The Spatial Language of Time
Metaphor, metonymy, and frames of reference
Kevin Ezra Moore | San José State University
The Spatial Language of Time presents a crosslinguistically valid state-of-the-art analysis of space-to-time metaphors, using data mostly from English and Wolof (Africa) but additionally from Japanese and other languages. Metaphors are analyzed in terms of their most direct motivation by basic human experiences (Grady 1997a; Lakoff & Johnson 1980). This motivation explains the crosslinguistic appearance of certain metaphors, but does not say anything about temporal metaphor systems that deviate from the types documented here. Indeed, we observe interesting culture- and language-specific metaphor phenomena. Refining earlier treatments of temporal metaphor and adapting to temporal experience Levinson’s (2003) idea of frames of reference, the author proposes a contrast between perspective-neutral and perspective-specific frames of reference in temporal metaphor that has important crosslinguistic ramifications for the temporal semantics of FRONT/BEHIND expressions. This book refines the cognitive-linguistic approach to temporal metaphor by analyzing the extensive temporal structure in what has been considered the source domain of space, and showing how temporal metaphors can be better understood by downplaying the space-time dichotomy and analyzing metaphor structure in terms of conceptual frames. This book is of interest to linguists, psychologists, anthropologists, philosophers, and others who may have wondered about relationships between space and time.
[Human Cognitive Processing, 42] 2014. xxv, 340 pp.
Publishing status: Available
© John Benjamins
Table of Contents
List of diagrams | p. xv
List of tables | p. xvii
Abbreviations and special symbols | pp. xix–xx
Transcription conventions | p. xxi
Acknowledgments | pp. xxiii–xxv
Part I. Temporal metaphor and ego’s perspective
Introduction: Talking about time as if it were space | pp. 3–20
The deictic nature of Moving Ego and Ego-centered Moving Time expressions | pp. 21–27
The experiential bases (grounding, motivation) of Moving Ego and Ego-centered Moving Time | pp. 29–42
From earlier to later | pp. 43–50
Frame of reference and alternate construals of ego-centered time | pp. 51–61
Part II. Perspectival neutrality
A field-based frame of reference | pp. 65–79
The psychological reality of sequence is relative position on a path | pp. 81–85
Illustrating the field-based/ego-perspective contrast: The case of sequence is relative position in a stack | pp. 87–93
Space-to-time metonymy | pp. 95–104
Part III. The temporal semantics of in-front and behind
The contrasting front/behind schemas of sequence is relative position on a path and Moving Ego | pp. 107–119
The crosslinguistic pairing of in-front and behind with ‘earlier’ and ‘later’ | pp. 121–131
The alignment of ego with a field-based frame of reference | pp. 133–152
When back is not the opposite of front: A temporal relative frame of reference in Wolof | pp. 153–168
The Ego-opposed temporal metaphor and contexts of shared perspective | pp. 169–189
Modes of construal of front and behind | pp. 191–205
In search of primary metaphors of time | pp. 207–212
Part IV. Location without translational motion
Expressions of static temporal “location” | pp. 215–226
Beyond metaphor and metonymy: Mental spaces and conceptual integration | pp. 227–234
Other-centered Moving Time and Wolof fekk ‘become co-located with’ | pp. 235–262
Times as bounded regions | pp. 263–270
Part V. Fundamentally different temporal concepts
Having and wasting Wolof counterparts of time | pp. 273–300
Conclusions | pp. 301–318
Name index | pp. 335–336
Subject index | pp. 337–340
“Time is not a mystery when you examine how people talk about events—remembered, ongoing, anticipated. Kevin Moore has done just that, in a detailed and insightful exploration of temporal expressions in several unrelated languages. His in-depth description of Wolof is worth a book in itself. With the addition of English, Japanese, and Aymara the result is a valuable contribution to comparative cognitive linguistics. And above all, Moore has contributed an exhaustive and carefully considered reanalysis of the conceptual domains of time and space, showing that conceptions of space also have temporal characteristics. Moore’s fresh approach goes beyond space-based metaphors to include metonymy and blending, and to solve old puzzles by distinguishing between motion and location in space, and between ego-centered and field-based fields of reference. The Spatial Language of Time is a landmark in a series devoted to cognitive foundations of language structure and use.”
Dan I. Slobin, University of California, Berkeley
“In everyday life, we take for granted the metaphors we live by, and have no awareness of the extraordinary thought processes that lie behind them. Kevin Moore's admirable book explores the many dimensions involved for "time as space," with unprecedented rigor and scholarship.Moore's compelling analysis of surprisingly deep conceptual mappings is a major contribution to cognitive science and linguistics.”
Gilles Fauconnier, UCSD
“Spatial metaphors for time have become a major theme in cognitive science and linguistics. Kevin Moore's thoughtful book, The Spatial Language of Time, not only adds to the crosslinguistic comparative range of our understanding of spatiotemporal metaphor - it also raises the level of detail in linguistic analysis of the mappings between the two domains. It is a valuable contribution to linguistics, but also to the general study of cognition and of culture.”
Eve Sweetser, University of California, Berkeley
“The book has a cohesive objective about metaphor that is established in Chapter 1 and restated again in the conclusion, namely to “explore the details of certain spatial construals of time as thoroughly as possible for a few languages, in order to gain an understanding of some of the principles involved in applying spatial concepts to time.” Each of the book’s 22 chapters helps develop and further this objective through a detailed description of metaphor in both English and Wolof. Moore weaves connections between the two languages with finesse, letting the reader clearly see the commonalities and providing explanations for areas of difference. This book is an excellent resource for researchers interested in conceptual metaphors of time, providing a unique, cross-linguistic perspective to the ongoing conversation.”
Kathryn Bailey Farmer, University of North Texas, on Linguist List 26.1329 (09/03/2015)
“Moore provides a comprehensive account of the metaphorical understanding of time through space, with a new focus on Wolof, his language of specialization. His work represents a valuable contribution to the literature on human cognition in general, and on how people in Anglo-American and Senegalese cultures use the Spatial Language of Time.”
José Antonio Jódar-Sánchez, San José State University, in Metaphor and the Social World Vol. 5:1 (2015)
Cited by 56 other publications
Alcaraz Carrión, Daniel
2022. Chapter 9. Physical and imaginary landmarks in English time gestures. In Time Representations in the Perspective of Human Creativity [Human Cognitive Processing, 75], ► pp. 187 ff.
Alcaraz Carrión, Daniel & Javier Valenzuela
Brdar, Mario & Rita Brdar-Szabó
Brdar, Mario, Rita Brdar-Szabó & Benedikt Perak
2019. Chapter 9. Metaphor repositories and cross-linguistic comparison. In Metaphor and Metonymy in the Digital Age [Metaphor in Language, Cognition, and Communication, 8], ► pp. 225 ff.
CASTAÑO, EMILIA & ISABEL VERDAGUER CLAVERA
Cheng, Yan & Chris Sinha
Cooperrider, Kensy, James Slotta & Rafael Núñez
DICKEY, STEPHEN M.
El Refaie, Elisabeth
2022. Chapter 5. Creative visual metaphors of protracted and frozen time in autobiographical comics about depression. In Time Representations in the Perspective of Human Creativity [Human Cognitive Processing, 75], ► pp. 101 ff.
FEIST, MICHELE I. & SARAH E. DUFFY
Huumo, Tuomas & Krista Teeri-Niknammoghadam
2022. Chapter 12. Moving reader or moving text?. In Analogy and Contrast in Language [Human Cognitive Processing, 73], ► pp. 371 ff.
2019. Chapter 9. Why do we understand music as moving?. In Perception Metaphors [Converging Evidence in Language and Communication Research, 19], ► pp. 165 ff.
Jódar Sánchez, José Antonio
2015. Review of Moore (2014): The Spatial Language of Time. Metaphor, Metonymy and Frames of Reference. Metaphor and the Social World 5:1 ► pp. 155 ff.
2016. Introduction. In Conceptualizations of Time [Human Cognitive Processing, 52], ► pp. ix ff.
2017. Time on hands. Gesture 16:3 ► pp. 396 ff.
Li, Heng, Van Quynh Bui & Yu Cao
Li, Heng & Yu Cao
Li, Heng & Yu Cao
Moore, Kevin Ezra
2014. The two-Mover hypothesis and the significance of “direction of motion” in temporal metaphors. Review of Cognitive Linguistics 12:2 ► pp. 375 ff.
MOORE, KEVIN EZRA
Moore, Kevin Ezra
2020. Moving Time vs. Frame-relative motion. Constructions and Frames 12:2 ► pp. 272 ff.
Napoli, Donna Jo & Lorraine Leeson
2016. “Cyclic” time in the history of Russian. Studies in Language 40:3 ► pp. 591 ff.
Pagán Cánovas, Cristóbal
Pamies-Bertrán, Antonio & Wang Yuan
Parra, Rodrigo Gonzalo Becerra & Alonso Joaquin Soto Cerda
2022. Chapter 3. What is time?. In Time Representations in the Perspective of Human Creativity [Human Cognitive Processing, 75], ► pp. 61 ff.
Piata, Anna, Adriana Gordejuela & Daniel Alcaraz Carrión
2022. Introduction. In Time Representations in the Perspective of Human Creativity [Human Cognitive Processing, 75], ► pp. 1 ff.
Piata, Anna & Cristina Soriano
2022. The affect bias in the metaphorical representation of anticipated events. Metaphor and the Social World 12:1 ► pp. 115 ff.
Rickles, Dean & Maria Kon
Rodríguez Rosique, Susana
2023. Time after time. In Verb and Context [IVITRA Research in Linguistics and Literature, 34], ► pp. 263 ff.
Sinha, Chris & Peter Gärdenfors
Sullivan, Karen & Linh Thuy Bui
Turner, Sarah, Jeannette Littlemore, Danielle Fuller, Karolina Kuberska & Sheelagh McGuinness
2020. The production of time-related metaphors by people who have experienced pregnancy loss. In Producing Figurative Expression [Figurative Thought and Language, 10], ► pp. 389 ff.
Valenzuela, Javier & Daniel Alcaraz Carrión
Valenzuela, Javier & Rosa Illán Castillo
2022. Chapter 1. A corpus-based look at time metaphors. In Time Representations in the Perspective of Human Creativity [Human Cognitive Processing, 75], ► pp. 15 ff.
Waliński, Jacek T.
Waliński, Jacek Tadeusz
Zhong, Lingli & Zhengguang Liu
[no author supplied]
[no author supplied]
2022. Figuring out Figuration [Figurative Thought and Language, 14],
[no author supplied]
This list is based on CrossRef data as of 5 june 2023. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers. Any errors therein should be reported to them.
Main BIC Subject
Main BISAC Subject
LAN009000: LANGUAGE ARTS & DISCIPLINES / Linguistics / General
U.S. Library of Congress Control Number: 2013044623 | Marc record