The Spatial Language of Time

Metaphor, metonymy, and frames of reference

| San José State University
ISBN 9789027223968 | EUR 95.00 | USD 143.00
ISBN 9789027270658 | EUR 95.00 | USD 143.00
The Spatial Language of Time presents a crosslinguistically valid state-of-the-art analysis of space-to-time metaphors, using data mostly from English and Wolof (Africa) but additionally from Japanese and other languages. Metaphors are analyzed in terms of their most direct motivation by basic human experiences (Grady 1997a; Lakoff & Johnson 1980). This motivation explains the crosslinguistic appearance of certain metaphors, but does not say anything about temporal metaphor systems that deviate from the types documented here. Indeed, we observe interesting culture- and language-specific metaphor phenomena. Refining earlier treatments of temporal metaphor and adapting to temporal experience Levinson’s (2003) idea of frames of reference, the author proposes a contrast between perspective-neutral and perspective-specific frames of reference in temporal metaphor that has important crosslinguistic ramifications for the temporal semantics of FRONT/BEHIND expressions. This book refines the cognitive-linguistic approach to temporal metaphor by analyzing the extensive temporal structure in what has been considered the source domain of space, and showing how temporal metaphors can be better understood by downplaying the space-time dichotomy and analyzing metaphor structure in terms of conceptual frames. This book is of interest to linguists, psychologists, anthropologists, philosophers, and others who may have wondered about relationships between space and time.
[Human Cognitive Processing, 42]  2014.  xxv, 340 pp.
Publishing status: Available
Table of Contents
List of diagrams
List of tables
Abbreviations and special symbols
Transcription conventions
Part I. Temporal metaphor and ego’s perspective
Introduction: Talking about time as if it were space
The deictic nature of Moving Ego and Ego-centered Moving Time expressions
The experiential bases (grounding, motivation) of Moving Ego and Ego-centered Moving Time
From earlier to later
Frame of reference and alternate construals of ego-centered time
Part II. Perspectival neutrality
A field-based frame of reference
The psychological reality of sequence is relative position on a path
Illustrating the field-based/ego-perspective contrast: The case of sequence is relative position in a stack
Space-to-time metonymy
Part III. The temporal semantics of in-front and behind
The contrasting front/behind schemas of sequence is relative position on a path and Moving Ego
The crosslinguistic pairing of in-front and behind with ‘earlier’ and ‘later’
The alignment of ego with a field-based frame of reference
When back is not the opposite of front: A temporal relative frame of reference in Wolof
The Ego-opposed temporal metaphor and contexts of shared perspective
Modes of construal of front and behind
In search of primary metaphors of time
Part IV. Location without translational motion
Expressions of static temporal “location”
Beyond metaphor and metonymy: Mental spaces and conceptual integration
Other-centered Moving Time and Wolof fekk ‘become co-located with’
Times as bounded regions
Part V. Fundamentally different temporal concepts
Having and wasting Wolof counterparts of time
Name index
Subject index
“Time is not a mystery when you examine how people talk about events—remembered, ongoing, anticipated. Kevin Moore has done just that, in a detailed and insightful exploration of temporal expressions in several unrelated languages. His in-depth description of Wolof is worth a book in itself. With the addition of English, Japanese, and Aymara the result is a valuable contribution to comparative cognitive linguistics. And above all, Moore has contributed an exhaustive and carefully considered reanalysis of the conceptual domains of time and space, showing that conceptions of space also have temporal characteristics. Moore’s fresh approach goes beyond space-based metaphors to include metonymy and blending, and to solve old puzzles by distinguishing between motion and location in space, and between ego-centered and field-based fields of reference. The Spatial Language of Time is a landmark in a series devoted to cognitive foundations of language structure and use.”
“In everyday life, we take for granted the metaphors we live by, and have no awareness of the extraordinary thought processes that lie behind them. Kevin Moore's admirable book explores the many dimensions involved for "time as space," with unprecedented rigor and scholarship.
Moore's compelling analysis of surprisingly deep conceptual mappings is a major contribution to cognitive science and linguistics.”
“Spatial metaphors for time have become a major theme in cognitive science and linguistics. Kevin Moore's thoughtful book, The Spatial Language of Time, not only adds to the crosslinguistic comparative range of our understanding of spatiotemporal metaphor - it also raises the level of detail in linguistic analysis of the mappings between the two domains. It is a valuable contribution to linguistics, but also to the general study of cognition and of culture.”
“The book has a cohesive objective about metaphor that is established in Chapter 1 and restated again in the conclusion, namely to “explore the details of certain spatial construals of time as thoroughly as possible for a few languages, in order to gain an understanding of some of the principles involved in applying spatial concepts to time.” Each of the book’s 22 chapters helps develop and further this objective through a detailed description of metaphor in both English and Wolof. Moore weaves connections between the two languages with finesse, letting the reader clearly see the commonalities and providing explanations for areas of difference. This book is an excellent resource for researchers interested in conceptual metaphors of time, providing a unique, cross-linguistic perspective to the ongoing conversation.”
“Moore provides a comprehensive account of the metaphorical understanding of time through space, with a new focus on Wolof, his language of specialization. His work represents a valuable contribution to the literature on human cognition in general, and on how people in Anglo-American and Senegalese cultures use the Spatial Language of Time.”
Cited by

Cited by other publications

No author info given
2018.  In The Poetics of Time – Metaphors and Blends in Language and Literature [Figurative Thought and Language, 3], Crossref logo
Brdar, Mario, Rita Brdar-Szabó & Benedikt Perak
2019.  In Metaphor and Metonymy in the Digital Age [Metaphor in Language, Cognition, and Communication, 8],  pp. 225 ff. Crossref logo
Divjak, Dagmar
2019.  In Frequency in Language, Crossref logo
2020. On the path of time: temporal motion in typological perspective. Language and Cognition  pp. 1 ff. Crossref logo
Huumo, Tuomas
2015. Temporal frames of reference and the locative case marking of the Finnish adposition ete - ‘in front of / ahead’. Lingua 164  pp. 45 ff. Crossref logo
2018. Moving along paths in space and time. Journal of Linguistics 54:4  pp. 721 ff. Crossref logo
Julich, Nina
2018.  In Sensory Perceptions in Language, Embodiment and Epistemology [Studies in Applied Philosophy, Epistemology and Rational Ethics, 42],  pp. 133 ff. Crossref logo
Julich-Warpakowksi, Nina
2019.  In Perception Metaphors [Converging Evidence in Language and Communication Research, 19],  pp. 165 ff. Crossref logo
Jääskeläinen, Anni
2016. Mimetic schemas and shared perception through imitatives. Nordic Journal of Linguistics 39:2  pp. 159 ff. Crossref logo
Jódar-Sánchez, José Antonio
2015. Kevin E. Moore (2014).The Spatial Language of Time. Metaphor, Metonymy and Frames of Reference. Metaphor and the Social World 5:1  pp. 155 ff. Crossref logo
Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk, Barbara
2016.  In Conceptualizations of Time [Human Cognitive Processing, 52],  pp. ix ff. Crossref logo
Li, Heng
2017. Time on hands. Gesture 16:3  pp. 396 ff. Crossref logo
Li, Heng
2018. A future-minded lark in the morning: The influence of time-of-day and chronotype on metaphorical associations between space and time. Metaphor and Symbol 33:1  pp. 48 ff. Crossref logo
Li, Heng, Van Quynh Bui & Yu Cao
2018. One country, two cultures: Implicit space-time mappings in Southern and Northern Vietnamese. European Journal of Social Psychology 48:4  pp. 560 ff. Crossref logo
Li, Heng & Yu Cao
2018. Karma or Immortality: Can Religion Influence Space-Time Mappings?. Cognitive Science 42:3  pp. 1041 ff. Crossref logo
Li, Heng & Yu Cao
2019. Moving at the Speed of Life: How Life Pace Influences Temporal Reasoning. Metaphor and Symbol 34:3  pp. 158 ff. Crossref logo
Montoro, Rocío
2015. The Year’s Work in stylistics 2014. Language and Literature: International Journal of Stylistics 24:4  pp. 355 ff. Crossref logo
Moore, Kevin Ezra
2014. The two-Mover hypothesis and the significance of “direction of motion” in temporal metaphors. Review of Cognitive Linguistics 12:2  pp. 375 ff. Crossref logo
2017. Elaborating time in space: the structure and function of space–motion metaphors of time. Language and Cognition 9:2  pp. 191 ff. Crossref logo
Napoli, Donna Jo & Lorraine Leeson
2020. Visuo-spatial construals that aid in understanding activity in visual-centred narrative. Language, Cognition and Neuroscience 35:4  pp. 440 ff. Crossref logo
Nesset, Tore
2016. “Cyclic” time in the history of Russian. Studies in Language 40:3  pp. 591 ff. Crossref logo
2015. <i>Language and Time: A Cognitive Linguistics Approach</i>. ENGLISH LINGUISTICS 32:2  pp. 442 ff. Crossref logo
Pagán Cánovas, Cristóbal
2019. More haste less speed: Cognition, creativity, and culture in temporal paradox. Time & Society 28:4  pp. 1695 ff. Crossref logo
Rickles, Dean & Maria Kon
2014. Interdisciplinary perspectives on the flow of time. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1326:1  pp. 1 ff. Crossref logo
Sinha, Chris & Peter Gärdenfors
2014. Time, space, and events in language and cognition: a comparative view. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1326:1  pp. 72 ff. Crossref logo
Zanker, Andreas T.
2019.  In Metaphor in Homer, Crossref logo

This list is based on CrossRef data as of 24 may 2020. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers. Any errors therein should be reported to them.



Allan, Keith
1995The anthropocentricity of the English word(s) back . Cognitive Linguistics 6: 11–31.
Allen, Robert & Clifford Hill
1979Contrast between zero and the in spatial and temporal predication: Unmarked representation of coding locus as reference point. Lingua 48: 123–176.
Almeida, Michael
1995Time in narratives. In Duchan, Bruder & Hewitt (eds.), 159–190. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Alverson, Hoyt
1994 Semantics and Experience: Universal Metaphors of Time in English, Mandarin, Hindi, and Sesotho . Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Amberber, Mengistu
1997The unergative-unaccusative distinction and the benefactive applicative in Amharic. In Bailey, Moore & Moxley (eds.), 1–13.
Ariel, Mira
1990 Accessing Noun-Phrase Antecedents . London: Routledge.
1998The linguistic status of the ‘here and now’. Cognitive Linguistics 9: 189–237.
Axmaker, Shelly, Annie Jaisser & Helen Singmaster
(eds.) 1988 Proceedings of the Fourteenth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society . Berkeley, CA: Berkeley Linguistics Society.
Bailey, Ashlee C., Kevin E. Moore & Jeri L. Moxley
(eds.) 1997 Proceedings of the Twenty-Third Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society: Special Session on Syntax and Semantics in Africa . Berkeley, CA: Berkeley Linguistics Society.
Baker, Collin
1999Seeing Clearly : Frame Semantic, Psycholinguistic, and Cross-Linguistic Approaches to the Semantics of the English Verb See. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of California, Berkeley.
Banfield, Ann
1982 Unspeakable Sentences: Narration and Representation in the Language of Fiction . Boston: Routledge.
Barcelona, Antonio
(eds.) 2000a  Metaphor and Metonymy at the Crossroads: A Cognitive Perspective . Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
2000b On the plausibility of claiming a metonymic motivation for conceptual metaphor. In Barcelona (eds.), 31–58.
2002Clarifying and applying the notions of metaphor and metonymy within cognitive linguistics: An update. In Dirven & Pörings (eds.), 207–277.
2005The multilevel operation of metonymy in grammar and discourse, with particular attention to metonymic chains. In Francisco J. Ruiz de Mendoza Ibáñez & M. Sandra Peña Cervel (eds.), Cognitive Linguistics: Internal Dynamics and Interdisciplinary Interaction , 313–352. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Bargery, G.P.
1934 A Hausa-English Dictionary and English-Hausa Vocabulary . London: Oxford University Press.
Barnden, John A.
2010Metaphor and metonymy: Making their connections more slippery. Cognitive Linguistics 21: 1–34.
Barsalou, Lawrence W.
1999“Perceptual symbol systems.” Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22: 577–660.
Bender, Andrea, Giovanni Bennardo & Sieghard Beller
2005Spatial frames of reference for temporal relations: A conceptual analysis in English, German, and Tongan. In B. G. Bara, L. Barsalou & M. Bucciarelli (eds.), Proceedings of the Twenty-Seventh Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society , 220–225. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Bender, Andrea, Sieghard Beller & Giovanni Bennardo
2010Temporal frames of reference: Conceptual analysis and empirical evidence from German, English, Mandarin Chinese, and Tongan. Journal of Cognition and Culture 10: 283–307.
Bender, Andrea, Annelie Rothe-Wulf, Lisa Hüther & Sieghard Beller
2012Moving forward in space and time: How strong is the conceptual link between spatial and temporal frames of reference? Frontiers in Psychology 3: 1–11.
Bickel, Balthasar
2000Grammar and sociocultural practice: On the role of ‘culture’ in linguistic relativity. In Susanne Niemeier & René Dirven (eds.), Evidence for Linguistic Relativity , 161–191. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
2001Deictic transposition and referential practice in Belhare. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 10: 224–247.
Bledsoe, Caroline
2002 Contingent Lives: Fertility, Time, and Aging in West Africa . Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
2005Reproductive relativity: Time, space, and Western contraception in rural Gambia. The Ahfad Journal 22: 3–20.
Block, Richard
1990Models of psychological time. In Richard Block (eds.), Cognitive Models of Psychological Time , 1–35. Hillsdale NJ: Erlbaum.
Bohnemeyer, Jürgen
2010The language-specificity of conceptual structure: Path, fictive motion and time relations. In Malt & Wolff (eds.), 111–137.
Bohnemeyer, Jürgen & Carolyn O’Meara
2012Vectors and frames of reference: Evidence from Seri and Yucatec. In Filipović & Jaszczolt (eds.) 2012b, 217–249.
Boroditsky, Lera
1997Evidence for metaphoric representation: Perspective in space and time. Proceedings of the 19th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society page 869.
2000Metaphoric structuring: Understanding time through spatial metaphors. Cognition 75: 1–28.
2001Does language shape thought?: Mandarin and English speakers’ conceptions of time. Cognitive Psychology 43: 1–22.
2011How languages construct time. In Stanislas Dehaene & Elizabeth Brannon (eds.), Space, Time, and Number in the Brain , 333–341. San Diego CA: Elsevier.
Boroditsky, Lera & Michael Ramscar
2002The roles of body and mind in abstract thought. Psychological Science 13: 185–189.
Boroditsky, Lera, Orly Fuhrman & Kelly McCormick
2011Do English and Mandarin speakers think about time differently? Cognition 118: 123–129.
Boroditsky, Lera & Alice Gaby
2010Remembrance of times East: Absolute spatial representations of time in an Australian Aboriginal community. Psychological Science 21: 1635–1639.
Brdar, Mario, Marija Omazic
!, Vis#nja Pavic#ic! Takac#, Tanja Gradec#ak-Erdelijic! & Gabrijela Bulijan (eds.) 2011 Space and Time in Language . Frankfurt: Peter Lang.
Brockelman, Paul
1985 Time and Self: Phenomenological Explorations . The Crossroad Publishing Company & Scholar’s Press.
Brown, Penelope
2012Time and space in Tzeltal: Is the future uphill? Frontiers in Psychology 3: 1–11.
Brugman, Claudia
1983The use of body-part terms as locatives in Chalcatongo Mixtec. In Alice Schlichter et al. (eds.), Studies in Mesoamerican Linguistics [Survey of California and other Indian languages, Report 4], 235–290. Berkeley: University of California.
1988 The Story of Over: Polysemy, Semantics, and the Structure of the Lexicon . New York: Garland.
Bühler, Karl
1990/1934Theory of Language: The Representational Function of Language. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Bull, William
1971/1960 Time, Tense, and The Verb: A Study in Theoretical and Applied Linguistics, with Particular Attention to Spanish . Berkeley: University of California Press.
Bultinck, Bert
1998Metaphors we die by: Conceptualizations of death in English and their implications for the theory of metaphor. Antwerp Papers in Linguistics 94. Antwerp: Universitaire Instelling Antwerp.
Bybee, Joan, Revere Perkins & William Pagliuca
1994 The Evolution of Grammar: Tense, Aspect, and Modality in the Languages of the World . Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Caron, Bernard
1998From body to space and time: Hausa gaba and baya . In Peter Zima & Veronicka Tax (eds.), Language and Location in Space and Time , 36–44. HAL-Sciences de l’Homme et de la Société. http://​halshs​.archives​-ouvertes​.fr/.
Casad, Eugene H.
2012 From Space to Time: A Cognitive Analysis of the Cora Locative System and its Temporal Extensions [Human Cognitive Processing 39]. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Casasanto, Daniel, Lera Boroditsky, W. Phillip, J. Greene, S. Goswami & Bocanegra-Thiel
, et al 2004How deep are effects of language on thought? Time estimation in speakers of English, Indonesian, Greek, and Spanish. In K. Forbus, D. Gentner & T. Regier (eds.), Proceedings of the 26th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society , 575–580. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Casasanto, Daniel & Lera Boroditsky
2008Time in the mind: using space to think about time. Cognition 106: 579–593.
Casasanto, Daniel & Kyle Jasmin
2012The hands of time: Temporal gestures in English speakers. Cognitive Linguistics 23: 643–674.
. (n.d.) Démb ak tey: Cahiers du mythe . No. 3 Kocc Barma Faal. Les Nouvelles Éditions Africaines.
Chafe, Wallace
1994 Discourse, Consciousness and Time: The Flow and Displacement of Conscious Experience in Speaking and Writing . Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
2000Loci of diversity and convergence in thought and language. In Pütz & Verspoor (eds.), 101–123.
Chang, Nancy, Daniel Gildea & Srini Narayanan
1998A dynamic model of aspectual composition. In Morton Ann Gernsbacher & Sharon J. Derry (eds.), Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society , 226–231. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin.
Church, Eric
1981 Le Système Verbal du Wolof . Dakar: Faculté des Lettres et Sciences Humaines de l’Université de Dakar.
Cissé, Mamadou
1994 Contes Wolof Modernes . Paris: L'Harmattan.
Cissé, Mame Thierno, Mammadu Guèye & Mangoné Touré
1982 Proverbes Wolof . Dakar: Centre de Linguistique Appliquée de Dakar.
Clark, Herbert
1973Space, time, semantics, and the child. In T. E. Moore (eds.), Cognitive Development and the Acquisition of Language , 27–63. New York: Academic Press.
1996a  Using Language . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
1996b Communities, Commonalities, and Communication. In Gumperz & Levinson (eds.), 324–355.
Commercial Press
1981 The Pinyin Chinese English Dictionary . Hong Kong: Commercial Press.
Comrie, Bernard
1976 Aspect . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Craig, Cathy & Reinoud Bootsma
1999Judging time to passage. In Madelaine Grealy & James Thomson (eds.), Studies in Perception and Action 5 , 104–108. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Croft, William
1993The role of domains in the interpretation of metaphors and metonymies. Cognitive Linguistics 4: 335–370.
Cruise O'Brien, D.B.
1971 The Mourides of Senegal: The Political and Economic Organization of an Islamic Brotherhood . Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Dahl, Øyvind
1995When the future comes from behind: Malagasy and other time concepts and some consequences for communication. International Journal of Intercultural Relations 19: 197–209.
Danziger, Eve
2010Deixis, gesture, and cognition in spatial frame of reference typology. Studies in Language 34: 167–185.
Davies, Paul
1995 About Time . New York: Simon and Schuster.
Deignan, Alice
2005 Metaphor and Corpus Linguistics . Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Dieng, Bassirou
1993 l’Epopée du Kajoor . Dakar: Centre Africain D’Animation et d’Echanges Culturels, Editions Khoudia.
Diop, Samba
1995 The Oral History and Literature of the Wolof People of Waalo, Northern Senegal: The Master of the Word (Griot) in the Wolof Tradition [African Studies Volume 36]. Lewiston: The Edwin Mellen Press.
Diouf, Jean-Léopold
1998Précis de grammaire wolof. Journal of Asian and African Studies 56.
2003 Dictionnaire wolof-français et français-wolof . Karthala, Paris.
Diouf, Jean-Léopold & Marina Yaguello
1991 J’apprends le Wolof: Damay Jàng Wolof . Paris: Karthala.
Dirven, René & Ralf Pörings
(eds.) 2002 Metaphor and Metonymy in Comparison and Contrast . Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Duchan, Judith, Gail Bruder & Lynne Hewitt
(eds.) 1995 Deixis in Narrative . Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Duffy, Sarah E. & Michele I. Feist
. In press. “Individual differences in the interpretation of ambiguous statements about time.” Cognitive Linguistics .
Dunbar, Alice
1899 The Goodness of St. Rocque and Other Stories . College Park, MD: McGrath Publishing Company.
Dunkel, George E.
1983Prosso kai opisso. Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Sprachforschung 96: 66–87.
Dunn, Jonathan
2013How linguistic structure influences and helps to predict metaphoric meaning. Cognitive Linguistics 24: 33–66.
Ebbing, Juan
Enrique 1981 Gramatica y Diccionario Aimara . La Paz: Editorial “Don Bosco”.
Emanatian, Michele
1992Chagga ‘come’ and ‘go’: Metaphor and the development of tense-aspect. Studies in Language 16: 1–33.
1999Congruence by degree: On the relation between metaphor and cultural models. In Gibbs & Steen (eds.), 205–218.
Emmorey, Karen
2001Space on hand: The exploitation of signing space to illustrate abstract thought. In Meredith Gattis (eds.), 147–174.
Enfield, Nick
2000On linguocentrism. In Pütz & Verspoor (eds), 125–157.
Engberg-Pedersen, Elisabeth
1999Space and time. In Jens Allwood & Peter Gärdenfors (eds.), Cognitive Semantics: Meaning and Cognition , 131–152. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Evans, Vyvyan
2003 The Structure of Time: Language, Meaning and Temporal Cognition . Amsterdam: Benjamins.
2013Temporal frames of reference. Cognitive Linguistics 24: 393–435.
Evans, Vyvyan & Paul Chilton
(eds.) 2010 Language, Cognition, and Culture: The State of the Art and New Directions . London: Equinox.
Fal, Arame, Rosine Santos & Jean Léonce Doneux
1990 Dictionnaire Wolof-Français . Paris: Karthala.
Fauconnier, Gilles
1994/1985 Mental Spaces: Aspects of Meaning Construction in Natural Language . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
1997 Mappings in Thought and Language . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Fauconnier, Gilles & Eve Sweetser
(eds.) 1996 Spaces, Worlds, and Grammar . Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Fauconnier, Gilles & Mark Turner
2002 The Way We Think: Conceptual Blending and the Mind’s Hidden Complexities . New York: Basic Books.
2008Rethinking metaphor. In Raymond Gibbs (eds.), 53–66.
Faye, Souleymane
1996 Dictionnaire Usuel Français-Wolof: “Micro Dico.” Dakar: IFAN [Université de Dakar]
Fedden, Sebastian & Lera Boroditsky
2012Spatialization of time in Mian. Frontiers in Psychology 3: 1–9.
Feyaerts, Kurt
1999Metonymic hierarchies: The conceptualization of stupidity in German idiomatic expressions. In Panther & Radden (eds.), 309–332.
2000Refining the inheritance hypothesis: interaction between metaphoric and metonymic hierarchies. In Barcelona (eds.), 59–78.
Filipović, Luna & Kasia Jaszczolt
(eds.) 2012a  Space and Time in Languages and Cultures: Linguistic Diversity [Human Cognitive Processing 36]. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
(eds.) 2012b  Space and Time in Languages and Cultures: Language, Culture, and Cognition [Human Cognitive Processing 37]. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Fillmore, Charles
1976Pragmatics and the description of discourse. In Siegfried J. Schmidt, Hrsg. (eds.), Pragmatik|Pragmatics II: Zur Grundlegung einer Expliziten Pragmatik , 83–104. München: Wilhelm Fink Verlag.
1982a Frame semantics. In The Linguistic Society of Korea (eds.), Linguistics in the Morning Calm: Selected Papers from SICOL-1981 , 111–137. Seoul: Hanshin.
1982b Towards a descriptive framework for spatial deixis. In Robert Jarvella & Wolfgang Klein (eds.), Speech, Place, and Action: Studies in Deixis and Related Topics, 31–59. Chinchester: John Wiley and Sons Ltd.
1985Frames and the semantics of understanding. Quaderni di Semantica 6: 222–254.
1997/1971 Lectures on Deixis . Stanford: CSLI Publications.
2002Mini-grammars of some time-when expressions in English. In Joan Bybee & Michael Noonan (eds.), Complex Sentences in Grammar and Discourse , 31–59. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Fillmore, Charles & Beryl Atkins
1992Toward a frame-based lexicon: The semantics of risk and its neighbors. In Adrienne Lehrer & Eva Kittay (eds.), Frames, Fields, and Contrasts , 75–102. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Fillmore, Charles & Collin Baker
2010A frames approach to semantic analysis. In Bernd Heine & H. Narrog (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Linguistic Analysis , 313–339. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Fillmore, Charles, Collin Baker & Hiroaki Sato
2004FrameNet as a “Net”. Proceedings of the International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation LREC 4, 1091–1094.
Fleischman, Suzanne
1982a  The Future in Thought and Language: Diachronic Evidence from Romance . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
1982b The past and the future: are they coming or going? In Monica Macaulay, Orin Gensler, Claudia Brugman, Inese Civkulis, Amy Dahlstrom, Katherine Krile & Rob Sturm (eds.), Proceedings of the Eighth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society . 322–334.
1990 Tense and Narrativity: From Medieval Performance to Modern Fiction . London: Routledge.
Fraisse, Paul
1963 The Psychology of Time . New York: Harper and Row.
Freyd, J.J.
1987Dynamic mental representations. Psychological review 94: 427–438.
Friedman, William
1990 About Time . MIT Press.
Funk and Wagnalls
1966 The Reader’s Digest Great Encyclopedic Dictionary: Including Funk & Wagnalls Standard College Dictionary . Pleasantville NY: The Reader’s Digest Association.
Gaby, Alice
2006A Grammar of Kuuk Thaayorre. PhD. Dissertation. University of Melbourne.
2012The Thaayorre think of time like they talk of space. Frontiers in Psychology 3: 1–8.
Galton, Antony
2011Time flies but space does not: Limits to the spatialization of time. Journal of Pragmatics 43: 695–703.
Gamble, David P.
1991a  Gambian Wolof - English Dictionary . Brisbane, California.
1991b  Elementary Gambian Wolof Grammar . Brisbane, California. [Gambian Studies No. 25]
Gattis, Meredith
(eds.) 2001 Spatial Schemas and Abstract Thought . Cambridge: The MIT Press.
Geissler, Hans-Georg, Frank-Uwe Schebera & Raul Kompass
1999Ultra-precise quantal timing: Evidence from simultaneity thresholds in long-range apparent movement. Perception and Psychophysics 61: 707–726.
Gentner, Dedre
2001Spatial metaphors in temporal reasoning. In Meredith Gattis (eds.), 203–222.
Gentner, Dedre, Brian Bowdle, Phillip Wolff & Consuelo Boronat
2001Metaphor is like analogy. In Dedre Gentner, Keith Holyoak & Boicho Kokinov (eds.), The Analogical Mind: Perspectives from Cognitive Science , 199–253. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Gentner, Dedre, and Donald R. Gentner
1982Flowing waters or teeming crowds: mental models of electricity. In D. Gentner and A.L. Stevens (eds.), Mental Models . Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.
Gentner, Dedre, M. Imai & L. Boroditsky
2002As time goes by: Evidence for two systems in processing space ♦ time metaphors. Language and Cognitive Processes 17: 537–565.
Gibbs, Raymond
1999Taking metaphor out of our heads and putting it into the cultural world. In Gibbs & Steen (eds.), 145–166.
(eds.) 2008 The Cambridge Handbook of Metaphor and Thought . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gibbs, Raymond & Gerard Steen
(eds.) 1999 Metaphor in Cognitive Linguistics . Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Gibson, James
1966The problem of temporal order in stimulation and perception. The Journal of Psychology 62: 141–149.
1975Events are perceivable but time is not. In J. T. Fraser & N. Lawrence (eds.), The Study of Time II , 295–301. New York: Springer-Verlag.
1986 The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception . Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Gladkova, Ana
2012Universals and specifics of ‘time’ in Russian. In Filipovic! & Jaszczolt (eds.) 2012b, 167–188.
Goossens, Louis
1990Metaphtonymy: the interaction of metaphor and metonymy in expressions for linguistic action. Cognitive Linguistics 1: 323–340.
1995From three respectable horses’ mouths: Metonymy and conventionalization in a diachronically differentiated data base. In Luis Goossens, Paul Pauwels, Brygida Rudzka-Ostyn, Anne-Marie Simon-Vandenbergen & Johan Vanparys (eds.), By Word of Mouth: Metaphor, Metonymy and Linguistic Action in a Cognitive Perspective , 175–204. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Grady, Joseph
1997a Foundations of Meaning: Primary Metaphors and Primary Scenes. PhD. Dissertation. University of California at Berkeley.
1997b Theories are buildings revisited. Cognitive Linguistics 8: 267–290.
1999A typology of motivation for conceptual metaphor: Correlation vs. resemblance. In Gibbs & Steen (eds.), 79–100.
2005Primary metaphors as inputs to conceptual integration. Journal of Pragmatics 37: 1595–1614.
2008‘Superschemas’ and the grammar of metaphorical mappings. In Andrea Tyler, Yiyoung Kim & Mari Takada (eds.), Language in the Context of Use , 339–360. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Grady, Joseph & Christopher Johnson
2002Converging evidence for the notions of subscene and primary scene . In Dirven & Pörings (eds.), 533–554.
Grady, Joseph, Todd Oakley & Seana Coulson
1999Blending and metaphor. In Gibbs & Steen (eds.), 101–124.
Grebe, M. Ester
1990Concepción del tiempo en la cultura aymara: Representaciones icónicas, cognición y simbolismo. Revista Chilena de Antropología 9: 63–81.
Greenberg, J.H., C.A. Ferguson & E. Moravcsik
(eds) 1978 Universals of Human Language 3. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Gumperz, John & Stephen Levinson
(eds) 1996a  Rethinking Linguistic Relativity . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
1996b Introduction: Linguistic relativity reexamined. In Gumperz & Levinson (eds.), 1–18.
1996c Introduction to part III. In Gumperz & Levinson (eds.), 225–231.
Hanks, William
1990 Referential Practice: Language and Lived Space among the Maya . Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
1996a  Language and Communicative Practices . Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
1996b Language form and communicative practices. In Gumperz & Levinson (eds.), 232–270.
2005Explorations in the deictic field. Current Anthropology 46: 191–220.
Hannan, M.
1987 Standard Shona Dictionary . Harare: The College Press.
Hardman, M, J. Vásquez & J.D. Yapita
1988 Aymara: Compendio de Estructura Fonologica y Gramatical . La Paz Bolivia, and Gainsville Florida: Instituto de Lengua y Cultura Aymara, and The Aymara Foundation, Inc.
Harris, L. & E. Strommen
1972The role of front-back features in children’s ‘front’, ‘back’, and ‘beside’ placements of objects. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly 18: 259–272.
Haspelmath, Martin
1997 From Space to Time: Temporal Adverbials in the World’s Languages . München: Lincom Europa.
Haviland, John
1993Anchoring, iconicity and orientation in Guugu Ymithirr pointing gestures. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 3: 3–45.
1996Projections, transpositions, and relativity. In Gumperz & Levinson (eds.), 271–323.
Heine, Bernd
1995Conceptual grammaticalization and prediction. In John R. Taylor & Robert E. MacLaury (eds.), Language and the cognitive construal of the world , 119–135. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Heine, Bernd, Ulrike Claudi & Friederike Hünnemeyer
1991a  Grammaticalization . Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
1991b From cognition to grammar: evidence from African languages. In Traugott & Heine (eds.), 149–188.
Heine, Bernd, Tom Guldemann, Christa Kilian-Hatz, Donald A. Lessau, Heinz Roberg, Mathias Schladt & Thomas Stolz
1993 Conceptual Shift: A Lexicon of Grammaticalization Processes in African Languages . [AAP 34/35 Cologne: Universität zu Köln].
Heine, Bernd & Tania Kuteva
2002 World Lexicon of Grammaticalization . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Herskovits, Annette
. (n.d.) Motion predicates and aspectual profile. Wellesley College: manuscript.
Hidalgo, Jorge, Virgilio Schiappacasse, Hans Niemayer, Carlos Aldunate & Pedro Mege
(eds.), Etnografia: Sociedades Indigenas Contemporáneas y su Ideologia . Santiago (Chile): Andrés Bello.
Hill, Clifford
1978Linguistic representation of spatial and temporal orientation. In Jeri Jaeger, Anthony Woodbury, Farrell Ackerman, Christine Chiarello, Orin Gensler, John Kingston, Eve Sweetser, Henry Thompson & Kenneth Whistler (eds.), Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society , 524–538.
1982Up/down, front/back/, left/right: a contrastive study of Hausa and English. In Jürgen Weissenborn & Wolfgang Klein (eds.), Here and There: Cross-linguistic studies on deixis and demonstration , 13–42. [Series: Pragmatics and beyond.] Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Hiraga, Masako, Chris Sinha & Sherman Wilcox
(eds) 1999 Cultural, Typological and Psychological Issues in Cognitive Linguistics . [Current issues in linguistic theory 152.] Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Hirose, Yukio
2013Temporal metaphors and subjectivity: A contrastive study of Japanese and English from the perspective of the Three-Tier Model of Language Use. Presentation at the University of Tsukuba, Japan, 25 July.
Hopper, Paul & Elizabeth Closs Traugott
1993 Grammaticalization . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hutchins, Edwin
2005Material anchors for conceptual blends. Journal of Pragmatics 37: 1555–1577.
Iwasaki, Shin-Ya
2009A Cognitive Grammar account of time motion ‘metaphors’: A view from Japanese. Cognitive Linguistics 20: 341–366.
Jackendoff, Ray
1983Semantics and cognition. Cambridge: MIT Press.
2002 Foundations of Language: Brain, Meaning, Grammar, Evolution . Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Janda, Laura
2004A metaphor in search of a source domain: the categories of Slavic aspect. Cognitive Linguistics 15: 471–527.
Jeη, Maam Yunus
1992 Aawo bi . Dakar: IFAN Cheikh Anta Diop.
Jha, Subhadra
1958 The Formation of the Maithili Language . London: Luzac & Company.
Johnson, Christopher
1999a Metaphor vs. conflation in the acquisition of polysemy: the case of see . In Hiraga, Sinha & Wilcox (eds.), 155–169.
1999b Constructional Grounding: The Role of Interpretational Overlap in Lexical and Constructional Acquisition. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of California at Berkeley.
Johnson, Mark
1987The Body in the Mind: The Bodily Basis of Reason and Imagination. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Jóob, Bubakar Bóris
2003 Doomi Golo: Nettali . Dakar: Editions Papyrus Afrique.
Juuf, Mamadu Jara
1996 Ay Du Weesu Baay Dee Na...: Maye ci Wolof . Dakar: Organization Sénégalaise d’Appui au Développement. [Fentaakon bi I] B.P. 5930 DAKAR FANN.
Ka, Omar
1981 La Dérivation et la Composition en Wolof . DAKAR: C.L.A.D.
1994 Wolof Phonology and Morphology . Lanham, MD: University Press of America.
Kay, Paul & C.K. McDaniel
1978The linguistic significance of the meanings of basic color terms. Language 54: 610–646.
Kemmer, Suzanne
1993 The Middle Voice . Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Kesteloot, Lilyan & Chérif Mbodj
1983 Contes et Mythes Wolof . Dakar: Les Nouvelles Editions Africaines.
Kita, Sotaro
1999Japanese enter/exit verbs without motion semantics. Studies in Language 23: 307–330.
Klein, Harriet E.
Manelis 1987The future precedes the past: Time in Toba. Word 38: 173–185.
Klein, Wolfgang
2009a Concepts of time. In Klein & Li (eds.), 5–38.
2009b How time is encoded. In Klein & Li (eds.), 39–81.
Klein, Wolfgang & Ping Li
(eds) 2009 The Expression of Time . Berlin: Mouton.
Koch, Peter
1999Frame and contiguity: On the cognitive bases of metonymy and certain types of word formation. In Panther & Radden (eds.), 139–167.
2001Metonymy, unity in diversity. Journal of Historical Pragmatics 2: 201–244.
Kövecses, Zoltán & Günter Radden
1998Metonymy: Developing a cognitive linguistic view. Cognitive Linguistics 9: 37–77.
Kranjec, Alexander
2006Extending spatial frames of reference to temporal concepts. Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, July 2006 Vancouver, BC. 447–452.
Lakoff, George
1987 Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things: What Categories Reveal about the Mind . Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
1990The invariance hypothesis: is abstract reason based on image schemas? Cognitive Linguistics 1: 39–74.
1993The contemporary theory of metaphor. In Andrew Ortony (ed.), Metaphor and Thought [second edition], 202–251. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
2008The neural theory of metaphor. In Gibbs (ed.), 17–38.
Lakoff, George & Mark Johnson
1980 Metaphors We Live By . Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
1999 Philosophy in the Flesh: The Embodied Mind and Its Challenge to Western Thought . New York: Basic Books.
Lakoff, George
and Mark Turner 1989 More than Cool Reason: A Field Guide to Poetic Metaphor . Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Langacker, Ronald
1987 Foundations of Cognitive Grammar 1. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
1991 Foundations of Cognitive Grammar 2. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
1999 Grammar and Conceptualization . Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
2009 Investigations in Cognitive Grammar . Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
2012Linguistic manifestations of the space-time (dis)analogy. In Filipović & Jaszczolt (eds) 2012b, 191–215.
Lee, Penny
1996 The Whorf Theory Complex: A Critical Reconstruction . Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Le Guen, Olivier & Lorena Ildefonsa Pool Balam
2012No metaphorical timeline in gesture and cognition among Yucatec Mayas. Frontiers in psychology 3: 1–15.
Lehrer, Adrienne
1990Polysemy, conventionality, and the structure of the lexicon. Cognitive Linguistics 1: 207–246.
Le Poidevin, Robin
2007 The Images of Time . Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Le Runigo, Cyrille, Nicolas Benguigui & Benoit Bardy
2005Perception-action coupling and expertise in interceptive actions. Human Movement Science 24: 429–445.
Levinson, Stephen C.
2003 Space in Language and Cognition . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Levinson, Stephen C. & Asifa Majid
2012The island of time: Yélî Dnye, the language of Rossel Island. Frontiers in Psychology 3: 1–11.
Liddell, Scott
2003 Grammar, Gesture, and Meaning in American Sign Language . Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, MA.
Lucy, John. A.
1992a  Grammatical Categories and Cognition: A Case Study of the Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
1992b  Language Diversity and Thought: A Reformulation of the Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Malt, Barbara C. & Phillip Wolff
(eds) 2010 Words and the Mind: How Words Capture Human Experience . New York: Oxford University Press.
Matlock, Teenie
2004Fictive motion as cognitive simulation. Memory & Cognition 32: 1389–1400.
Matlock, Teenie, Michael Ramscar & Lera Boroditsky
2005On the experiential link between spatial and temporal language. Cognitive Science 29: 655–664.
Matsumoto, Yo
1996Subjective-change expressions in Japanese and their cognitive and linguistic bases. In Fauconnier & Sweetser (eds.), 124–156.
McGlone, Matthew & Jennifer Harding
1998Back (or forward?) to the future: the role of perspective in temporal language comprehension. Journal of Experimental Psychology 24: 1211–1223.
McNeill, David
2008Imagery for speaking. Accessed online 22 July 2012 at mcneilllab​.uchicago​.edu​/pdfs​/imagery​_for​_speaking​_2008​.pdf
McTaggart, J.M.E.
1908The unreality of time. Mind 17: 456–473.
Meir, Irit
2010Iconicity and metaphor: Constraints on metaphorical extension of iconic forms. Language 86: 865–896.
Miller, George & Phillip Johnson-Laird
1976 Language and Perception . Cambridge: The Belknap Press.
Moore, Kevin Ezra
1997a The conventional association of a lexeme with a metaphor: The case of the Wolof verb fekk-e . In Marjolijn Verspoor, Kee Dong Lee & Eve Sweetser (eds.), Lexical and Syntactical Constructions and the Construction of Meaning: Proceedings of the Bi-annual ICLA Meeting in Albuquerque, July 1995 , 207–229 [Current issues in linguistic theory 150]. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
1997b Parameters of meaning in the spatial structure of temporal semantics: an investigation of Wolof lexicon and grammar. In Bailey, Moore & Moxley (eds.), 86–97.
1999Metaphor, linguistic practice, and the temporal meanings of gannaaw ‘back’ and kanam ‘front’ in Wolof. In Chang, Steve; Lily Liaw; & Josef Ruppenhofer (eds.), Proceedings of the Twenty-Fifth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society . 225–237.
2000Spatial Experience and Temporal Metaphors in Wolof: Point of View, Conceptual Mapping, and Linguistic Practice. PhD. Dissertation. University of California, Berkeley.
2001Deixis and the front/back opposition in temporal metaphors. In Alan Cienki, Barbara Luka & Michael Smith (eds.), Conceptual and Discourse Factors in Linguistic Structure , 153–167. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications.
2004Ego-based and field-based frames of reference in space to time metaphors. In Michel Achard & Suzanne Kemmer (eds.), Language, Culture, and Mind , 151–165. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications.
2006Space-to-time mappings and temporal concepts. Cognitive Linguistics 17: 199–244.
2011a Ego-perspective and field-based frames of reference: temporal meanings of front in Japanese, Wolof, and Aymara. Journal of Pragmatics 43: 759–776.
2011b Frames and the experiential basis of the Moving Time metaphor. Constructions and Frames 3: 80–103.
2012A metaphor of static temporal ‘location’ in Wolof and English: Metonymy, motivation, and morphosyntax. Proceedings of the Thirty-Second Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society .
Munro, Pamela & Dieynaba Gaye
1997 Ay Baati Wolof: A Wolof Dictionary [revised edition]. Los Angeles: Department of Linguistics, University of California. [UCLA occasional papers in linguistics, number 19]
Njie, Codou Mbassy
1982 Description Syntaxique du Wolof de Gambie . Dakar: Les Nouvelles Éditions Africaines.
Norrick, Neal R.
1981 Semiotic Principles in Semantic Theory . Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Norvig, Peter
1988Interpretation under ambiguity. In Axmaker, Jaisser & Singmaster (eds.), 188–201.
Nunberg, Geoffrey
1978 The Pragmatics of Reference . Bloomington: Indiana University Linguistics Club.
Núñez, Rafael
1999Could the future taste purple? Reclaiming mind, body, and cognition. In Rafael Núñez & Walter J. Freeman (eds.), Reclaiming Cognition: The Primacy of Action, Intention, and Emotion , 41–60. Thorverton (UK): Imprint Academic.
Núñez, Rafael & Kensy Cooperrider
2013The tangle of space and time in human cognition. Trends in Cognitive Science 17: 220–229.
Núñez, Rafael, Kensy Cooperrider, D. Doan & Jürg Wassmann
2012Contours of time: Topographic construals of past, present, and future in the Yupno valley of Papua New Guinea. Cognition 124: 25–35.
Núñez, Rafael & Carlos Cornejo
2012Facing the sunrise: Cultural worldview underlying intrinsic-based encoding of absolute frames of reference in Aymara. Cognitive science 36: 965–991.
Núñez, Rafael, Benjamin Motz & Ursina Teuscher
2006Time after time: The psychological reality of the Ego- and Time-Reference-Pont distinction in metaphorical construals of time. Metaphor and Symbol 21: 133–146.
Núñez, Rafael & Eve Sweetser
2006With the future behind them: Convergent evidence From Aymara language and gesture in the crosslinguistic comparison of spatial construals of time. Cognitive Science 30: 401–450.
Ohara, Kyoko
(Kyoko Hirose Ohara) 1990The space semantics of mae and usiro . UC Berkeley: Unpublished.
(Kyoko Hirose Ohara) 1991Extensions of mae and saki from space to time. UC Berkeley: Unpublished.
Özçaliskan, Seyda.
2002Metaphors we move by: A Crosslinguistic-Developmental Analysis of Metaphorical Motion Events in English and Turkish. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of California, Berkeley.
Panther, Klaus-Uwe
2006Metonymy as a usage event. In Gitte Kristiansen, Michel Achard & René Dirven (eds.), Cognitive Linguistics: Current Applications and Future Perspectives , 147–185. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
Panther, Klaus-Uwe & Günter Radden
(eds) 1999 Metonymy in Language and Thought . Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Panther, Klaus-Uwe & Linda Thornburg
2003Introduction: On the nature of conceptual metonymy. In Klaus-Uwe Panther & Linda Thornburg (eds.), Metonymy and Pragmatic Inferencing , 1–20. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
2007Metonymy. In Dirk Geeraerts & Hubert Cuyckens (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Cognitive Linguistics , 236–263. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Pederson, Eric
2003How many reference frames? In Christian Freksa, Wilfried Brauer, Christopher Habel & Karl Wender (eds.), Spatial Cognition III: Routes and Navigation, Human Memory and Learning, Spatial Representation and Spatial Learning , 287–304. Berlin: Springer.
Pederson, Eric, Eve Danziger, David Wilkins, Stephen Levinson, Sotaro Kita & Gunter Senft.
1998Semantic typology and spatial conceptualization. Language 74: 557–589.
Peirce, Charles Sanders.
1955 Philosophical Writings of Peirce . [Edited by Justus Buchler]. New York: Dover Publications.
Pütz, Martin & Marjolijn Verspoor
(eds) 2000 Explorations in Linguistic Relativity . Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Radden, Günter.
2001 Time as Space . University of Hamburg, Department of British and American Studies: Cognitive Linguistics: Explorations, Applications, Research.
2002How metonymic are metaphors? In Dirven & Pörings (eds.), 407–434.
2011Spatial time in the West and the East. In Brdar et al.. (eds.), 1–40.
Radden, Günter & Zoltán Kövecses.
1999Towards a theory of metonymy. In Panther & Radden (eds.), 17–59.
Radden, Günter & Klaus-Uwe Panther.
2004Introduction: Reflections on motivation. In Radden & Panther (eds.), 1–46.
Radden, Günter & Klaus-Uwe Panther
(eds) 2004 Studies in Linguistic Motivation . Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Ramscar, Michael, Teenie Matlock & Melody Dye
2010Running down the clock: The role of expectation in our understanding of time and motion. Language and Cognitive Processes 25: 589–615.
Regier, Terry, Paul Kay, Aubrey L. Gilbert & Richard B. Ivry
2010Language and thought: Which side are you on anyway? In Malt & Wolff (eds.), 165–182. New York: Oxford University Press.
Reichenbach, Hans
1947 Elements of Symbolic Logic . New York: The Free Press.
Rice, Sally, Dominiek Sandra & Mia Vanrespaille
1999Prepositional semantics and the fragile link between space and time. In Hiraga, Sinha & Wilcox (eds.), 107–127.
Robert, Stéphane.
1991 Approche Énonciative du Système Verbal: Le Cas du Wolof . Paris: Éditions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.
1997From body to argumentation: grammaticalization as a fractal property of language (the case of Wolof ginnaaw ). In Bailey, Moore & Moxley (eds.), 116–127.
2006Deictic space in Wolof: Discourse, syntax, and the importance of absence. In Maya Hickman & Stéphane Robert (eds.), Space in Languages: Linguistic Systems and Cognitive Categories , 155–174. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Rongier, Jacques
1995 Dictionnaire français-éwé . Paris: Karthala.
Rubba, Jo
1994Grammaticization as semantic change: A case study of preposition development. In William Pagliuca (ed.), Perspectives on Grammaticalization , 81–101. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
1996Alternate grounds in the interpretation of deictic expressions. In Fauconnier & Sweetser (eds.), 227–261.
Sapir, Edward
1921 Language: An Introduction to the Study of Speech . New York: Harcourt, Brace, and World.
1949 Selected Writings of Edward Sapir . [Edited by David Mandelbaum.] Berkeley: University of California Press.
Saussure, Ferdinand de.
1983 Course in General Linguistics . Peru, IL: Open Court.
Sauvageot, Serge
1965 Description Synchronique d’un Dialecte Wolof: Le Parler du Dyolof . Dakar: IFAN (Institut Fondamental d’Afrique Noire.)
Schiff, William
1965Perception of impending collision: A study of visually directed avoidant behavior. Psychological Monographs: General and Applied 79: 1–26 [Whole No. 604].
Schmidt, Goran & Marija Omazic
! 2011Time metaphors in English and Croatian: A corpus-based study. In Brdar et al.. (eds.), 235–246.
Shinmura, Izuru
(ed) 1998 Kojien [5th edition]. Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten.
Shinohara, Kazuko
1999 Epistemology of Space and Time . Japan: Kwansei Gakuin University Press.
2002Correspondence between the spatial front/back axis and temporal concepts in Japanese. Studies in Language Sciences 2. Kurosio Publishers [Japan].
Shinohara, Kazuko & Yoshihiro Matsunaka
2010Frames of reference, effects of motion, and lexical meanings of Japanese front/back terms. In Evans & Chilton (eds.), 293–315.
Shinohara, Kazuko & Prashant Pardeshi
2011The more in front, the later: The role of positional terms in time metaphors. Journal of Pragmatics 43: 749–758.
Silva Sinha, Vera da, Chris Sinha, Wany Sampaio & Jörg Zinken.
2012Event-based time intervals in an Amazonian culture. In Filipović & Jaszczolt (eds) 2012b, 15–35.
Sinha, Chris, Vera da Silva Sinha, Jörg Zinken & Wany Sampaio
2011When time is not space: The social and linguistic construction of time intervals and temporal event relations in an Amazonian culture. Language and Cognition 3: 137–169.
Slobin, Dan
1996From ‘thought and language’ to ‘thinking for speaking’. In Gumperz & Levinson (eds.), 70–96.
1998Verbalized events: a dynamic approach to linguistic relativity and determinism. Essen: LAUD Linguistic Agency, University-GH Essen, Fachbereich 3 - FUB VI, D-41117 Essen.
2003Language and thought online: Cognitive consequences of linguistic relativity. In Dedre Gentner & Susan Goldin-Meadow (eds.), Language in Mind: Advances in the Study of Language and Thought , 157–192. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
2012“Featured guest: Dan Slobin”. [Web posting from The Economist website. Accessed21 July 2012 at http://​www​.economist​.com​/debate​/days​/view​/631]
Stanford, W.B.
1954 The Odyssey of Homer . Vol. II. London: Macmillan.
Sullivan, Karen Sorensen.
2007Grammar in Metaphor: A Construction Grammar Account of Metaphoric Language. PhD. Dissertation. University of California, Berkeley.
2012Frame-based constraints on lexical choice in metaphor. Proceedings of the Thirty-Second Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society , Berkeley, CA: BLS.
Sullivan, Karen & Eve Sweetser
2010Is “Generic is specific” a metaphor? In Fey Parrill, Vera Tobin & Mark Turner (eds.), Meaning, Form and Body , 309–328.  [Selected papers from the 2008 CSDL meeting.]  Stanford CA: CSLI Publications.
Svorou, Soteria
1988The Experiential Basis of the Grammar of Space: Evidence from the Languages of the World. Ph.D. Dissertation. State University of New York at Buffalo.
1994 The Grammar of Space . Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Sweetser, Eve
1987The definition of lie . In Dorothy Holland & Naomi Quinn (eds.), Cultural Models in Language and Thought , 43–66. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
1988Grammaticalization and semantic bleaching. In Axmaker, Jaisser & Singmaster (eds.), 389–405.
1990 From Etymology to Pragmatics: Metaphorical and Cultural Aspects of Semantic Structure . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
1996Changes in figures and changes in grounds: A note on change predicates, mental spaces, and scalar norms. Cognitive Studies [Bulletin of the Japanese Cognitive Science Society] 3: 75–86.
1997Role and individual interpretations of change predicates. In Jan Nuyts & Eric Pederson (eds.), Language and Conceptualization , 116–136. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Talmy, Leonard
1978Figure and ground in complex sentences. In Joseph Greenberg (ed.), Universals of Human Language 4: Syntax , 625–649. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
2000a  Toward a Cognitive Semantics: Volume 1, Concept Structuring Systems . Cambridge: MIT Press.
2000b  Toward a Cognitive Semantics: Volume 2, Typology and Process in Concept Structuring . Cambridge: MIT Press.
2005The fundamental system of spatial schemas in language. In Beate Hampe (ed.), From Perception to Meaning: Image Schemas in Cognitive Linguistics , 199–234. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Taub, Sarah
1998The relation between grammaticalization and Event Structure Metaphor: evidence from Uighur auxiliation. In Jean-Pierre Koenig (ed.), Discourse and Cognition: Bridging the Gap , 239–252. Palo Alto, CA: CSLI press.
Taylor, John R.
1987Tense and metaphorizations of time in Zulu. In W. Lörscher & R. Schulze (eds.), Perspectives on Language in Performance. Studies in Linguistics, Literary Criticism, and Language Teaching and Learning. To Honour Werner Hüllen on the Occasion of his Sixtieth Birthday , 214–229. Tübingen: Narr.
2003 Linguistic Categorization . Oxford: Oxford University Press.
2004The ecology of constructions. In Radden & Panther (eds.), 49–73.
Tenbrink, Thora
2007 Space, Time, and the Use of Language:An Investigation of Relationships . Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
2011Reference frames of space and time in language. Journal of Pragmatics 43: 704–722.
Thornton, Agathe
1987Maori Oral Literature as Seen by a Classicist. Dunedin (New Zeeland): University of Otago press.
Traugott, Elizabeth
Closs 1975Spatial expressions of tense and temporal sequencing: A contribution to the study of semantic fields. Semiotica 15: 207–230. Mouton Publishers.
Traugott, Elizabeth Closs.
1978On the expression of spatio-temporal relations in language. In Greenberg, Ferguson & E. Moravcsik (eds.), 369–400.
1985‘Conventional’ and ‘dead’ metaphors revisited. In Wolf Paprotte & René Dirven (eds.), The Ubiquity of Metaphor , 17–56. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
1986From polysemy to internal semantic reconstruction. In Vassiliki Nikiforidou, Mary VanClay, Mary Niepokui & Deborah Feder (eds.), Proceedings of the Twelfth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society , 539–550.
1988Pragmatic strengthening and grammaticalization. In Axmaker, Jaisser & Singmaster (eds.), 406–416.
1989On the rise of epistemic meanings in English: An example of subjectification in semantic change. Language 65: 31–55.
Traugott, Elizabeth Closs & Bernd Heine
(eds) 1991 Approaches to Grammaticalization 1 . Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Traugott, Elizabeth Closs & Ekkehard König.
1991The semantics-pragmatics of grammaticalization revisited. In Traugott & Heine (eds.), 189–218.
Tresilian, James
1999Analysis of recent empirical challenges to an account of interceptive timing. Perception & Psychophysics 61: 515–528.
Turetzky, Philip
1998 Time . London: Routledge.
Ultan, Russel
1978 The nature of future tenses . In Greenberg, Ferguson & Moravcsik (eds.), 83–123.
Umbreit, Birgit
2011Motivational networks: An empirically supported cognitive phenomenon. In Klaus-Uwe Panther & Günter Radden (eds.), Motivation in Grammar and the Lexicon , 269–286. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Vandeloise, Claude
1991 Spatial Prepositions: A Case Study from French . Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
van Kessel, Juan
1996a Los aymaras contemporáneos de Chile [The Aymara of contemporary Chile]. In Hidalgo et al.. (eds.), 47–67.
1996b La cosmovisión aymara [The Aymara cosmovision]. In Hidalgo et al.. (eds.), 169–187.
Vendler, Zeno
1967Linguistics in Philosophy. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Voorhoeve, Jan
1962 Sranan Syntax . Amsterdam: North Holland.
Wehr, Hans
. A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic . Beirut: Librairie du Liban/London: MacDonald & Evans Ltd.
Whorf, Benjamin Lee.
1956 Language, Thought, and Reality: Selected Writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf [edited by J.B. Carroll]. Cambridge: The MIT Press.
Wierzbicka, Anna
1992 Semantics, Culture, and Cognition: Universal Human Concepts in Culture-Specific Configurations . New York: Oxford University Press.
1997Understanding Cultures through their Key Words: English, Russian, Polish, German, and Japanese. New York: Oxford University Press.
Yamaguchi, Toshiko
2012The semantic change of ato ‘later, behind’ in Japanese: From the Peircean sign to metonymy. Journal of Historical Pragmatics 13: 72–109.
Yu, Ning
1998 The contemporary Theory of Metaphor: A perspective from Chinese . Amsterdam: Benjamins.
1999Spatial conceptualization of time in Chinese. In Hiraga, Sinha & Wilcox (eds.), 69–84.
2012The metaphorical orientation of time in Chinese. Journal of Pragmatics 44: 1335–1354.
Zacks, Jeffrey M. & Barbara Tversky
2013Granularity in taxonomy, time, and space. In Mila Vulchanova & Emile van der Zee (eds.), Motion Encoding in Language and Space , 123–133. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Zeman, Sonja
2012More than ‘time’: The grammaticalisation of the German tense system and ‘frame of reference’ as a crucial interface between space and time. In Filipović & Jaszczolt (eds) 2012a, 157–178.
Zinken, Jörg.
2010Temporal frames of reference. In Evans & Chilton (eds.), 479–498.
Zubin, David & Lynne Hewitt
1995The deictic center: A theory of deixis in narrative. In Duchan, Bruder & Hewitt (eds.), 129–158.
BIC Subject: CFD – Psycholinguistics
BISAC Subject: LAN009000 – LANGUAGE ARTS & DISCIPLINES / Linguistics / General
U.S. Library of Congress Control Number:  2013044623