An 18th-century novel from the Miskito Coast
What was creolized?
William Williams (1727–1791) wrote a novel entitled Mr. Penrose: The Journal of Penrose, Seaman about an English sailor marooned on the Caribbean coast of Nicaragua, partly based on the author’s own experience. Internal linguistic evidence confirms that the castaway’s contact was with the Rama and Miskito Indians of this area. The novel’s 350 printed pages are in the formal English of the times, but also include dialogue in the local vernacular English that was still undergoing creolization. It includes words not only from Rama and Miskito, but also Spanish and African languages and phrases suggesting convergence with modern English Creole structures (“Harry was sick, sick”). This article uses lexical and morphosyntactic data from the 18th-century manuscript to cast light on the origin of synchronic features of Miskito Coast Creole English.
Keywords: Rama, Nicaragua, Miskito Coast Creole English, Spanish, Miskito, creolization
Published online: 21 February 2014
Bartens, Angela and Joseph T. Farquharson
2012 “African words in the English lexifier Creoles of San Andrés, Providence, and Nicaragua and other Western Caribbean varieties”. In Angela Bartens and Philip Baker, eds. Black through White: African Words and Calques which Survived Slavery in Creoles and Transplanted European Languages . London, Colombo: Battlebridge, 169–96.
Cassidy, Frederic G. and R. B. Le Page
Craig, Colette C.
1986 “A Rama language for the Rama people”. Ms.
Dickason, David H.
1969 “Introduction and Notes to Williams (1969)”, 13–34.
Esquemeling [Exquemelin], John
Hodgson, Colonel Robert
. 1988–1989. Pidgins and Creoles . 2 vols. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Pim, Bedford and Berthold Seemann
Raveneau de Lussan
Vaughan Warman, Adolfo I.
Cited by 1 other publications
This list is based on CrossRef data as of 03 january 2022. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers. Any errors therein should be reported to them.