. Haspelmath & Tadmor, eds. 2009, 191–214.
Kroeber, Alfred L.
1909“Classificatory Systems of Relationship”. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 39.77–84.
*Kunudsib [=Knudsen, Hans Christian]
1845Nama- A. B. Z. : kannis, : gei *hu- *ze khom-ei-:kannis. Cape Town: Pike & Philip.
Kuper, Adam
1987South Africa and the Anthropologist. London & New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Lanham, Leonard W. & Desmond P. Hallowes
1956 “An Outline of the Structure of Eastern Bushman”. African Studies 15:3.97–118. Crossref link
Larson, Thomas J.
1977“Kinship Terminology of the Hambukushu of Ngamiland”. Botswana Notes and Records 9.85–89.
Lebzelter, Viktor
1934Eingeborenenkulturen in Südwestafrika: Die Buschmänner (Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse einer Forschungsreise nach Südwestafrika in den Jahren 1926–1928). Leipzig: Karl W. Hiersemann.
1937“Eine Wortliste der !Kung vom oberen Omuramba und Ovambo”. Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde des Morgenlandes 44.97–131.
Lee, Richard B.
1984The Dobe !Kung. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Levinson, Stephen C. & Russell D. Gray
2012 “Tools from Evolutionary Biology Shed New Light on the Diversification of Languages”. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 16:3.167–173. Crossref link
Lewis, Paul M., Gary F. Simons & Charles D. Fennig
2013Ethnologue: Languages of the world. 17th edn. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International. (http://​www​.ethnologue​.com/)
Lionnet, Florian
2012Unusual Grammar Leads to Unusual Grammaticalization: Verbal demonstratives in Ju. M.A. thesis, University of California, Berkeley.
. Forthcoming. “Lucy Lloyd’s !Xuun Notebooks: Towards an edition and linguistic analysis”. Deacon & Skotnes eds.
Loughnane, Robyn, Mark McGranaghan & Tom Güldemann
. Forthcoming. “Omnis traductor traditor: Linguistic analyses of ǀXam as interpretative tools”. Deacon & Skotnes eds.
Luke [= Bible Society of South Africa].
1980!Gâiǂhôas Lukab dis tsî Apostelgu di !nae!khaedi. [The Gospel of Luke and The Acts of the Apostles]. Text 1966, standard orthography 1980, revised. Cape Town: Bible Society of South Africa.
Mace, Ruth & Fiona M. Jordan
2011 “Macro-Evolutionary Studies of Cultural Diversity: A review of empirical studies of cultural transmission and cultural adaptation”. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 366:1563.402–411. Crossref link
Macholdt, Enrico, Vera Lede, Chiara Barbieri, et al.
2014 “Tracing Prehistoric Pastoralist Migrations: Lactase persistence alleles in southern Africa”. Current Biology 24:8.875–879. Crossref link
Maddison, Wayne. P. & David R. Maddison
2011Mesquite: A modular system for evolutionary analysis. Version 2.75. (http://​mesquiteproject​.org).
Maingard, Louis F.
1931“The Lost Tribes of the Cape”. South African Journal of Science 28.487–504.
1937 “The ǂKhomani Dialect of Bushman, its Morphology and Other Characteristics”. Rheinallt Jones & Doke, eds. 1937, 237–275.
1962Korana Folktales: Grammar and texts. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press.
1964 “The Korana Dialects”. African Studies 23:2.57–66. Crossref link
Marks, Shula
2011 “New Paradigms in History and Archaeology in South Africa”. African Studies 70:1.123–143. Crossref link
Marshall, Lorna
1957“The Kin Terminology System of the !Kung Bushmen”. Africa 27.1–25. Crossref link
1976The !Kung of Nyae Nyae. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Crossref link
Marshall, Mac
1984 “Structural Patterns of Sibling Classification in Island Oceania: Implications for culture history”. Current Anthropolgy 25:5.597–637. Crossref link
Martin, Samuel E.
1988 [1975].A Reference Grammar of Japanese. Rutland: Charles E. Tuttle.
Meinhof, Carl
1912Die Sprachen der Hamiten. (= Abhandlungen des Hamburgischen Kolonialinstituts, 9.) Hamburg: L. Friederichsen.
1928/1929 “Versuch einer Grammatischen Skizze einer Buschmannsprache”. Zeitschrift für Eingeborenen-Sprachen 19:3.161–188.
1930Der Koranadialekt des Hottentottischen. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer.
Meriggi, Piero
1928/1929 “Versuch einer Grammatik des ǀXam-Buschmännischen”. Zeitschrift für Eingeborenen-Sprachen 19.117–153, 188–205.
Merriwether, D. Andrew, Andrew G. Clark, Scott W. Ballinger, et al.
1991The Structure of Human Mitochondrial DNA Variation”. Journal of Molecular Evolution 33.543–555. [Cited from Güldemann & Stoneking 2008.] Crossref link
Michaelis, Susanne & Marcel Rosalie
2009 “Loanwords in Seychelles Creole.” Haspelmath & Tadmor, eds. 2009, 215–230.
Miller, Amanda L.
2011“The Representation of Clicks”. The Blackwell Companion to Phonology, Volume 1 ed. by Marc van Oostendorp, Colin J. Ewen, Elizabeth V. Hume & Keren Rice, 416–439. Malden, Mass.: Wiley-Blackwell.
Miller, Amanda L., Johanna Brugman, Bonny Sands, et al.
2007“The Sounds of Nǀuu: Place and airstream contrasts”. Working Papers of the Cornell Phonetics Laboratory 16.101–160.
Miller, Kirk
2011 “Hadza Grammar Notes”. Paper presented at the 3rd International Symposium on Khoisan Languages and Linguistics, 6–10 July 2011, Riezlern/Kleinwalsertal.
Miller-Ockhuizen, Amanda L.
2001Grounding Juǀ’hoansi Root Phonotactics: The phonetics of the guttural OCP and other acoustic modulations. Ph.D. dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.
2003The Phonetics and Phonology of Gutturals: A case study from Juǀ’hoansi. New York & London: Routledge.
Mitchell, Peter
2010“Genetics and Southern African Prehistory: An archaeological view”. Journal of Anthropological Science 88.73–92.
Möhlig, Wilhelm J.G.
1986 “Introduction à la dialectométrie synchronique”. La méthode dialectometrique appliquée aux langues africaines ed. by Gladys Guarisma & Wilhelm J.G. Möhlig, 15–26. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer.
Morgan, Lewis H.
1871Systems of Consanguinity and Affinity of the Human Family. (= Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, XVII=218.) Washington: Smithsonian Institute.
Moritz, Walter
2001Das älteste Schulbuch in Südwestafrika/Namibia. H. C. Knudsen und die Namafibel. (= Aus alten Tagen in Südwest, 6.) Werther: Walter Moritz.
Müller, Friedrich
1877Grundriss der Sprachwissenschaft. Band I, 2. Abtheilung: Die Sprachen der wollhaarigen Rassen. Wien: Alfred Hölder.
Murdock, George P.
1949Social Structure. New York: Macmillan
1968“Patterns of Sibling Terminology”. Ethnology 7.1–24. Crossref link
Myers-Scotton, Carol
2008“Language Contact: Why outsider system morphemes resist transfer”. Journal of Language Contact 2.21–41. Crossref link
Naidoo, Thijessen, Carina M. Schlebusch, Heeran Makkan, et al.
2010 “Development of a Single Base Extension Method to Resolve Y Chromosome Haplogroups in Sub-Saharan African Populations”. Investigative Genetics 1.6. Crossref link.
Nakagawa, Hirosi
1996An Outline of ǀGui Phonology. African Study Monographs. Supplementary issue, 22.101–124.
1998 “Unnatural Palatalisation in ǀGui and ǁGana?Schladt, ed. 1998, 245–263.
2006Aspects of the Phonetic and Phonological Structure of the Gǀui Language. Ph.D. dissertation, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg.
2010a“Phonotactics of Disyllabic Lexical Morphemes in Gǀui”. Working Papers in Corpus-Based Linguistics and Language Education, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies 5.23–31.
2010b “Lexicon”. Tanaka & Sugawara, eds. 2010, 69–70.
2011 “Genetic Affiliations of ǂHaba and Tshila”. Paper presented at the 20th International Conference on Historical Linguistics, 25–30 July, 2011, Osaka.
2013 “ǁGana: Syntax”. Vossen, ed. 2013, 394–401.
Nakagawa, Hirosi, Kazuyoshi Sugawara & Jiro Tanaka
2013 “Gǀui – English Dictionary: A preliminary edition March 2013”. Unpublished MS.
Naumann, Christfried
2008 “High and Low tone in Taa ǂaan (!Xóõ)”. Ermisch, ed. 2008, 279–302.
. Forthcoming. “The Phoneme Inventory of Taa (West !Xoon Dialect)”. Vossen & Haacke eds
. In preparation. “A Genealogical Classification of Taa Dialects”.
Nerlove, Sara & A. Kimball Romney
1967“Sibling Terminology and Cross-Sex Behavior”. American Anthropologist 69.179–187. Crossref link
Nichols, Johanna
1996 “The Comparative Method as Heuristic”. Durie & Ross, eds. 1996, 39–71.
Nienaber, Gabriël S.
1963Hottentots. Pretoria: Van Schaik.
Nunn, Charles L.
2011The Comparative Method in Evolutionary Anthropology and Biology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Crossref link
Nurse, G.T. & Trefor Jenkins
1977“Serogenetic Studies on the Kavango Peoples of South West Africa”. Annals of Human Biology 4.465–478. Crossref link
Nurse, G.T., A.B. Lane & Trefor Jenkins
1976“Sero-Genetic Studies on the Dama of South West Africa”. Annals of Human Biology 3.33–50. Crossref link
Ono, Hitomi
1996 “An Ethnosemantic Analysis of ǀGui Relationship Terminology”. African Study Monographs Supplement 22.125–144. Kyoto: The Center of African Area Studies.
1997“How Do the ǀGui Categorize People?”. Gengo Kenkyu: Journal of the Linguistic Society of Japan 111.42–57.
Pabst, Heinrich
1895“Die Kalahariwüste und ihre Bewohner”. Mitteilungen der Geographischen Gesellschaft Jena 14.48–54.
Pagel, Mark, Andrew Meade & Daniel Barker
2004 “Bayesian Estimation of Ancestral Character States on Phylogenies”. Systematic Biology 53:5.673–684. Crossref link
Pakendorf, Brigitte
2007Contact in the Prehistory of the Sakha (Yakuts): Linguistic and genetic perspectives. Utrecht: LOT.
Pakendorf, Brigitte & Mark Stoneking
2005 “Mitochondrial DNA and Human Evolution”. Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics 6.165–183. Crossref link
Paradis, Emmanuel, J. Claude & K. Strimmer
2004 “APE: Analyses of phylogenetics and evolution in R language”. Bioinformatics 20:2.289–290. Crossref link
Payne, Thomas E.
1997Describing Morphosyntax. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Perrot, Jean
ed. 1981Les langues dans le monde ancien et moderne, première partie: Les langues de l’afrique subsaharienne. Paris: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.
Pickrell, Joseph K., Nick Patterson, Chiara Barbieri, et al.
2012 “The Genetic Prehistory of Southern Africa”. Nature Communications 3. Crossref link.
Pöch, Rudolf
1908–1909“Berichte über meine Reise nach Südafrika 1907–1909”. Akademischer Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Klasse 45:6.69–75; 9.123–125; 14.261–264; 16.316–323; 20.434–437; 26.521–527; 46:4.23–26; 5.52–56; 6.64–68; 8.81–82; 11.174–181; 15.243–244; 15.245–249; 20.347–349; 21.361–365; 26.447–448; 27.452–453.
Potgieter, Evert F.
1955The Disappearing Bushmen of Lake Chrissie: A preliminary survey. With notes on the language by D. Ziervogel. Pretoria: J.L. van Schaik.
R Core Team
2012R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R foundation for statistical computing. (http://​www​.R​-project​.org).
Rapold, Christian J.
2011 “Semantics of Khoekhoe Reciprocal Constructions”. Reciprocals and Semantic Typology ed. by Nicholas Evans, Alice Gaby, Stephen Levinson & Asifa Majid (=  Typological Studies in Language, 98), 61–74. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Crossref link
. Submitted. “Spoken and whistled tones in Tsumeb and Grootfontein Khoekhoe”.
. In preparation. “Syntactic Aspects of Khoekhoe Reciprocals”.
Rapold, Christian J. & Thomas Widlok
2008 “Dimensions of Variability in Northern Khoe­khoe Language and Culture”. Sadr & Fauvelle-Aymar, eds. 2008, 3–161.
Rheinallt Jones, John D. & Clement M. Doke
eds. 1937Bushmen of the Southern Kalahari. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press.
Rottland, Franz & Rainer Vossen
eds 1986Tagungsberichte des Internationalen Symposiums “Afrikanische Wildbeuter ”, Sankt Augustin , Januar 3–5, 1985. 2 vols. (= Sprache und Geschichte in Afrika, 7.) Hamburg: Helmut Buske.
Ruhlen, Merritt
1994On the Origin of Languages: Studies in linguistic taxonomy. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Sadr, Karim
1989 “First Herders at the Cape of Good Hope”. African Archaeological Review 15.101–132. Crossref link
2003 “The Neolithic of Southern Africa”. Journal of African History 44:2.195–209. Crossref link
2008 “Invisible Herders? The archaeology of the Khoekhoe pastoralists”. South African Humanities 20:1.179–203.
Sadr, Karim & François-Xavier Fauvelle-Aymar
eds 2008Khoekhoe and the Earliest Herders in Southern Africa. (= Southern African Humanities, 20.) Pietermaritzburg: Natal Museum.
Sands, Bonny E.
1998aEastern and Southern African Khoisan: Evaluating claims of distant linguistic relationships. (= Research in Khoisan Studies, 14.) Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe.
1998b “The Linguistic Relationship between Hadza and Khoesan”. Schladt, Mathias, ed. 1998, 265–283.
2001 “Borrowing and Diffusion as a Source of Lexical Similarities in Khoesan”. Bell & Washburn, eds. 2001, 200–224.
2007 “The Contribution of Language Documentation to Historical Phonology”. Proceedings of Conference on Language Documentation and Linguistic Theory (75 years of Linguistics at SOAS, 5 years of the Endangered Languages Project , 7–8 December, 2007, School of Oriental and African Studies , University of London ) ed. by Peter K. Austin, Oliver Bond & David Nathan, 209–219. London: Hans Rausing Endangered Languages Project and Department of Linguistics, School of Oriental and African Studies.
2010 “Juu Subgroups Based on Phonological Patterns”. Brenzinger & König, eds. 2010, 85–114.
2013 “Hadza: Phonetics and phonology”. Vossen, ed. 2013, 38–42.
Sands, Bonny E. & Amanda Miller-Ockhuizen
2000 “Comparative Evidence for ‘New’ Click Types in Northern Khoesan”. Paper presented at the 74th Annual Meeting of the Linguistic Society of America, Chicago, 6–9 January, 2000.
Sands, Bonny E., Andy Chebanne& Sheenah Shah
2011 “Hunting Terminology in ǂHoan”. Paper presented at the 4th International Symposium on Khoisan Languages and Linguistics, Riezlern/Kleinwalsertal, 15–17 July 2011.
Sands, Bonny E., Amanda Miller, Johanna Brugman, et al.
2006 “1400 Item Nǀuu Dictionary”. [Unpublished MS.]
Schapera, Isaac
1930The Khoisan Peoples of South Africa: Bushmen and Hottentots. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Schladt, Mathias
ed. 1998Language, Identity, and Conceptualisation among the Khoisan. (=  Research in Khoisan Studies, 15.) Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe.
Schlebusch, Carina M.
2010Genetic Variation in Khoisan-Speaking Populations from Southern Africa. Ph.D. dissertation, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. (http://​wiredspace​.wits​.ac​.za​/­handle​/10539​/8992).
Schlebusch, Carina M., Michael de Jongh & Himla Soodyall
2011 “Different Contributions of Ancient Mitochondrial and Y-Chromosomal Lineages in ‘Karretjie People’ of the Great Karoo in South Africa”. Journal of Human Genetics 56.623–630. Crossref link
Schlebusch, Carina M., Thijessen Naidoo & Himla Soodyall
2009 “SNaPshot Minisequencing to Resolve Mitochondrial Macro-Haplogroups Found in Africa”. Electrophoresis 30.3657–3664. Crossref link
Schlebusch, Carina M., Pontus Skoglund, Per Sjödin, et al.
2012 “Genomic Variation in Seven Khoe-San Groups Reveals Adaptation and Complex African History”. Science. Crossref link.
Schnegg, Michael & Julia Pauli
2010 “Namibische Wahlverwandtschaften: Zur Dualität von Struktur und Handlungsfreiheit in der Verwandtschaftsethnologie”. Verwandtschaft Heute: Positionen, Ergebnisse und Perpektiven ed. by Erdmute Alber, Bettina Beer, Julia Pauli & Michael Schnegg, 305–328. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer.
Schultze, Leonhard
1928Zur Kenntnis des Körpers der Hottentotten und Buschmänner. Jena: G. Fischer.
Schuster, Stephan C.., et al.
2010 “Complete Khoisan and Bantu Genomes from Southern Africa”. Nature 463.943–947. Crossref link
Scozzari, Rosaria, Fulvio Cruciani, Patrizia Malaspina, et al.
1997“Differential Structuring of Human Populations for Homologous X and Y Microsatellite Loci”. American Journal of Human Genetics 61.719–733. Crossref link
Scozzari, Rosaria, Fulvio Cruciani, Piero Santolamazza, et al.
1999“Combined Use of Biallelic and Microsatellite Y-Chromosome Polymorphisms to Infer Affinities among African Populations”. American Journal of Human Genetics 65.829–846. Crossref link
Pippa Skotnes et al.,
eds 2011The Digital Bleek and Lloyd. Cape Town: University of Cape Town. (http://​lloydbleekcollection​.cs​.uct​.ac​.za​/books​/html).
Sebba, Mark
1995 “Some Remarks on Juǀ’hoan Serial Verbs”. Traill, Vossen & Biesele, eds. 1995, 363–370.
Silberbauer, George B.
1981Hunter and Habitat in the Central Kalahari Desert. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Simon, Mutsuko Endo
1989An Analysis of the Postposing Construction in Japanese. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich.
Snyman, Jan W.
1970An Introduction to the !Xu (!Kung) Language. Cape Town: A. A. Balkema.
1974 “The Bushman and Hottentot Languages of Southern Africa”. Limi 2:2.28–44.
1975Žuǀ’hõasi fonologie en woordeboek. (= Communications of the School of African Studies, University of Cape Town, 37.) Cape Town: A. A. Balkema.
1980 “The Relationship between Angolan !Xũ and Žuǀ’hõasi”. Snyman, ed. 1980, 1–58.
ed. 1980Bushman and Hottentot Linguistic Studies (Papers of seminar held on 27 July 1979). (= Miscellanea Congregalia, 16.) Pretoria: University of South Africa.
1997 “A Preliminary Classification of the !Xũũ and Žuǀ’hõasi Dialects”. Haacke & Elderkin, eds. 1997, 107–116.
2000 “A report on the Tswaa and Gǁana languages”. The state of the Khoesan languages in Botswana ed. by Herman M. Batibo & Joseph Tsonope, 33–43. Gaborone: Tasalls.
Soodyall, Himla & Trefor Jenkins
1992 “Mitochondrial DNA Polymorphisms in Khoisan Populations from Southern Africa”. Annals of Human Genetics 56.315–324. Crossref link
Soodyall, Himla, Heeran Makkan, Philip Haycock & Thijessen Naidoo
2008 “The Genetic Prehistory of the Khoe and San”. Sadr & Fauvelle-Aymar, eds. 2008, 37–48.
Soodyall, Himla, Linda Vigilant, Adrian V. Hill, et al.
1996“mtDNA Control-Region Sequence Variation Suggests Multiple Independent Origins of an ‘Asian-Specific’ 9-bp Deletion in Sub-Saharan Africans”. American Journal of Human Genetics 58.595–608.
Starostin, Georgiy
2003“A Lexicostatistical Approach towards Reconstructing Proto-Khoisan”. Mother Tongue 8.83–128.
2008 “From Modern Khoisan Languages to Proto-Khoisan: The value of intermediate reconstructions”. Aspects of Comparative Linguistics 3.337–470. Moscow: RSUH.
2013Jazyki Afriki: Opyt postrojenija leksikostatističeskoj klassifikacii. Tom I: Metodologija: Kojsanskije jazyki. [Languages of Africa: An attempt at a lexicostatistical classification. Vol. I: Methodology: Khoesan Languages]. Moscow: Languages of Slavic Cultures.
Steinberg, Arthur G., Trefor Jenkins, G.T. Nurse & Henry C. Harpending
1975 “Gammaglobulin Groups of the Khoisan Peoples of Southern Africa: Evidence for Polymorphism for a Gm1,5,13,14,21 Haplotype among the San”. American Journal of Human Genetics 27.528–542.
Stoneking, Mark
. To appear. Introduction to Molecular Anthropology. Malden: Wiley Blackwell.
Stoneking, Mark & Johannes Krause
2011 “Learning about Human Population History from Ancient and Modern Genomes”. Nature Reviews. Genetics 12:9.603–614. Crossref link
Story, Robert
1999K’uǀha:si Manuscript. Ed. by Anthony Traill. (= Khoisan Forum,.) Cologne: Institut für Afrikanistik, University of Cologne.
Sugawara, Kazuyoshi
2010 “Body”. Tanaka & Sugawara, eds. 2010, 9–12.
Suzman, James
2000 “Things from the Bush”: A contemporary history of the Omaheke Bushmen. (= Basel Namibia Studies, 5.) Basel: P. Schlettwein.
Takada, Akira
2008 “Kinship and Naming among the Ekoka !Xun”. Ermisch, ed. 2008, 303–322.
Tanaka, Jiro
1978A San Vocabulary of the Central Kalahari: Gǁana and Gǀwi Dialects. Tokyo: ILCAA University of Foreign Studies.
1980The San Hunter-Gatherers of the Kalahari: A study in ecological anthropology. Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press.
Tanaka, Jiro & Kazuyoshi Sugawara
eds 2010An Encyclopedia of ǀGui and ǁGana Culture and Society. Kyoto: Laboratory of Cultural Anthropology, Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto University.
Thomason, Sarah G. & Terrence Kaufman
1988Language Contact, Creolisation, and Genetic Linguistics. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Tishkoff, Sarah A., Mary Katherine Gonder, Brenna M. Henn, et al.
2007a. “History of Click-Speaking Populations of Africa Inferred from mtDNA and Y Chromosome Genetic Variation”. Molecular Biology and Evolution 24.2180–2195. Crossref link
Tishkoff, Sarah A., Floyd A. Reed, Alessia Ranciaro, et al.
2007b “Convergent Adaptation of Human Lactase Persistence in Africa and Europe”. Nature genetics 39:1.31–40. Crossref link
Tishkoff, Sarah A., Floyd A. Reed, Francoise R. Friedlaender, et al.
2009 “The Genetic Structure and History of Africans and African Americans”. Science 324.1035–1044. Crossref link
Traill, Anthony
1973 “‘N4 or S7’: Another Bushman language”. African Studies 32:1.25–32. Crossref link
1974a “Agreement Systems in !Xõ”. Limi 2:2.12–27.
1974bThe Compleat Guide to the Koon. (= Communications, 1.) Johannesburg: African Studies Institute, University of the Witwatersrand.
1974c “Westphal on ‘N4 or S7?’: A reply”. African Studies 33:4.249–255. Crossref link
1975“Phonetic Correspondences in the !Xõ Dialects: How a Bushman language changes”. Bushman and Hottentot Linguistic Studies ed. by Anthony Traill (=  Communications, 2), 77–102. Johannesburg: African Studies Institute, University of the Witwatersrand.
1980 “Phonetic Diversity in the Khoisan Languages”. Snyman, ed. 1980, 167–189.
1985Phonetic and Phonological Studies of !Xóõ Bushman. (= Research in Khoisan Studies, 1.) Hamburg: Helmut Buske.
1986 “Do the Khoi Have a Place in the San? New data on Khoisan Linguistic Relationships”. Rottland & Vossen, eds. 1986. vol. I, 407–430.
1992 “A Confusion of Sounds: The phonetic description of !Xũ clicks”. African Linguistic Contributions ed. by Derek F. Gowlett, 345–362. Pretoria: Via Africa.
1994A !Xóõ Dictionary. (= Research in Khoisan Studies, 9.) Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe.
1998 “Lexical Avoidance in !Xóõ”. Schladt, ed. 1998, 421–437.
2001 “Structural Typology and Remote Relationships between Zhu and !Xóõ”. Historical Language Contact in Africa ed. by Derek Nurse (= Sprache und Geschichte in Afrika, 16/17), 437–454. Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe.
2002 “The Khoesan Languages”. Language in South Africa ed. by Rajend 
Mesthrie, 27–49. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
2007 “!Khwa-ka Hhouiten Hhouiten ‘The rush of the storm’: The linguistic death of ǀxam”. Claim to the Country: The archive of Lucy Lloyd and Wilhelm Bleek ed. by Pippa Skotnes, 130–147. Athens: Ohio University Press.
Traill, Anthony & Hirosi Nakagawa
2000 “A Historical !Xóõ-ǀGui Contact Zone: Linguistic and other relations”. The State of Khoesan Languages in Botswana ed. by Herman M. Batibo & Joe Tsonope, 1–17. Gaborone: Basarwa Language Project.
Traill, Anthony, Rainer Vossen & Megan Biesele
. The Complete Linguist: Papers in memory of Patrick J. Dickens. Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe.
Trautmann, Thomas R.
2008 “The Whole History of Kinship Terminologies in Three Chapters: Before Morgan, Morgan, and after Morgan”. Lewis Henry Morgan and the Invention of Kinship ed. by Thomas R. Trautmann, 308–333. Lincoln & London: University of Nebraska Press.
Treis, Yvonne
1998 “Names of Khoisan Languages and their Variants.” Schladt, ed. 1998, 463–503.
2010 “Perception Verbs and Taste Adjectives in Kambaata and Beyond” (=  Sprache und Geschichte in Afrika, 21), 313–346. Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe.
Tucker, Archibald N., Margaret A. Bryan & James Woodburn
1977 “The East African Click Languages: A phonetic comparison”. Zur Sprachgeschichte und Ethnohistorie in Afrika ed. by Wilhelm J.G. Möhlig, Franz Rottland & Bernd Heine, 300–323. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer.
Valiente-Noailles, Carlos
1993The Kua: Life and soul of the Central Kalahari Bushmen. 
Rotterdam: A. A. Balkema.
Vedder, Heinrich
1910“Grundriß einer Grammatik der Buschmannsprache vom Stamm der !Kũ-Buschmänner”. Zeitschrift für Kolonialsprachen 1.5–24.
1923Die Bergdama. 2 vols. Hamburg: L. Friedrichsen & Co. Crossref link
1934Das Alte Südwestafrika: Südwestafrikas Geschichte bis zum Tode Mahareros 1890 nach den besten schriftlichen und mündlichen Quellen erzählt. Berlin: Martin Warneck.
2001Einführung in die Geschichte Südwestafrikas. (= Aus alten Tagen in Südwest, 16). Werther: Walter Mortiz.
Vigilant, Linda, Renee Pennington, Henry Harpending, et al.
1989“Mitochondrial DNA Sequences in Single Hairs from a Southern African Population”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 86.9350–9354. Crossref link
Vigilant, Linda, Marc Stoneking, Henry C. Harpending, et al.
1991 “African Populations and the Evolution of Human Mitochondrial DNA”. Science 253.1503–1507. Crossref link
Visser, Hessel
2001Naro Dictionary: Naro–English/English–Naro. D’Kar, Botswana: Naro Language Project.
2010 “Verbal Compounds in Naro”. Brenzinger & König, eds. 2010, 176–200.
Vossen, Rainer
1984“Studying the Linguistic and Ethno-History of the Khoe-Speaking (Central Khoisan) Peoples of Botswana: Research in progress”. Botswana Notes and Records 16.19–35.
1991“‘Hottentottisch’ und die Genussprachen der nord- und nordostafrikanischen Viehhalter – Spekulationen über genetische Zusammenhänge: Ein Beitrag zur Forschungsgeschichte”. Ägypten im Afro-Orientalischen Kontext: Aufsätze zur Archäologie, Geschichte und Sprache eines unbegrenzten Raumes (Gedenkschrift Peter Behrens) ed. by Daniela Mendel & Ulrike Claudi (= Afrikanistische Arbeitspapiere, Sondernummer 1991), 411–426. Cologne: Institut für Afrikanistik, University of Cologne.
1997Die Khoe-Sprachen: Ein Beitrag zur Erforschung der Sprachgeschichte Afrikas. (= Research in Khoisan Studies, 12.) Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe.
2007 “Languages of the Desert ... and What They Can Tell Us about the Economic History of Southern Africa”. Cultural Change in the Prehistory of Arid Africa ed. by Wilhelm J.G. Möhlig (= Sprache und Geschichte in Afrika, 18), 175–185. Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe.
2010“The Verbal ‘Linker’ in Central Khoisan (Khoe) in the Context of Deverbal Derivation”. Journal of Asian and African Studies 80.47–60.
2011 “Patterns of Linguistic Convergence in the Khoe-Speaking Area of Southern Africa”. Geographical Typology and Linguistic Areas, with Special Reference to Africa ed. by Osamu Hieda, Christa König & Hirosi Nakagawa (= Tokyo University of Foreign Studies, Studies in Linguistics, 2), 189–200. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Crossref link
ed. 2013The Khoesan Languages. London: Routledge.
2013 “Introduction”. Vossen, ed. 2013, 1–12.
Vossen, Rainer & Wilfrid H.G. Haacke
eds. Forthcoming. Essays in Memory of Anthony Traill. (= Research in Khoisan Studies.) Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe.
Vossen, Rainer & Klaus Keuthmann
eds 1986Contemporary Studies on Khoisan. 2 vols. (=  Research in Khoisan Studies, 5.) Hamburg: Helmut Buske.
Wallmann, Johann Christian
1854Vocabular der Namaqua-Sprache nebst einem Abriss der Formenlehre derselben. Wuppertal: Barmen.
Werner, H.
1906 “Anthropologische, ethnologische und ethnographische Beobachtungen über die Heikum- und Kungbuschleute, nebst einem Anhang über die Sprachen dieser Buschmannstämme”. Zeitschrift für Ethnologie 38:3.241–268.
Westermann, Diedrich
1940 “Die Sprachen”. Völkerkunde von Afrika ed. by Hermann 
Baumann, R. Thurnwald & Diedrich Westermann, 375–433. Essen: Essener Verlagsanstalt.
Westphal, Ernst O[swald] J[ohannes]
1956 “The Non-Bantu Languages of Southern Africa”. Supplement toArchibald N. Tucker & Margaret A. Bryan, The Non-Bantu Languages of North-Eastern Africa (= Handbook of African Languages, 3), 158–173. London: Oxford University Press.
Westphal, Ernst O.J.
1962a“A Re-Classification of Southern African Non-Bantu Languages”. Journal of African Languages 1.1–8.
1962b“On Classifying Bushman and Hottentot Languages”. African Language Studies 3.30–48.
1963“The Linguistic Prehistory of Southern Africa: Bush, Kwadi, Hottentot, and Bantu linguistic relationships”. Africa 33.237–265. Crossref link
1965 “Linguistic Research in S.W.A. and Angola”. Die ethnischen Gruppen in Südwestafrika (= Wissenschaftliche Forschung in Südwestafrika, 3), 125–144. Windhoek: S.W.A. Wissenschaftliche Gesellschaft.
1971 “The Click Languages of Southern and Eastern Africa”. Linguistics in Sub-Saharan Africa ed. by Thomas A. Sebeok (= Current Trends in Linguistics, 7), 367–420. The Hague: Mouton.
1974 “Notes on A. Traill: ‘N4 or S7’”. African Studies 33:4.243–47. Crossref link
1980 “The Age of ‘Bushman’ Languages in Southern African Pre-History”. Snyman, ed. 1980, 59–79.
. No date. “Ganade Papers”. Ernst Westphal: San Languages Collection. Cape Town: University of Cape Town. (http://​www​.lib​.uct​.ac​.za​/digitalcollections​/index​.php​?cat​=collection​&id​=14).
Widlok, Thomas
1999Living on Mangetti: Bushman autonomy and Namibian independence. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Wierzbicka, Anna
2007 “Bodies and their Parts: An NSM approach to semantic typology”. Language Sciences 29:1.14–65. Crossref link
Wilkins, David P.
1996 “Natural Tendencies of Semantic Change and the Search for Cognates”. Durie & Ross, eds. 1996, 264–304.
Wilmsen, Edwin N.
1989Land Filled with Flies: A political economy of the Kalahari. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Winford, Donald
2005 “Contact-Induced Changes: Classification and processes”. Diachronica 22:2.373–427. Crossref link
Winter, Jürgen C.
1981 “Die Khoisan-Familie”. Heine, Schadeberg & Wolff, eds. 1981, 329–374.
Wolff, H. Ekkehard
2008 “Issues in the Historical Phonology of Chadic Languages”. Paper presented at the Leipzig Spring School on Linguistic Diversity, March 26–April 4, 2008. (http://​www​.eva​.mpg​.de​/lingua​/conference​/08​_springschool​/pdf​/course​_materials​/Wolff​_Historical​_Phonology​.pdf).
Wood, Elizabeth T., Daryn A. Stover, Christopher Ehret, et al.
2005“Contrasting Patterns of Y Chromosome and mtDNA Variation in Africa: Evidence for sex-biased demographic processes”. European Journal of Human Genetics 13.867–876. Crossref link
Cited by

Cited by other publications

Barnard, Alan
2019.  In Bushmen, Crossref logo
Busby, George BJ, Gavin Band, Quang Si Le, Muminatou Jallow, Edith Bougama, Valentina D Mangano, Lucas N Amenga-Etego, Anthony Enimil, Tobias Apinjoh, Carolyne M Ndila, Alphaxard Manjurano, Vysaul Nyirongo, Ogobara Doumba, Kirk A Rockett, Dominic P Kwiatkowski & Chris CA Spencer
2016. Admixture into and within sub-Saharan Africa. eLife 5 Crossref logo
Fortes‐Lima, Cesar, Ezekia Mtetwa & Carina Schlebusch
2019. Unraveling African diversity from a cross‐disciplinary perspective. Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews 28:6  pp. 288 ff. Crossref logo
González-Santos, Miguel, Francesco Montinaro, Ockie Oosthuizen, Erica Oosthuizen, George B.J. Busby, Paolo Anagnostou, Giovanni Destro-Bisol, Vincenzo Pascali & Cristian Capelli
2015. Genome-Wide SNP Analysis of Southern African Populations Provides New Insights into the Dispersal of Bantu-Speaking Groups. Genome Biology and Evolution 7:9  pp. 2560 ff. Crossref logo
Montinaro, Francesco, George B. J. Busby, Miguel Gonzalez-Santos, Ockie Oosthuitzen, Erika Oosthuitzen, Paolo Anagnostou, Giovanni Destro-Bisol, Vincenzo L. Pascali & Cristian Capelli
2017. Complex Ancient Genetic Structure and Cultural Transitions in Southern African Populations. Genetics 205:1  pp. 303 ff. Crossref logo
Montinaro, Francesco, George B.J. Busby, Vincenzo L. Pascali, Simon Myers, Garrett Hellenthal & Cristian Capelli
2015. Unravelling the hidden ancestry of American admixed populations. Nature Communications 6:1 Crossref logo
H. Ekkehard Wolff
2019.  In The Cambridge Handbook of African Linguistics, Crossref logo

This list is based on CrossRef data as of 21 january 2020. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers. Any errors therein should be reported to them.

Subjects
BIC Subject: CFF – Historical & comparative linguistics
BISAC Subject: LAN009000 – LANGUAGE ARTS & DISCIPLINES / Linguistics / General
U.S. Library of Congress Control Number:  2014013841