Chapter published in:Representing the Other in European Media Discourses
Edited by Jan Chovanec and Katarzyna Molek-Kozakowska
[Discourse Approaches to Politics, Society and Culture 74] 2017
► pp. 281–304
Chapter 12Othering in Estonian online discussions about refugees
Talking about the Other evokes strong emotions tied to cultural narratives and folkloric motifs that are shared within communities. Following these discussions offers an entry point into practices of othering and their psychological, cultural and folkloric components. The chapter analyses how the Other is described in semi-public media, reflecting on the refugee crisis that intensified in 2015.The analysis follows online discussions about the 2015 refugee crisis in Estonian public forums. In particular, the focus will be on the incident that triggered much public reverberation, namely setting fire to the refugee centre in Vao, north-eastern Estonia, in early September 2015. The interdisciplinary study is based on insights on othering from the areas of folkloristics and linguistics and relies on the methods offered by digital humanities. It aims to draw conclusions from the news readers’ comments to describe how online forums communicate conflicting emotions and opinions about the Other in the context of conflict. The results suggest that viewpoints become even more polarised in the discussion, othering both the strangers / refugees as well as local Estonian groups for or against accepting immigrants. In the course of heated discussions, folk rhetorics support long-established narratives of cultural trauma.
- 2.1Refugees in Estonia
- 2.2Online flaming
3.Online responses to the arson attack on Vao refugee centre
- 3.2.1Categories of emotions in (anonymous and non-anonymous) comments
Published online: 23 November 2017
, October 20 2015 = Lifson, T. (2015) Three refugee centers in Sweden burned, bringing total to 14 suspected arson attacks this year. American Thinker, October 20, http://www.americanthinker.com/blog/2015/10/three_refugee_centers_in_sweden_burned_bringing_total_to_14_suspected_arson_attacks_this_year.html#ixzz3vhr0Jqem (last accessed at: February 17, 2017).
2016 = Delfi user statistics web page, http://www.urlj.ee/w.delfi.ee (last accessed at: February 17, 2017).
, September 4 2015 = PAGULASDEBATT: Delfi avas osa kommentaariumist, et arutada pagulaste tuleviku üle Euroopas ja Eestis (‘Refugee Debate: Delfi Opened Part of the Discussion Board to Discuss the Future of Refugees in Europe and Estonia’), Delfi, September 4, http://www.delfi.ee/news/paevauudised/arvamus/pagulasdebatt-delfi-avas-osa-kommentaariumist-et-arutada-pagulaste-tuleviku-ule-euroopas-ja-eestis?id=72373267 (last accessed at: February 17, 2017).
, September 7 2015 = Soonvald, U. (2015) Delfi ja Eesti Päevalehe peatoimetaja: sulgesime pagulasteemade kommentaariumi, sest algas vihakõne metsik lääs (‘Delfi and Estonian Daily Editor-in Chief: We closed the discussion boards on refugee-related topics because it became a venue for the wild west of hate speech’), Eesti Päevaleht website, http://epl.delfi.ee/news/eesti/delfi-ja-eesti-paevalehe-peatoimetaja-sulgesime-pagulasteemade-kommentaariumi-sest-algas-vihakone-metsik-laas?id=72384629 (last accessed at: February 17, 2017).
, December 9 2015 = Alfred, C. (2015) What history can teach us about the worst refugee crisis since WWII. Huffington Post, December 9, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/alexander-betts-refugees-wwii_us_55f30f7ce4b077ca094edaec (last accessed at: February 17, 2017).
(2013) GDELT; http://www.gdeltproject.org/. Accessed on January 30, 2016.
2016 = Lotman, Mihhail (2016) Pikkade käte öö (‘The night of long arms’). January 13; http://www.lotman.ee/blogi/pikkade-kate-oo. Accessed on January 30, 2016.
(2015) Eastern Bloc’s resistance to refugees highlights Europe’s cultural and political divisions. New York Times, Sept 12; http://www.nytimes.com/2015/09/13/world/europe/eastern-europe-migrant-refugee-crisis.html?_r=0. Accessed on January 30, 2016.
2015 = Jüristo, Tarmo, Lepik, Kristjan, Solvak, Mihkel, Tamkivi, Sten, Vaarik, Daniel and Vassil, Kristjan (2015) Pagulasprobleemist empiiriliselt (‘Empirical take on refugee issues’). Opinion poll by Turu-uuringute AS, November 18; http://www.slideshare.net/Memokraat/pagulasprobleemist-empiiriliselt. Accessed on January 30, 2016.
, November 10 2015 = Ilves, M. (2015) Sõnavabaduse kaitseks! (‘In the defence of freedom of speech!’), Rahvuslane (‘Nationalist’), November 10, http://rahvuslane.blogspot.com.ee/2015/11/sonavabaduse-kaitseks.html (last accessed at: February 17, 2017).
, February 15 2017 = Vabariigi valitsus (Official page of the Estonian government), a collection of articles on the refugee question, https://valitsus.ee/et/pagulased (last accessed at: February 17, 2017).
, December 4 2015 = Blickle, P. et al. (2015) Violence against refugees: Germany in flames. Zeit Online, December 4, http://www.zeit.de/politik/deutschland/2015-11/anti-immigrant-violence-germany (last accessed at: February 17, 2017).
Baker, Paul, Costas Gabrielatos, Majid KhosraviNik, Michał Krzyzanowski, Tony McEnery and Ruth Wodak
Boldane, Ilze and Aleksejs Šņitņikovs
(2006) Is cultural trauma an impediment to society integration? http://providus.lv/article/is-cultural-trauma-an-impediment-to-society-integration. Accessed on January 30, 2016.
Bronner, Simon J.
Burke, Shani and Simon Goodman
Capdevila, Rose and Jane Callaghan
(2015) #Hashtagging hate: Using Twitter to track racism online. First Monday 20 (2); http://firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/5450/4207. Accessed on January 30, 2016.
Delfi AS v. Estonia
2013 = Court case verdict, Delfi AS v. Estonia, October 10 2013 Making an Internet news portal liable for the offensive online comments of its readers was justified. Strasbourg: European Court of Human Rights; http://hudoc.echr.coe.int/sites/eng/pages/search.aspx?i=001-126635. Accessed on February 1, 2016.
Faure, Gunter and Teresa Mensing
Gagliardone, Iginio, Danit Gal, Thiago Alves and Gabriela Martinez
(2015) Countering Online Hate Speech. Paris: Unesco, http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002332/233231e.pdf. Last accessed on February 1, 2016.
Jasper, James M.
Joinson, Adam N.
Kushin, Mathew J. and Kelin Kitchener
(2009) Getting political on social network sites: Exploring online political discourse on Facebook. First Monday 14 (11), http://www.firstmonday.dk/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/2645/2350. Accessed on January 30, 2016.
Luik, Hans H.
(2012) Kommentaariumi olemusest ja funktsioonidest (‘About the nature and functions of commentary boards’). In: Ude, Indrek and Peeter Vihalemm (Eds.) Eesti Akadeemilise Ajakirjanduse Seltsi aastaraamat (‘Yearbook of the Academic Asscociation of Estonian Journalism’). Tartu: Eesti Akadeemilise Ajakirjanduse Selts, pp. 148–155; http://dspace.ut.ee/bitstream/handle/10062/37325/EAAS2013.pdf. Accessed on January 30, 2017.
Malamuth, Neil and Daniel Linz and Mike Yao
2011 = Miinimumnõuded varjupaigataotlejate sisserände haldamisele, vastuvõtule ja kaitsele Eestis (‘Minimal requirements of maintainting, accepting and defending immigration of refugees in Estonia’) (2011) Rahvusvahelise kaitse saanud isikute integratsioon Eesti ühiskonda: Olemasoleva süsteemi kaardistus ja ettepanekud (‘Integrating persons who have granted international protection to Estonian society: Mapping the present system and new suggestions’). http://www.pagulasabi.ee/sites/default/files/public/rahvusvahelise-kaitse-saanud-isikute-integratsioon-eesti-uhiskonda.pdf. Accessed on January 30, 2016.
2010 = Eesti elanike teadlikkus ja hoiakud pagulasküsimustes (‘Awareness and attitudes of Estonians towards refugee issues’) (2010) Saar Poll survey, ordered by the Ministry of Internal Affairs; https://www.siseministeerium.ee/sites/default/files/dokumendid/Uuringud/Kodakondsus_ja_r2nne/2010_eesti_elanike_teadlikkus_ja_hoiakud_pagulaskusimustes.pdf. Accessed on January 30, 2016.
2014 = Eesti elanike teadlikkus ja hoiakud pagulasküsimustes (‘Awareness and attitudes of Estonians towards refugee issues’) (2014) Saar Poll survey, ordered by Ministry of Internal Affairs; https://www.siseministeerium.ee/sites/default/files/dokumendid/Uuringud/Kodakondsus_ja_r2nne/2014_pagulasuuring_aruanne.pdf. Accessed on January 30, 2016.
Rohr Lopes, Amandha
(2014) The impact of social media on social movements: The new opportunity and mobilizing structure. Journal of Political Science Research, https://www.creighton.edu/fileadmin/user/CCAS/departments/PoliticalScience/Journal_of_Political_Research__JPR_/2014_JSP_papers/Lopes_JPR.pdf. Accessed on January 30, 2016.
Steinfeldt, Jesse A., Brad D. Foltz, Jennifer K. Kaladow, Tracy N. Carlson, Louis A. Pagano Jr., Emily Benton and M. Clint Steinfeldt
Švelch, Jaroslav and Václav Štětka
(2016) Social media and emotions: The coup that flopped: Facebook as a platform for emotional protest. First Monday 21 (1–4). http://firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/6333. Accessed on January 30, 2016.
(2012) Do Poles flame? Aggressiveness in Polish discussion groups and social networking sites. In: Laineste, Liisi, Dorota Brzozowska and Wladyslaw Chlopicki (Eds.) Estonia and Poland. Creativity and Tradition in Cultural Communication. Jokes and their Relations. Tartu: ELM Scholarly Press, pp. 221–236.
Thomas Poell and José van Dijck
Tsafti, Yariv and Gabriel Weimann
(2002) www.terrorism.com: Terror on the Internet. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 25 (5), 317–332.
van Dijk, Teun A.
Cited by 1 other publications
This list is based on CrossRef data as of 31 march 2022. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers. Any errors therein should be reported to them.