The classification of English as a native (ENL), second (ESL) and foreign (EFL) language is traditionally mapped onto Kachru’s (1985) Inner, Outer and Expanding circles, respectively. This paper addresses the divide upheld between these different varietal types. We explore the preposition into using comparable corpora for all three varietal types: the International Corpus of English (ICE) for Inner and Outer Circle varieties, and a comparable Corpus of Dutch English to represent the Expanding Circle. Our results show that the least institutionalised varieties (Hong Kong and Dutch English) are the most dissimilar to the ENL varieties, and the most institutionalised variety (Singapore English) is the most similar. We also compare our results for the Corpus of Dutch English to the Dutch component of the International Corpus of Learner English. While the latter patterns with other learner varieties, the Dutch English corpus patterns with ESL varieties, suggesting that “Expanding Circle” and “EFL” are not synonymous.
2001 “English as the Lingua Franca of Europe: A Dutch Perspective”. Lingua e Stile 361: 347–357.
2011The English Language in Cyprus: An Empirical Investigation of Variety Status. PhD dissertation, University of Cologne.
2012 “Englishes in the Outer and Expanding Circles: A Comparative Study”. World Englishes, 311: 366–385.
De Cock, Sylvie, and Sylviane Granger
2004 “High Frequency Words: The Bête Noire of Lexicographers and Learners Alike. A Close Look at the Verb Make in Five Monolingual Learners’ Dictionaries of English”. In Geoffrey Williams and Sandra Vessier, eds. Proceedings of the 11th EURALEX International Congress. Lorient: University of Southern Brittany, 233–243.
2011 “Introducing the Corpus of Dutch English”. English Today 271: 10–14.
2014aEnglish in the Netherlands: Functions, Forms and Attitudes. PhD dissertation, University of Cambridge.
2014b “The EFL–ESL Continuum and the Case of the Netherlands: A Comparative Analysis of the Progressive Aspect”. World Englishes 331: 173–94.
Erling, Elizabeth J
2002 “ ‘I Learn English Since Ten Years’: The Global English Debate and the German University Classroom”. English Today 181: 8–13.
2012Europeans and Their Languages: Special Eurobarometer 386. Brussels.
1994 “Lexical Teddy Bears and Advanced Learners: A Study into the Ways Norwegian Students Cope with English Vocabulary”. International Journal of Applied Linguistics 41: 237–258.
Hofland, Knut, and Stig Johansson
1982Word Frequencies in British and American English. Bergen: The Norwegian Computing Centre for the Humanities.
1996 “The New Zealand Spoken Component of ICE: Some Methodological Challenges”. In Sidney Greenbaum, ed. Comparing English World-Wide: The International Corpus of English. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 163–181.
2009World Englishes: A Resource Book for Students (2nd ed.). Oxon: Routledge.
Kachru, Braj. B
1985 “Standards, Codification and Sociolinguistic Realism: The English Language in the Outer Circle”. In Randolph Quirk and H.G. Widdowson, eds. English in the World: Teaching and Learning the Language and Literatures. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 11–30.
2007World Englishes: Implications for International Communication and English Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
2011 “Contacts and Variability in International Englishes: Compiling and Using the Corpus of English in Finland”. Studies in Variation, Contacts and Change in English 61. Retrieved from [URL]
2008 “Pakistani English: An Overview of Its Syntax, Morphology, and Lexis”. In Rajend Mesthrie, ed. A Handbook of Varieties of English, Vol. 41. Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
2002 “Three Changing Patterns of Verb Complementation in Late Modern English”. English Language and Linguistics 61: 105–132.
1998The English Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mesthrie, Rajend, and Rakesh Bhatt
2008World Englishes: The Study of New Linguistic Varieties. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
2009 “The Status of English in Belgium”. In Sylviane Granger, Estelle Dagneaux, Fanny Meunier, and Magali Paquot, eds. The International Corpus of Learner English. Version 2. Handbook and CD-Rom. Louvain-la-Neuve: Presses Universitaires de Louvain, 106–113.
2017. Exploring speaker fluency with phonologically annotated ICE corpora. World Englishes 36:3 ► pp. 387 ff.
2019. English in the German-Speaking World: The Nature and Scale of Language Influence. In English in the German-Speaking World, ► pp. 1 ff.
2022. Review of Laporte, Samantha. 2021. Corpora, Constructions, New Englishes. A Constructional and Variationist Approach to Verb Patterning. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. ISBN: 978-9-027-20850-7. https://doi.org/10.1075/scl.100. Research in Corpus Linguistics 10:2 ► pp. 147 ff.
This list is based on CrossRef data as of 18 may 2023. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers.
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