The paper is an empirical, corpus-based analysis of the functions of seem with different complementation structures and in impersonal constructions as well as in combinations with an experiencer. The focus is on describing how evidentiality (e.g. inferencing/observation or hearsay evidence) interacts with degrees of certainty or factivity of the construction. Other features are subjectivity and intersubjectivity (shared or non-shared information). Translations from English into Swedish have been used to get a more fine-grained picture of the degree of certainty expressed by seem and its relationship to the type of evidence. The different constructions with seem and their functions are explained in a grammaticalization perspective. Seem conforms to a number of principles such as layering and divergence (Hopper). Seem to is the most grammaticalized form and can be regarded as an evidential marker which is similar to the modal auxiliaries.
2014. Stance markers. In Corpus Pragmatics, ► pp. 219 ff.
Grichin, Sergei & Olga Ulyanova
2023. Evidential Text Units in Russian Research Articles. In Science and Global Challenges of the 21st Century – Innovations and Technologies in Interdisciplinary Applications [Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems, 622], ► pp. 135 ff.
2023. Seem and Appear and Their Norwegian Verbal Counterparts: A Cross-Register Contrastive Study. English Studies 104:1 ► pp. 173 ff.
2018. Evidential and Argumentative Functions of Dynamic Appearance Verbs in Italian: The Example of Rivelare and Emergere. In Argumentation and Language — Linguistic, Cognitive and Discursive Explorations [Argumentation Library, 32], ► pp. 73 ff.
Miecznikowski, Johanna & Elena Musi
2015. Verbs of Appearance and Argument Schemes: Italian Sembrare as an Argumentative Indicator. In Reflections on Theoretical Issues in Argumentation Theory [Argumentation Library, 28], ► pp. 259 ff.
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