Article published in:Language Endangerment: Disappearing metaphors and shifting conceptualizations
Edited by Elisabeth Piirainen and Ari Sherris
[Cognitive Linguistic Studies in Cultural Contexts 7] 2015
► pp. 111–136
6. Literacy and language instruction
Flathead Salish metaphor and a task-based pedagogy for its revitalization
Flathead Salish, a critically endangered language spoken by dwindling numbers of first language speakers from the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes in Montana, USA, is the object of collaborative efforts at language revitalization. Often such efforts rely on traditional categories of language from which to base dictionaries, pedagogical grammars, and language textbooks for heritage learners, both children and adults. Missing from most revitalization efforts is the analysis of conceptual metaphors that could support language and literacy revitalization by supporting the semantic and pragmatic underpinnings of the language and potentially reducing calquing by heritage learners, or at the very least, alerting learns to its occurrences. Consequently, this study fills a gap by describing 19 metaphors, comparing them to English, and illustrating possible task-based language teaching approaches for their use.
Keywords: Montana Salish, task-based language teaching, language revitalization, Flathead Salish, Conceptual Metaphor Theory
Published online: 14 October 2015
Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes
(2004) People of vision. Retrieved from http://www.cskt.org/
(2003) Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. BoP
(Ed.) (2001) Can threatened languages be saved? Reversing language shift, revisited: A 21st century perspective. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters Ltd.
Kiyosawa, K.G., & Donna, B.
(2002) Metaphor: A practical introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. MetBib
(1999) The Salish language family. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press.
(1992) The contemporary theory of metaphor. In A. Ortony (Ed.), Metaphor and thought (pp.202–253). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. BoP
(1993) The contemporary theory of metaphor. In A Ortony (Ed.), Metaphor and Thought (pp. 202–251). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. BoP
Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M.
(1999) Philosophy in the flesh: The embodied mind and its challenge to Western thought. New York: Basic Books. BoP
(1980/2003) Metaphors we live by. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. BoP
Larsen-Freeman, D., & Cameron, L.
(2008) Complex systems and applied linguistics. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
(2015) Second language acquisition and task-based language teaching. West Sussex, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
(2012) Walking like a porcupine, talking like a raven: Figurative language in Upper Tanana Athabascan. In A. Idström & E. Piirainen (Eds.), Endangered metaphors (pp.103–121). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. BoP
(1995) Metaphors of anger in Japanese. In J.R. Taylor & R.E. MacLaury (Eds.), Language and the cognitive construal of the world (pp.137–151). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. MetBib
(1990) Restructuring. Applied Linguistics, 11, 113–128. BoP
Nk̦ʷusm Language Institute
(2013) About Nk̦ʷusm. Retrieved from http://www.salishworld.com/About.htm
(1998) Foraging for patterns in Interior Salish semantic domains. In E. Czaykowska-Higgins & M. Kinkade (Eds.), Salish languages and linguistics: Theoretical and descriptive perspectives. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Accessed from http://books.google.com/books?id=VBvD52-QKcAC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false doi:
(Ed.) (2010) seliš nyoʔnuntn Medicine for the Salish language. Pablo, MT: Salish Kootenai College Press.
(1979) The conduit metaphor. In A. Ortony (Ed.), Metaphor and thought (pp.284–324). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. BoP
Reyhner, J., & Eder, J.
(2004) American Indian education: A history. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.
(2012) “Our language is very literal”: Figurative expression in Dene Sųłiné [Athapaskan]. In A. Idström & E. Piirainen (Eds.), Endangered Metaphors (pp.21–76). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. BoP
Rosekrans, K., Sherris, A., & Chatry-Komarek, M.
(2009) A hermeneutic approach to teacher education: Talmudic pair work. In A. Gallup (Chair), Responding to the needs of language teachers: Reconceptualizing professional development. Symposium conducted at the International conference on Language Teacher Education, Washington, DC.
Sherris, A., Pete, T., Thompson, L., & Haynes, E.
Steward, E., & Bennett, M.
(1991) American cultural patterns: A cross cultural perspective. Boston, MA: Nicholas Brealey Publishing.
(1994) Transitivity-related morphological alternations in Montana Salish. ICSNL, 29, 265–287.
Thompson, M., & Egesdal, S.
(2008) Salish myths and legends: One people’s stories.
Van den Branden, K., Bygate, M., & Norris, J.
(Eds.) (2009) Task-based language teaching: A reader. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. BoP