Article published in:
English World-Wide
Vol. 39:3 (2018) ► pp. 278308
References

References

Anderwald, Lieselotte
2002 “*I amn’t sure – Why Is There No Negative Contracted Form of First Person Singular Be?” In Dieter Kastovsky, ed. Anglistentag 2001, Wien. Trier: WVT, 7–17.Google Scholar
2005 “Negative Concord in British English Dialects”. In Yoko Iyeiri, ed. Aspects of Negation. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 113–137.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2012 “Negation in Varieties of English”. In Raymond Hickey, ed. Areal Features of the Anglophone World. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton, 299–328.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bailey, Beryl L.
1966Jamaican Creole Syntax: A Transformational Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Bickerton, Derek
1975Dynamics of a Creole System. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
1996 “The Origins of Variation in Guyanese”. In Gregory R. Guy, Crawford Feagin, Deborah Schiffrin, and John Baugh, eds. Towards a Social Science of Language. Papers in Honor of William Labov. Vol. 1: Variation and Change in Language and Society. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 311–328.Google Scholar
DeBose, Charles E.
1994 “A Note on Ain’t vs. Didn’t Negation in African American Vernacular”. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 9: 127–130.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Deuber, Dagmar
2014English in the Caribbean: Variation, Style and Standards in Jamaica and Trinidad. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Feagin, Crawford
1979Variation and Change in Alabama English. Washington: Georgetown University Press.Google Scholar
Görlach, Manfred
1999English in Nineteenth-Century England: An Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Green, Lisa J.
2002African American English: A Linguistic Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Hackert, Stephanie
2004Urban Bahamian Creole: System and Variation. Amsterdam: Benjamins.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Hackert, Stephanie, and Magnus Huber
2007 “Gullah in the Diaspora: Historical and Linguistic Evidence from the Bahamas”. Diachronica 24: 279–325.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Holm, John A.
1983 “On the Relationship of Gullah and Bahamian”. American Speech 58: 303.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Horn, Laurence R., and Heinrich Wansing
2016 “Negation”. In Edward N. Zalta, ed. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2016 Edition) https://​plato​.stanford​.edu​/archives​/win2016​/entries​/negation/ (accessed February 8, 2017).
Howe, Darin M.
1997 “Negation and the History of African American English”. Language Variation and Change 9: 267–294.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2005 “Negation in African American Vernacular English”. In Yoko Iyeiri, ed. Aspects of English Negation. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 173–203.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Howe, Darin M., and James A. Walker
2000 “Negation and the Creole-Origins Hypothesis: Evidence from Early African American English”. In Shana Poplack, ed. The English History of African American English. Oxford: Blackwell, 109–140.Google Scholar
Kautzsch, Alexander
2000 “Liberian Letters and Virginian Narratives: Negation Patterns in Two New Sources of Earlier African American English”. American Speech 75: 34–53.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2002The Historical Evolution of Earlier African American English: An Empirical Comparison of Early Sources. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Kortmann, Bernd, and Christoph Wolk
2012 “Morphosyntactic Variation in the Anglophone World: A Global Perspective”. In Bernd Kortmann, and Kerstin Lunkenheimer, eds. The Mouton World Atlas of Variation in English. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton, 906–936.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Kortmann, Bernd, and Kerstin Lunkenheimer
eds. 2013The Electronic World Atlas of Varieties of English. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology http://​ewave​-atlas​.org (accessed January 31, 2017).
Labov, William
1969 “Contraction, Deletion, and Inherent Variability of the English Copula”. Language 45: 715–762.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
1972 “Negative Attraction and Negative Concord in English Grammar”. Language 48: 773–818.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Labov, William, Philip Cohen, Clarence Robins, and John Lewis
1968A Study of the Non-Standard English of Negro and Puerto Rican Speakers in New York City: Co-operative Research Report 3288. Vol. 1: Phonological and Grammatical Analysis. Washington: Office of Education.Google Scholar
McPhee, Helean
2003 “The Grammatical Features of TMA Auxiliaries in Bahamian Creole”. In Michael Aceto, and Jeffrey P. Williams, eds. Contact Englishes of the Eastern Caribbean. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 29–49.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Mille, Katherine W.
1990 “An Historical Analysis of Tense-Mood-Aspect in Gullah Creole: A Case of Stable Variation”. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of South Carolina.Google Scholar
Mufwene, Salikoko S.
1993 “Scope of Negation and Focus in Gullah”. In Francis Byrne, and Donald Winford, eds. Focus and Grammatical Relations in Creole Languages. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 95–116.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2014 “The English Origins of African American Vernacular English: What Edgar W. Schneider Has Taught Us”. In Sarah Buschfeld, Thomas Hoffmann, Magnus Huber, and Alexander Kautzsch, eds. The Evolution of Englishes: The Dynamic Model and Beyond. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 349–364.Google Scholar
2015 “Race, Racialism, and the Study of Language Evolution in America”. In Michael D. Picone, and Catherine Evans Davies, eds. New Perspectives on Language Variety in the South: Historical and Contemporary Approaches. Tuscaloosa: The University of Alabama Press, 449–474.Google Scholar
Nevalainen, Terttu
1999 “Making the Best of ‘Bad’ Data: Evidence for Sociolinguistic Variation in Early Modern English”. Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 100: 499–533.Google Scholar
Paolillo, John C.
2013 “Individual Effects in Variation Analysis: Model, Software, and Research Design.” Language Variation and Change 25: 89–118.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Poplack, Shana, and Sali A. Tagliamonte
2000 “The Grammaticization of going to in (African American) English”. Language Variation and Change 11: 315–342.Google Scholar
Quirk, Randolph, Sidney Greenbaum, Geoffrey Leech, and Jan Svartvik
1985A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. London: Longman.Google Scholar
R Core Team
2017R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing https://​www​.R​-project​.org (accessed June 02, 2017).
Reaser, Jeffrey
2004 “A Quantitative Sociolinguistic Analysis of Bahamian Copula Absence: Morphosyntactic Evidence from Abaco Island, the Bahamas”. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 19: 1–40.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Reaser, Jeffrey, and Benjamin Torbert
2004 “Bahamian English: Morphology and Syntax”. In Bernd Kortmann, Kate Burridge, Rajend Mesthrie, Edgar Schneider, and Clive Upton, eds. A Handbook of Varieties of English. Vol. 2: Morphology and Syntax. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 391–406.Google Scholar
Rickford, John R., and Russell J. Rickford
2000Spoken Soul: The Story of Black English. New York: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
Sankoff, David, Sali A. Tagliamonte, and Eric Smith
2005 “Goldvarb X: A Variable Rule Application for Macintosh and Windows”. Department of Linguistics, University of Toronto http://​individual​.utoronto​.ca​/tagliamonte​/goldvarb​.html (accessed Aug 16, 2014).
Schneider, Edgar W.
1989American Earlier Black English: Morphological and Syntactic Variables. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.Google Scholar
1997 “The Cline of Creoleness in Negation Patterns of Caribbean English Creoles”. In Raymond Hickey, and Stanislaw Puppel, eds. Language History and Linguistic Modelling: A Festschrift for Jacek Fisiak on his 60 Birthday. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 1055–1067.Google Scholar
1999 “Negation Patterns and the Cline of Creoleness in English-Oriented Varieties of the Caribbean”. In Pauline Christie, Barbara Lalla, Velma Pollard, and Lawrence Carrington, eds. Studies in Caribbean Language II: Papers from the 9th Biennial Conference of the Society for Caribbean Linguistics 1992 St. Augustine: Society for Caribbean Linguistics, 204–227.Google Scholar
2000 “Feature Diffusion vs. Contact Effects in the Evolution of New Englishes: A Typological Case Study of Negation Patterns”. English World-Wide 21: 201–230.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Scott, Mike
2014 “WordSmith Tools Version 6”. Liverpool: Lexical Analysis Software http://​www​.lexically​.net​/wordsmith​/version6​/index​.html (accessed Jul 28, 2014).
Sea Island Translation Team
2005De Nyew Testament. The New Testament in Gullah Sea Island Creole with Marginal Text of the King James Version. New York: American Bible Society http://​www​.gullahbible​.com​/e​-GullahNT​/index​.htm (accessed February 8, 2017).
Sells, Peter, John Rickford, and Thomas Wasow
1996 “An Optimality Theoretic Approach to Variation in Negative Inversion in AAVE”. Natural Language & Linguistic Theory 14: 591–627.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Seymour, Kendra C. N.
2009 “Dis How it Does Go: The Organisation of Imperfective Aspect in Urban Bahamian Creole English”. Ph.D. Dissertation, New York University.Google Scholar
Sharma, Devyani, and John R. Rickford
2009 “AAVE/Creole Copula Absence: A Critique of the Imperfect Learning Hypothesis”. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 24: 53–90.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Shilling, Alison W.
1978 “Some Non-Standard Features of Bahamian Dialect Syntax”. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Hawaii.Google Scholar
Singler, John V.
2012a “Liberian Settler English”. In Bernd Kortmann, and Kerstin Lunkenheimer, eds. The Mouton World Atlas of Variation in English. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton, 358–368.Google Scholar
2012b “Vernacular Liberian English”. In Bernd Kortmann, and Kerstin Lunkenheimer, eds. The Mouton World Atlas of Variation in English. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton, 369–381.Google Scholar
Smith, Carlota S.
1997The Parameter of Aspect (2nd ed.). Dordrecht: Kluwer.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Tagliamonte, Sali A.
2006Analysing Sociolinguistic Variation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Troike, Rudolph C.
2012 “Preverbal No-Negation in Gullah”. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 27: 235–254.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Walker, James A.
2000 “Rephrasing the Copula: Contraction and Zero in Early African American English”. In Shana Poplack, ed. The English History of African American English. Oxford: Blackwell, 35–72.Google Scholar
2005 “The Ain’t Constraint: Not-Contraction in Early African American English”. Language Variation and Change 17: 1–17.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Walker, James A., and Jack Sidnell
2011 “Inherent Variability and Coexistent Systems: Negation on Bequia”. In Lars Hinrichs, and Joseph T. Farquharson, eds. Variation in the Caribbean. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 39–55.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Weldon, Tracey L.
1994 “Variability in Negation in African American Vernacular English”. Language Variation and Change 6: 359–397.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2003 “Revisiting the Creolist Hypothesis: Copula Variability in Gullah and Southern Rural AAVE”. American Speech 78: 171–191.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
2007 “Gullah Negation: A Variable Analysis”. American Speech 82: 341–366.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Wickham, Hadley
2009ggplot2. Elegant Graphics for Data Analysis. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
Winford, Donald
1983 “A Sociolinguistic Analysis of Negation in Trinidadian English”. In Lawrence D. Carrington, ed. Studies in Caribbean Language. St. Augustine: Society for Caribbean Linguistics, 203–210.Google Scholar
1997 “On the Origins of African American Vernacular English – A Creolist Perspective. Part I: Sociohistorical Background”. Diachronica 14: 305–344.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
1998 “On the Origins of African American Vernacular English – A Creolist Perspective. Part II: Linguistic Features”. Diachronica 15: 99–154.CrossrefGoogle Scholar