References
Brandl, K.
(2008) Communicative language teaching in action. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
Bryfonski, L., & Ma, X.
(2020) Effects of implicit versus explicit corrective feedback on mandarin tone acquisition in a SCMC learning environment. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 42 (1), 61–88. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Carroll, S.
(2001) Input and evidence: The raw material of second language acquisition: Volume 25. Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Chang, C. B.
(2018) Perceptual attention as the locus of transfer to nonnative speech perception. Journal of Phonetics, 68 1, 85–102. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Chang, C. B., & Bowles, A. R.
(2015) Context effects on second-language learning of tonal contrasts. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 138 (6), 3703–3716. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Chandrasekaran, B., Yi, H. G., Smayda, K. E., & Maddox, W. T.
(2016) Effect of explicit dimensional instruction on speech category learning. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 78 (2), 566–582. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Chao, Y.
(1968) A grammar of spoken Chinese. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Chinese Test International
(2021) Chinese Proficiency Test. http://​www​.chinesetest​.cn​/gosign​.do​?id​=1​&lid​=0# (5 June 2021).
Chun, D. M., Jiang, Y., Meyr, J., & Yang, R.
(2015) Acquisition of L2 Mandarin Chinese tones with learner-created tone visualizations. Journal of Second Language Pronunciation, 1 (1), 86–114. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Cook, S. V., & Gor, K.
(2015) Lexical access in L2: Representational deficit or processing constraint?. The mental lexicon, 10 (2), 247–270. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Cook, S. V., Pandža, N. B., Lancaster, A. K., & Gor, K.
(2016) Fuzzy nonnative phonolexical representations lead to fuzzy form-to-meaning mappings. Frontiers in Psychology, 7 1, 1345. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Curtain, H., & Dahlberg, C.
(2010) Languages and children. Making the match. New languages for young learners, grades K-8. 4th Edi. New York, NY: Pearson.Google Scholar
Cutler, A.
(2012) Native listening: Language experience and the recognition of spoken words. Cambridge: MIT Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Darcy, I., Daidone, D., & Kojima, C.
(2013) Asymmetric lexical access and fuzzy lexical representations in second language learners. The mental lexicon, 8 (3), 372–420. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
DeKeyser, R.
(2015) Skill-acquisition theory. In B. VanPatten & J. Williams (Eds.), Theories in second language acquisition: An introduction (2nd ed., pp. 94–122). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Derwing, T. M., & Munro, M. J.
(2005) Second language accent and pronunciation teaching: A research-based approach . TESOL Quarterly, 39 (3), 379–397. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Dickerson, W. B.
(2000, March). Covert rehearsal as a bridge to accurate fluency. In the Annual Meeting of the Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, Vancouver, BC.Google Scholar
Diependaele, K., Lemhöfer, K., & Brysbaert, M.
(2013) The word frequency effect in first-and second-language word recognition: A lexical entrenchment account. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 66 (5), 843–863. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Duanmu, S.
(2007) The phonology of standard Chinese (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Dupoux, E., Sebastián-Gallés, N., Navarrete, E., & Peperkamp, S.
(2008) Persistent stress ‘deafness’: The case of French learners of Spanish. Cognition, 106 (2), 682–706. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Elgort, I.
(2011) Deliberate learning and vocabulary acquisition in a second language. Language learning, 61 (2), 367–413. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Ellis, N. C.
(2015) Implicit AND explicit language learning. Implicit and explicit learning of languages, 48, 3. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Ellis, R.
(2005) Principles of instructed language learning. System, 33 (2), 209–224. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Francis, A. L., Ciocca, V., & Ng, B. K. C.
(2003) On the (non) categorical perception of lexical tones. Perception & psychophysics, 65 (7), 1029–1044. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Gass, S.
(2003) Input and interaction. In: C. Doughty, & M. Long (Eds.), The handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 224–255). Oxford: Blackwell. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Gass, S. M.
(2013) Second language acquisition: An introductory course. Routledge. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Gregg, Kevin R.
(2003) The state of emergentism in second language acquisition. Second Language Research 19(2). 95–128. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Griffiths, C.
(2013) The strategy factor in successful language learning. Bristol: Multilingual Matters. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
González-Fernández, B., & Schmitt, N.
(2017) Vocabulary acquisition. The Routledge handbook of instructed second language acquisition, 280–298. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Hardison, D. M.
(2004) Generalization of computer-assisted prosody training: Quantitative and qualitative findings. Language Learning & Technology, 8 (1), 34–52.Google Scholar
Han, J. I., & Tsukada, K.
(2020) Lexical representation of Mandarin tones by non-tonal second-language learners. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 148 (1), EL46–EL50. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Hao, Y. C.
(2012) Second language acquisition of Mandarin Chinese tones by tonal and non-tonal language speakers. Journal of phonetics, 40 (2), 269–279. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2018) Contextual effect in second language perception and production of Mandarin tones. Speech Communication, 97 1, 32–42. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Hao, Y. C., & Liu, J. L. C.
(2019) The effects of tone training on tone perception accuracy in Chinese language classrooms. Classroom Research on Chinese as a Second Language, 211. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Heift, T.
(2004) Corrective feedback and learner uptake in CALL. ReCALL: The Journal of EUROCALL, 161, 416–431. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Hallé, P. A., Chang, Y. C., & Best, C. T.
(2004) Identification and discrimination of Mandarin Chinese tones by Mandarin Chinese vs. French listeners. Journal of phonetics, 32 (3), 395–421. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Howie, John
1976Acoustical studies of Mandarin vowels and tones. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Isaacs, T., & Harding, L.
(2017) Pronunciation assessment. Language Teaching, 50 (3), 347–366. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Krashen, S. D.
(1983) Natural approach (pp. 20–20). New York: Pergamon.Google Scholar
Lappin-Fortin, K., & Rye, B. J.
(2014) The use of pre-/posttest and self-assessment tools in a French pronunciation course. Foreign Language Annals, 47 (2), 300–320. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Language Testing International
(2021) How long does it take to become proficient? https://​www​.languagetesting​.com​/how​-long​-does​-it​-take (2 February 2021).
Lee, L.
(2002) Enhancing learners ‘communication skills through synchronous electronic interaction and task-based instruction. Foreign Language Annals, 351, 16–24. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Lee, L., & Nusbaum, H. C.
(1993) Processing interactions between segmental and suprasegmental information in native speakers of English and Mandarin Chinese. Perception & Psychophysics, 53 (2), 157–165. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Lenkaitis, C. A.
(2020) Virtual exchanges for intercultural communication development: Using can-do statements for ICC self-assessment. Journal of International and Intercultural Communication, 1–17.Google Scholar
Li, M., & DeKeyser, R.
(2017) Perception practice, production practice, and musical ability in L2 Mandarin tone-word learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 39 (4), 593. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Liu, J., & Xiao, C.
(2021) Tone Category Learning Should Serve Tone Word Learning: An Experiment of Integrating Pronunciation Teaching in the L2 Chinese Curriculum. The Acquisition of Chinese as a Second Language Pronunciation: Segments and Prosody, 1411. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Li, S., Ellis, R., & Shu, D.
(2016) The differential effects of immediate and delayed feedback on learners of different proficiency levels. Foreign Languages and Foreign Language Research, 2861, 1–15.Google Scholar
Lin, Mao-Ts’an
1965The pitch indicator and the pitch characteristics of tones in Standard Chinese. Acta Acoustica (2). 8–15.Google Scholar
Ling, W., & Grüter, T.
(2020) From sounds to words: The relation between phonological and lexical processing of tone in L2 Mandarin. Second Language Research, 0267658320941546. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Ling, W., Schafer, A. J., and Grüter, T.
(2016) Identification and discrimination of tone by L2 learners of Mandarin. Unpublished oral presentation at the Second Language Research Forum, New York, NY, USA.
Lively, S. E., Logan, J. S., & Pisoni, D. B.
(1993) Training Japanese listeners to identify English/r/and/l/. II: The role of phonetic environment and talker variability in learning new perceptual categories. The Journal of the acoustical society of America, 94 (3), 1242–1255. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Liu, S., & Samuel, A. G.
(2007) The role of Mandarin lexical tones in lexical access under different contextual conditions. Language and Cognitive Processes, 22 (4), 566–594. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Loschky, L., & Bley-Vroman, R.
(1990) Creating structure-based communication tasks for second language development. University of Hawai’i Working Papers in English as a Second Language 9 (1).Google Scholar
Lyster, R., Saito, K., & Sato, M.
(2012) Oral corrective feedback in second language classrooms. Language Teaching, 46 1, 1–40. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Mixdorff, H., Külls, D., Hussein, H., Shu, G., Guoping, H., & Si, W.
(2009) Towards a computer-aided pronunciation training system for German learners of Mandarin. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Speech and Language Technology in Education (SLaTE), Wroxall Abbey, Warwickshire, UK.Google Scholar
Moeller, A. K., & Yu, F.
(2015) NCSSFL-ACTFL Can-Do statements: An effective tool for improving language learning within and outside the classroom.Google Scholar
Mora, J. C., & Levkina, M.
(2017) Task-based pronunciation teaching and research. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 39 (2), 381. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Morett, L. M., & Chang, L. Y.
(2015) Emphasizing sound and meaning: Pitch gestures enhance Mandarin lexical tone acquisition. Language, Cognition and Neuroscience, 30 (3), 347–353. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Munro, M. J., & Derwing, T. M.
(2015) A prospectus for pronunciation research in the 21st century: A point of view. Journal of Second Language Pronunciation, 1 (1), 11–42. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Nassaji, H.
(2016) Anniversary article interactional feedback in second language teaching and learning: A synthesis and analysis of current research. Language Teaching Research, 20 (4), 535–562. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Nation, I. S.
(2013) Learning vocabulary in another language Google eBook. Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Neal, R.
(2020) Knocking tones off their perch: investigating the intelligibility of Anglophone beginner learners of Mandarin Chinese at two secondary schools in the North of England (Doctoral dissertation, University of Cambridge).
Oxford, R. L.
(2011) Teaching and researching language learning strategies. Harlow: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
(2017) Teaching and researching language learning strategies: Self regulation in context. New York and London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Pawlak, M., & Szyszka, M.
(2018) Researching pronunciation learning strategies: An overview and a critical look. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 8 (2), 293–323. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Pelzl, E.
(2019) What makes second language perception of Mandarin tones hard?: A non-technical review of evidence from psycholinguistic research. Chinese as a Second Language. The Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association, USA, 54 (1), 51–78. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Pelzl, E., Lau, E. F., Guo, T., & DeKeyser, R.
(2019) Advance Second Language Learners’ Perception of Lexical Tone Contrasts. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 41 (1), 59–86. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2020) Even in the best-case scenario L2 learners have persistent difficulty perceiving and utilizing tones in Mandarin: findings from behavioral and event-related potentials experiments. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 1–29.Google Scholar
Peng, G., Zheng, H. Y., Gong, T., Yang, R. X., Kong, J. P., & Wang, W. S. Y.
(2010) The influence of language experience on categorical perception of pitch contours. Journal of Phonetics, 38 (4), 616–624. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Perrachione, T. K., Lee, J., Ha, L. Y., & Wong, P. C.
(2011) Learning a novel phonological contrast depends on interactions between individual differences and training paradigm design. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 130 (1), 461–472. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Qin, Z., Tremblay, A., & Zhang, J.
(2019) Influence of within-category tonal information in the recognition of Mandarin-Chinese words by native and non-native listeners: An eye-tracking study. Journal of Phonetics, 73 1, 144–157. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Rifkin, B.
(2005) A ceiling effect in traditional classroom foreign language instruction: Data from Russian. The Modern Language Journal, 89 (1), 3–18. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Saito, K., & Wu, X.
(2014) Communicative focus on form and second language suprasegmental learning: Teaching Cantonese learners to perceive Mandarin tones. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 36 (4), 647–680. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Sicola, L.
(2008) “No, they won’t ‘just sound like each other’”: NNS-NNS negotiated interaction and attention to phonological form on targeted L2 pronunciation tasks (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania.
Shen, G., & Froud, K.
(2016) Categorical perception of lexical tones by English learners of Mandarin Chinese. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 140 (6), 4396–4403. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
(2019) Electrophysiological correlates of categorical perception of lexical tones by English learners of Mandarin Chinese: an ERP study. Bilingualism, 22 (2), 253–265. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Shi, H.
(2018) A method of teaching English speaking learners to produce Mandarin-Chinese tones (Doctoral dissertation). https://​researchrepository​.wvu​.edu​/etd​/6633/. Crossref
Solon, M., Long, A. Y., & Gurzynski-Weiss, L.
(2017) Task complexity, language-related episodes, and production of L2 Spanish vowels. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 39 (2), 347. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Spada, N.
(2011) Beyond form-focused instruction: Reflections on past, present and future research. Language Teaching, 44 (2), 225. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Strange, W., & Dittmann, S.
(1984) Effects of discrimination training on the perception of/rl/by Japanese adults learning English. Perception & psychophysics, 36 (2), 131–145. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Suzuki, Y., Nakata, T., & Dekeyser, R.
(2019) Optimizing second language practice in the classroom: Perspectives from cognitive psychology. The Modern Language Journal, 103 (3), 551–561. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Swain, M.
(1995) Three functions of output in second language learning. In: H. G. Widdowson, G. Cook, & B. Seidlhofer (Eds.), Principle and practice in applied linguistics: Studies in honour of h. G. Widdowson (pp. 125–144). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Terrell, T. D.
(1982) The natural approach to language teaching: An update. The Modern Language Journal, 66 (2), 121–132. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Thomson, R. I.
(2012) Improving L2 listeners’ perception of English vowels: A computer-mediated approach. Language Learning, 62 (4), 1231–1258. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Tsukada, K., & Han, J. I.
(2019) The perception of Mandarin lexical tones by native Korean speakers differing in their experience with Mandarin. Second Language Research, 35 (3), 305–318. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Wang, Y., Sereno, J. A., Jongman, A., & Hirsch, J.
(2003) fMRI evidence for cortical modification during learning of Mandarin lexical tone. Journal of cognitive neuroscience, 15 (7), 1019–1027. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Weber, A., & Cutler, A.
(2004) Lexical competition in non-native spoken-word recognition. Journal of memory and language, 50 (1), 1–25. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Weber, A., & Scharenborg, O.
(2012) Models of spoken-word recognition. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science, 3 (3), 387–401.Google Scholar
Wiener, S., Ito, K., & Speer, S. R.
(2018) Early L2 spoken word recognition combines input-based and knowledge-based processing. Language and speech, 61 (4), 632–656. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Wiggins, G. P., Wiggins, G., & McTighe, J.
(2005) Understanding by design. Ascd.Google Scholar
Wong, P. C., & Perrachione, T. K.
(2007) Learning pitch patterns in lexical identification by native English-speaking adults. Applied Psycholinguistics, 28 (4), 565. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Wong, P., & Strange, W.
(2017) Phonetic complexity affects children’s Mandarin tone production accuracy in disyllabic words: A perceptual study. PloS one, 12 (8), e0182337. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Xu, Y.
(1999) Effects of tone and focus on the formation and alignment of f0 contours. Journal of phonetics, 27 (1), 55–105. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Yang, J.
(2015) Teacher and pupil beliefs about beginning to learn Chinese language in English secondary schools (Doctoral dissertation, University of Warwick).
Yang, B., & Yang, N.
(2019) Development of disyllabic tones in different learning contexts. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 57 (2), 205–233. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Yeung, H. H., Chen, K. H., & Werker, J. F.
(2013) When does native language input affect phonetic perception? The precocious case of lexical tone. Journal of Memory and Language, 68 (2), 123–139. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Yue, Y.
(2017) Teaching Chinese in K–12 schools in the United States: What are the challenges?. Foreign Language Annals, 50 (3), 601–620. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Zhang, X.
(2018) Mandarin Chinese Tone Identification Training: Developing Materials for Second and Third Grade Classes in Mandarin Chinese Immersion Programs (Master Thesis). https://​repository​.usfca​.edu​/capstone​/764/
Zou, T., Chen, Y., & Caspers, J.
(2017) The developmental trajectories of attention distribution and segment-tone integration in Dutch learners of Mandarin tones. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 20 (5), 1017–1029. CrossrefGoogle Scholar