Ethnic variation in the phonology of Namibian English
A first approach to Baster English [*] *
Studies on the pronunciation of Namibian English (NamE) have shown strong evidence for ethnically conditioned variation within the NamE vowel system. Thus, NamE should not be seen as a monolithic entity but rather as a group of ethnically and/or socially conditioned varieties. In this paper, we undertake a first approach to Baster English, a potential ethnic variety of NamE. The Rehoboth Basters constitute a unique ethnically mixed Afrikaans-speaking group from South Africa, who settled in Namibia in the 19th century and are known for their strong sense of a separate local and ethnic identity. Triangulating the results of a quantitative questionnaire on language attitudes and acoustic analyses of vocalic features in informants’ pronunciation, we demonstrate how the Basters’ unique identity translates into linguistic practice in a multi-ethnic and multilingual environment.
Keywords: World Englishes, Southern African Englishes, English in Namibia, Namibian English, ethnic variation, Baster English, Rehoboth Basters, phonetics, phonology, acoustic phonetics
- 2.Historical background
- 3.Language use(s) and attitudes
- 4.Approaching some phonological features of Baster English
- 4.1Previous research on ethnic variation in the phonology of NamE
- 4.2Data collection, processing and analysis
- 4.3.1 kit vowels
- 4.3.2 nurse vowel
- 4.3.3 trap and dress vowels
- 4.3.4 kit and dress vowels
- 6.Summary, conclusions, and outlook
Published online: 09 June 2020
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Schneider, Edgar W. & Anne Schröder
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