List of tables
Comparison between the static and the dynamic pradigms, extracted and slightly adapted from Bailey (1973, p. 34).
Jesuit Missions in the Kawapanan area (after Fuentes, 1988, p. 17; Ochoa-Gilonne, 2007, p. 33)
Shawi person-marking suffixes
Shawi consonant inventory.
Keywords for consonants
Means of F1 and F2 after 16 tokens
Distribution of consonantal phonemes. (Y) indicates a consonant occurs in position (X) while (N) indicates that it does not. (-) indicates that, although that combination is possible, such a syllable is not existent in the corpus. ‘#_’ stands for word initial; ‘._/’, for syllable initial, ‘V._’, for post-vocalic; ‘_.’, for syllable final, ‘_#’, for word final; and ‘_(x)y’, for preceding vowel (x), with a particular phonemic contrast (y).
Common nouns in Shawi
Oblique case markers in Shawi
Subject suffixes in the non-future tense
Subject suffixes in the future tense
Subject suffixes in the subjunctive
Subject agreement suffixes in the dubitative mood
Subject suffixes in the purposive
Subject suffixes in the sequential mood
Subject suffixes in the simultaneous
Subject suffixes in the hypothetical mood
Person object forms in Shawi
Common adjectives in Shawi
Interrogative pronouns in Shawi
Deictics in Shawi
Numerals in Shawi
Place adverbs in Shawi
Common temporal adverbs in Shawi
Modal adverbs in Shawi
Quantity adverbs in Shawi
Common interjections in Shawi
Lexical vs. morphological causatives in Shawi
Valency increasing -te
Valency decreasing –te
Performer/agent nominalisation (EM_NOM_Balsapuerto_CYP_310714)
Person-marking in Shawi
Grammatical relations in Shawi
Maquiritari, Hixkaryana, Waiwai, Galibi, Carib, E’napa Woromaipu, and Macuchi pronouns
Eastern Bolivian Guarani, Paraguayan Guarani, Mundurukú, Aché, and Urarina pronouns
The Kawapanan and Puelche pronominal systems. The table also includes Proto-Kawapanan (P. M. Valenzuela Bismarck, 2011; L. M. Rojas-Berscia & Nikulin, 2016) for comparative purposes.
The Kawapanan and Puelche subject suffixes/prefixes systems, based on Rojas-Berscia and Nikulin (2016) for Proto-Kawapanan (Proto-Kawapanan) and Viegas Barros (2017) for Puelche.
The Kawapanan object suffix system compared to the Puelche second prefix system.
Proto-Kawapanan and Puelche lexical affinities
A comparison of the languages between the Kawapanan-Puelche space. Forms that show some resemblance appear in bold.
Features shared by the major Andean languages (Quechua and Aymara) and Kawapanan languages. Red asterisks indicate a discrepancy between my analysis and that in Valenzuela (2015, p. 47). Some sections from the original were left out.
Features which Kawapanan and the major Andean languages do not share. Bold indicates a discrepancy with Valenzuela’s (2015, p. 13) analysis.
Case systems in Quechua, Aymara (based on Cerrón-Palomino (2008)), Shawi and Shiwilu (Barraza de García, 2005a; L. M. Rojas-Berscia, 2013; Valenzuela et al., 2013)
A comparison between the Quechua, 18th-century Shiwilu and Shawi numeral systems. Quechua loans are marked in bold.
Non-future verbal paradigm for the verb ‘to eat’ in Quechumara (Cerrón-Palomino, 2008) and Kawapanan (L. M. Rojas-Berscia, 2019a; van Schie, 2018)
Selk’nam OVS (L. M. Rojas-Berscia, 2014)
Lexemes list following Relación de la tierra de Jaén
(Torero, 2002, p. 273)
Lexical parallelisms between Kawapanan and Carib*,** (adapted from Jolkesky, 2016, pp. 495–496)
Some parallelisms between Kawapanan and Chachapuya (based on L. M. Rojas-Berscia (2020)
Lexical parallelisms between Proto-Kawapanan and Arawak*,** (adapted*** from Jolkesky (2016, pp. 365–366))
Muniche pronominal system compared with that of Arawak (Gibson, 1996):
The possession paradigm in Shawi