The distribution, reconstruction and varied fates of topographical deixis in Trans-Himalayan (Sino-Tibetan)
Implications for the reconstruction of an early Trans-Himalayan environment
Topographical deixis refers to a variety of spatial-environmental deixis, in which typically distal reference to entities is made in terms of a set of topographically-anchored referential planes: most often, upward, downward, or on the same level. This article reviews the genealogical and geographic distribution of topographical deixis in Trans-Himalayan (Sino-Tibetan) languages, reviews the conditions in which topographical deixis in Trans-Himalayan languages may be gained or lost, and concludes that (a) topographical deixis is overwhelmingly found in languages spoken in montane environments, and (b) topographical deixis most likely reconstructs to a deep level within Trans-Himalayan. The language spoken at that level – whose precise phylogenetic status cannot yet be specified – was overwhelmingly likely to have been spoken in a montane environment.
Keywords: deixis, environmental deixis, topographical deixis, linguistic geography, montane languages, Trans-Himalayan languages, Sino-Tibetan languages, Tibeto-Burman languages, Himalayan languages
Published online: 03 August 2020
Anderson, Stephen R. & Edward L. Keenan
Barnard, Joseph Terence Owen
Bhattacharya, Pramod Chandra
Blench, Roger & Mark W. Post
Bodt, Timotheus A. & Ismael Lieberherr
2003 Deictic patterns in Lisu and Southeastern Tibeto-Burman. In David Bradley, Randy J. LaPolla, Boyd Michailovsky & Graham Thurgood (eds.), Language variation: Papers on variation and change in the Sinosphere and in the Indosphere in honour of James A. Matisoff, 219–236. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
Das Gupta, Kamalesh
Ding, Picus Sizhi
Dixon, R. M. W.
2004 Reconstruction of Proto-Qiang verb inflection. In Ying-Chin Lin, Fang-Min Hsu, Chun-Chih Lee, Jackson Tian-Shin Sun, Hsiu-Fang Yang & Dah-An Ho (eds.), Studies on Sino-Tibetan languages: Papers in honor of Professor Hwang-Cherng Gong on his seventieth birthday, 201–238. Taipei: Academia Sinica.
Hammarström, Harald, Robert Forkel & Martin Haspelmath
2018 Glottolog 3.3. Accessed 2018-08-07, http://glottolog.org
Häsler, Katrin Louise
Hildebrandt, Kristine A.
Khaling, Mosyel Syelsaangthyel & Teshangran Tontang
2019 ‘This’ and ‘that’ in Uipo. Paper presented at the 52nd International Conference on Sino-Tibetan Languages and Linguistics, University of Sydney.
LaPolla, Randy J.
LaPolla, Randy J. & Chenglong Huang
Li, Charles N. & Sandra A. Thompson
Lieberherr, Ismael & Timotheus Adrianus Bodt
Matisoff, James A.
2013 The nearest relatives of the Tani group. Paper presented at the 19th Himalayan Languages Symposium, Canberra, Australian National University.
Noonan, Michael & Kristine A. Hildebrandt
Peterson, David A.
Post, Mark W. & Yankee Modi
Post, Mark W. & Kanno Tage
Sagart, Laurent, Guillaume Jacques, Yunfan Lai, Robin J. Ryder, Valentin Thouzeau, Simon J. Greenhill & Johann-Mattis List
2012 On the composition of noun phrases in Lhaovo. Paper presented at the 45th International Conference on Sino-Tibetan Languages and Linguistics, Singapore, Nanyang University.
Solnit, David B.
Sun, Hongkai, Guangkun Liu, Fengxiang Li, Ela Thurgood & Graham Thurgood
Sun, Tianshin Jackson
Tournadre, Nicolas, Lhakpa Norbu Sherpa, Gyurme Chodrak & Guillaume Oisel
Wheatley, Julian K.
Wiersma, Grace Claire
Willett, Thomas L.
Willis, Christina M.
Yaku, Redv́mwàng & Rvwàng Shànshér Lèga Gomidi
Zhang, Menghan, Shi Yan, Wuyun Pan & Li Jin