Article published In:
English World-Wide
Vol. 43:3 (2022) ► pp.297329
References
Allen, Mike
2017The Sage Encyclopedia of Communication Research Methods (Vols. 1–41). Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Ashby, Michael, and Joanna Przedlacka
2014 “Measuring Incompleteness: Acoustic Correlates of Glottal Articulations”. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 31: 283–296. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Baayen, R. Harald, Douglas J. Davidson, and Douglas M. Bates
2008 “Mixed-Effects Modeling with Crossed Random Effects for Subjects and Items”. Journal of Memory and Language 591: 390–412. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Barnfield, Kate, and Isabelle Buchstaller
2010 “Intensification on Tyneside: Longitudinal Developments and New Trends”. English World-Wide 311: 252–287. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Bates, Douglas, Martin Maechler, Ben Bolker, and Steve Walker
2014 “Fitting Linear Mixed-Effects Models Using lme4”. Journal of Statistical Software 671: 1–48.Google Scholar
Bayard, Donn
1990 “Minder, Mork and Mindy? (-t) Glottalisation and Post-Vocalic (-r) in Younger New Zealand English Speakers”. In Allan Bell, and Janet Holmes, eds. New Zealand Ways of Speaking English. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, 149–164.Google Scholar
Beal, Joan
2009 “Enregisterment, Commodification and Historical Context: ‘Geordie’ versus ‘Sheffieldish’”. American Speech 841: 138–156. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Beal, Joan, Lourdes Burbano-Elizondo, and Carmen Llamas
2012Urban North-Eastern English: Tyneside to Teesside. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Bell, Alan
1984 “Language Style as Audience Design”. In Nicholas Coupland, and Adam Jaworski, eds. Sociolinguistics: A Reader and Coursebook. New York: St Martin’s Press Inc., 240–250.Google Scholar
Bengtson, Vern, Glenn Elder Jr., and Norella Putney
2005 “The Lifecourse Perspective on Ageing: Linked Lives, Timing, and History”. In Malcolm Johnson, Vern Bengtson, Peter Coleman, and Thomas Kirkwood, eds. The Cambridge Handbook of Age and Ageing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 493–501. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Bourdieu, Pierre, and Luc Boltanski
1975 “Le fétichisme de la langue”. Actes de la recherche en sciences sociales 11: 2–32. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Britain, David
2012 “English in England”. In Raymond Hickey, ed. Areal Features of the Anglophone World. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 23–52. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Brook, Marisa, Bridget L. Jankowski, Lex Konnelly, and Sali A. Tagliamonte
2018 “ ‘I Don’t Come Off as Timid Anymore’: Real-Time Change in Early Adulthood Against the Backdrop of the Community”. Journal of Sociolinguistics 221: 351–374. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Buchstaller, Isabelle
2006 “Diagnostics of Age-Graded Linguistic Behaviour”. Journal of Sociolinguistics 101: 3–30. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
2016 “Investigating the Effect of Socio-Cognitive Salience and Speaker-Based Factors in Morpho-Syntactic Life-Span Change”. Journal of English Linguistics 441: 199–229. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Buchstaller, Isabelle, Karen Corrigan, Anders Holmberg, Patrick Honeybone, and Warren Maguire
2013 “T-to-R and the Northern Subject Rule: Questionnaire-Based Spatial, Social and Structural Linguistics”. Journal of English Linguistics 171: 85–128.Google Scholar
Buchstaller, Isabelle, Anne Krause, Anja Auer, and Stefanie Otte
2017 “Levelling Across the Life-Span? Tracing the face Vowel in Panel Data from the North East of England”. Journal of Sociolinguistics 211: 3–33. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Buchstaller, Isabelle, and Adam Mearns
2018 “The Effect of Economic Trajectory and Speaker Profile on Lifespan Change: Evidence from Stative Possessives on Tyneside”. In Sandra Jansen, and Natalie Braber, eds. Sociolinguistics in England. London: Palgrave, 215–241. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Callaghan, Paul
n.d. “North East England – Moving from an Industrial Economy to a Knowledge Economy”. [URL] (accessed September 9, 2021).
Carr, Philip
1991 “Lexical Properties of Postlexical Rules: Postlexical Derived Environment and the Elsewhere Condition”. Lingua 851: 255–268. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
CLARIN-D/SfS-Uni. Tübingen
2012 “WebLicht: Web-Based Linguistic Chaining Tool”. [URL] (accessed 26 November, 2012).
Chambers, Jack K.
2003Sociolinguistic Theory. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.Google Scholar
Coupland, Nikolas
2016 “Labov, Vernacularity and Sociolinguistic Change”. Journal of Sociolinguistics 201: 409–430. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Dickson, Victoria, and Lauren Hall-Lew
2017 “Class, Gender, and Rhoticity: The Social Stratification of Non-Prevocalic /r/ in Edinburgh Speech”. Journal of English Linguistics 451: 229–259. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Dilley, Laura, Stefanie Shattuck-Hufnagel, and Mari Ostendorf
1996 “Glottalization of Word-Initial Vowels as a Function of Prosodic Structure”. Journal of Phonetics 241: 423–444. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Docherty, Gerard, and Paul Foulkes
1995 “Acoustic Profiling of Glottal and Glottalised Variants of English Stops”. In Proceedings of the 13th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences. Stockholm: University of Stockholm, 350–353.Google Scholar
1999a “Derby and Newcastle: Instrumental Phonetics and Variationist Studies”. In Paul Foulkes, and Gerard J. Docherty, eds. Urban Voices: Accent Studies in the British Isles. London: Arnold, 47–71.Google Scholar
1999b “Sociophonetic Variation in ‘Glottals’ in Newcastle English”. Proceedings of the 14th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences. Berkeley: University of California, 1037–1040.Google Scholar
Docherty, Gerard, Paul Foulkes, James Milroy, Lesley Milroy, and David Walshaw
1997 “Descriptive Adequacy in Phonology: A Variationist Perspective”. Journal of Linguistics 331: 275–310. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Downes, William
1998Language and Society (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Drager, Katie, and Jennifer Hay
2012 “Exploiting Random Intercepts: Two Case Studies in Sociophonetics”. Language Variation and Change 241: 59–78. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Eckert, Penelope
2019 “The Individual in the Semiotic Landscape”. Glossa: A Journal of General Linguistics 41: 1–15. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Fabricius, Anne
2000 “T-Glottalling Between Stigma and Prestige: A Sociolinguistic Study of Modern RP”. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Copenhagen Business School.
Foulkes, Paul, and Gerard Docherty
1999 “Urban Voices: An Overview”. In Paul Foulkes, and Gerard J. Docherty, eds. Urban Voices: Accent Studies in the British Isles. London: Arnold, 1–24.Google Scholar
Foulkes, Paul, Gerard Docherty, and Dominic Watt
1999 “Tracking the Emergence of Structured Variation: Realizations of (t) by Newcastle Children”. Leeds Working Papers in Linguistics and Phonetics 71: 1–25.Google Scholar
Foulkes, Paul, and Gerard Docherty
2006 “The Social Life of Phonetics and Phonology”. Journal of Phonetics 341: 409–438. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Fox, John, and Sanford Weisberg
2019An R Companion to Applied Regression (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
Garellek, Marc
2013 “Production and Perception of Glottal Stops”. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles.
Gordon, Elizabeth, Lyle Campbell, Jennifer Hay, Margaret Maclagan, Andrea Sudbury, and Peter Trudgill
2004New Zealand English: Its Origins and Evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Gries, Stefan
2013Statistics for Linguistics with R: A Practical Introduction. Berlin: De Gruyter. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Harrington, Jonathan
2006 “An Acoustic Analysis of ‘Happy-Tensing’ in the Queen’s Christmas Broadcasts”. Journal of Phonetics 341: 439–457. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Harrington, Jonathan, Sallyanne Palethorpe, and Catherine Watson
2007 “Age-Related Changes in Fundamental Frequency and Formants: A Longitudinal Study of Four Speakers”. In Proceedings of Interspeech 2007, 2753–2756. < DOI logo>.Google Scholar
Hayes, Bruce
2009 “Syllabification in English.” [URL] (accessed 15 March, 2021)
Hodgson, Catherine, and Charles David
n.d.. “Case Study North East England (UK)”. [URL] (accessed September 30, 2021).
Holmes, Janet
1995 “Glottal Stops in New Zealand English: An Analysis of Variants of Word-Final /t/”. Linguistics 331: 433–463. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Jansen, Sandra
2013 “ ‘I Don’t Sound like a Geordie!’: Phonological and Morphosyntactic Features of Carlisle English”. In Nils-Lennart Johannesson, Gunnel Melchers, and Beyza Björkman, eds. Of Butterflies and Birds, of Dialects and Genres: Essays in Honour of Philip Shaw. Stockholm: Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis, 209–224.Google Scholar
Johnstone, Barbara, Jennifer Andrus, and Andrew Danielson
2006 “Mobility, Indexicality, and the Enregisterment of ‘Pittsburghese’”. Journal of English Linguistics 341: 77–104. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Kerswill, Paul E.
2003 “Dialect Levelling and Geographical Diffusion in British English”. In David Britain, and Jenny Cheshire, eds. Social Dialectology: In Honour of Peter Trudgill. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 223–243. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Kingsmore, Rona
1995Ulster Scots Speech: A Sociolinguistic Study. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.Google Scholar
Knowles, Jared, and Carl Frederick
2020An Introduction to merTools. [URL]
Ladefoged, Peter
1990 “Some Proposals Concerning Glottal Consonants”. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 201: 24–26. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Llamas, Carmen
2015 “Middlesbrough”. In Raymond Hickey, ed. Researching Northern Englishes. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 251–270. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Local, John, John Kelly, and William Wells
1986 “Towards a Phonology of Conversation: Turntaking in Tyneside”. Journal of Linguistics 221: 411–437. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
MacFarlane, Andrew, and Jane Stuart-Smith
2012 “ ‘One of them Sounds Sort of Glasgow Uniish’: Social Judgements and Fine Phonetic Variation in Glasgow”. Lingua 71: 764–778. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
MacKenzie, Laurel
2017 “Frequency Effects Over the Lifespan: A Case Study of Attenborough’s r’s”. Linguistics Vanguard 31 <>. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
MacKenzie, Laurel, and Gillian Sankoff
2009 “A Quantitative Analysis of Diphthongization in Montreal French”. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics 151: 92–100.Google Scholar
Marshall, Jonathan
2001 “The Sociolinguistic Status of the Glottal Stop in Northeast Scots”. Reading Working Papers in Linguistics 51: 49–65.Google Scholar
Mayer, Karl Ulrich, and Michael Wagner
1993 “Socio-Economic Resources and Differential Aging”. Ageing and Society 51: 517–550. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Mearns, Adam
2015 “Tyneside”. In Raymond Hickey, ed. Researching Northern English. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 161–181. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Mearns, Adam, Karen Corrigan, and Isabelle Buchstaller
2016 “The Diachronic Electronic Corpus of Tyneside English and The Talk of the Toon: Issues in Preservation and Public Engagement”. In Karen Corrigan, and Adam Mearns, eds. Creating and Digitizing Language Corpora – Volume 3: Databases for Public Engagement. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 177–120. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Mechler, Johanna, and Isabelle Buchstaller
2019 “[In]stability in the Use of a Stable Variable”. Linguistics Vanguard 51 <>. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Mees, Inger M.
1987 “Glottal Stop as a Prestigious Feature in Cardiff English”. English World-Wide 81: 25–39. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Mees, Inger, and Beverley Collins
1999 “Cardiff: A Real-Time Study of Glottalisation”. In Paul Foulkes, and Gerard Docherty, eds. Urban Voices: Accent Studies in the British Isles. London: Arnold, 185–202.Google Scholar
Milroy, Lesley, James Milroy, Gerry Docherty, Paul Foulkes, and David Walshaw
1999 “Phonological Variation and Change in Contemporary English: Evidence from Newcastle Upon Tyne and Derby”. Cuadernos de Filologica Inglesa 81:35–46.Google Scholar
Milroy, James, Lesley Milroy, and Sue Hartley
Milroy, James, Lesley Milroy, Sue Hartley, and David Walshaw
1994 “Glottal Stops and Tyneside Glottalization: Competing Patterns of Variation and Change in British English”. Language Variation and Change 61: 327–357. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Minkova, Donka, and Kie Ross Zuraw
2016 “Ambisyllabicity in English: Present and Past”. In Merja Kytö, and Päivi Pahta, eds. The Cambridge Handbook of English Historical Linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 424–443. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Newbrook, Mark
1986Sociolinguistic Reflexes of Dialect Interference in West Wirral. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
Office for National Statistics
n.d. “Unemployment”. [URL] (accessed August 2, 2017).
Pichler, Heike, Suzanne Evans Wagner, and Ashley Hesson
2018 “Old-Age Language Variation and Change: Confronting Variationist Ageism”. Language Linguistics Compass 121 < DOI logo>.Google Scholar
Prichard, Hilary, and Meredith Tamminga
2012 “The Impact of Higher Education on Philadelphia Vowels”. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics 181: 87–95.Google Scholar
R Core Team
2021R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Version 4.0.3. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. [URL].
Reubold, Ulrich, Jonathan Harrington, and Felicitas Kleber
2010 “Vocal Aging Effects on F0 and the First Formant: A Longitudinal Analysis in Adult Speakers”. Speech Communication 521: 638–651. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Reubold, Ulrich, and Jonathan Harrington
2017 “The Influence of Age on Estimating Sound Change Acoustically from Longitudinal Data”. In Karen Beaman, and Isabelle Buchstaller, eds. Panel Studies of Variation and Change, New York: Routledge, 129–151. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Rickford, John, and Faye McNair-Knox
1994 “Addressee- and Topic-Influenced Style Shift: A Quantitative Socio-Linguistic Study”. In Douglas Biber, and Edward Finegan, eds. Perspectives on Register: Situating Register Variation within Sociolinguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 235–276.Google Scholar
Rigg, L.
1987 “A Quantitative Study of Sociolinguistic Patterns of Variation in Adult Tyneside Speakers”. BA Undergraduate dissertation, University of Newcastle upon Tyne.
Sankoff, Gillian
2004 “Adolescents, Young Adults and the Critical Period: Two Case Studies from ‘Seven Up’”. In Carmen Fought, ed. Sociolinguistic Variation: Critical Reflections. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 121–139.Google Scholar
Sankoff, David, and Suzanne Laberge
1978 “The Linguistic Market and the Statistical Explanation of Variability”. In David Sankoff, ed. Linguistic Variation: Models and Methods. New York: Academic Press, 239–250.Google Scholar
Sankoff, Gillian, and Hélène Blondeau
2007 “Language Change Across the Lifespan: /r/ in Montreal French”. Language 831: 560–588. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Sankoff, Gillian, and Wagner, Suzanne Evans
2006 “Age-Grading in Retrograde Movement: The Inflected Future in Montréal French”. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics 121: 203–216.Google Scholar
Sankoff, Gillian, and Suzanne Wagner
2020 “The Long Tail of Language Change: A Trend and Panel Study of Québécois French Futures”. Canadian Journal of Linguistics/Revue Canadienne De Linguistique 651: 246–275. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Schleef, Erik
2013 “Glottal Replacement of /t/ in Two British Capitals: Effects of Word Frequency and Morphological Compositionality”. Language Variation and Change 251: 201–223. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Shariatmadari, David
2015 “Why Have We got it in for the Glottal Stop?”. The Guardian April 30 2015 <[URL] (accessed September 30, 2021).
Smith, Jennifer, and Sophie Holmes-Elliott
2018 “The Unstoppable Glottal: Tracking Rapid Change in an Iconic British Variable”. English Language and Linguistics 221: 323–355. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Stevens, Mary, and Jonathan Harrington
2014 “The Individual and the Actuation of Sound Change”. Loquens 11: e003. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Stuart-Smith, Jane
1999 “Glasgow: Accent and Voice Quality”. In Paul Foulkes, and Gerard Docherty, eds. Urban Voices: Accent Studies in the British Isles. London: Arnold, 203–223.Google Scholar
Student Hut
2020 “Best 10 Universities for 2020: The Top Universities in the UK Based on Student Reviews Collected over 2019”. [URL] (accessed March 16, 2022).
Sundgren, Eva, Isabelle Buchstaller, and Karen Beaman
2021 “The Origin of Panel Corpora: The Case of Eskilstuna”. In Karen Beaman, and Isabelle Buchstaller, eds. Language Variation and Language Change Across the Lifespan. Boston: Routledge, 17–55. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Tetreault, Chantal
2017 “Ethnographic Perspectives on Panel Studies and Longitudinal Research”. In Suzanne Evans Wagner, and Isabelle Buchstaller, eds. Panel Studies of Variation and Change. Boston: Routledge, 235–255. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Tollfree, Laura
1999 “South East London English: Discrete Versus Continuous Modelling of Consonantal Reduction”. In Paul Foulkes and Gerald Docherty, eds. Urban Voices: Accent Studies in the British Isles. London: Arnold, 163–184.Google Scholar
Trudgill, Peter
1988 “Norwich Revisited: Recent Changes in an English Urban Dialect”. English World-Wide 91: 33–49. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Turton, Danielle
2019 “t-Glottalling, Flapping and Pre-Glottalisation in British Englishes: Patterns in Phonological and Social Variability”. Paper presented at the Cambridge Linguistics Forum. 5 December, 2019.
Viereck, Wolfgang
1968 “A Diachronic-Structural Analysis of a Northern English Urban Dialect”. Leeds Studies in English n.s.: 65–79.Google Scholar
Wagner, Suzanne Evans
2012a “Age Grading in Sociolinguistic Theory”. Language and Linguistics Compass 61: 371–382. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
2012b “Real-Time Evidence for Age Grad(ing) in Late Adolescence”. Language Variation and Change 241: 179–202. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Wagner, Suzanne Evans, and Isabelle Buchstaller
eds. 2017Panel Studies in Language Variation and Change. New York: Routledge. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Wagner, Suzanne Evans, and Gillian Sankoff
2011 “Age Grading in the Montréal French Inflected Future”. Language Variation and Change 231: 275–313. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Wells, John C.
1982Accents of English (Vols. 1–21). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Wieling, Martijn, Esteve Valls, Harold Baayen, and John Nerbonne
2018 “Border Effects Among Catalan Dialects”. In Dirk Speelman, Kris Heylen, and Dirk Geeraerts, eds. Mixed-Effects Regression Models in Linguistics. Cham: Springer, 71–97. DOI logoGoogle Scholar
Williams, Ann, and Paul Kerswill
1999 “Dialect Levelling: Change and Continuity in Milton Keynes, Reading and Hull”. In Paul Foulkes, and Gerald Docherty, eds. Urban Voices: Accent Studies in the British Isles. London: Arnold, 141–162.Google Scholar
Yu, Alan
2013 “Individual Differences in Socio-Cognitive Processing and the Actuation of Sound Change”. In Alan Yu, ed. Origins of Sound Change: Approaches to Phonologization. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 201–227. DOI logoGoogle Scholar