Correspondence analysis is an exploratory technique for complex categorical data, typical of corpus-driven research. It identifies patterns of association and disassociation in those data. For instance, it can map the correlations between different uses of a linguistic form and its various social and/or morpho-syntactic contexts. The technique presents its results in the form of a two-dimensional plot, which visualises these relationships in an intuitive manner. These plots offer rich representations of the relations between different facets of complex data. Using R, this chapter explains how the technique works and offers a step-by-step explanation of its application and the interpretation of its results. The technique is also compared to the better-known and comparable cluster analysis.
(2011) Cognitive Linguistic methods for literature: A usage-based approach to metanarrative and metalepsis. In A. Kwiatkowska (Ed.), Texts and minds: Papers in cognitive poetics and rhetoric (pp. 85–102). Frankfurt/Main: Peter Lang.
(2010) Synonymy, lexical fields, and grammatical constructions: A study in usage-based Cognitive Semantics. In H.-J. Schmid, & S. Handl (Eds.), Cognitive foundations of linguistic usage-patterns: Empirical studies (pp. 89–118). Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
(2014a) The conceptual profile of the lexeme home: A multifactorial diachronic analysis. In J.E. Díaz-Vera (Ed.), Metaphor and metonymy across time and cultures (pp. 265–293). Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
(2014b) The social nature of anger: Multivariate corpus evidence for context effects upon conceptual structure. In I. Novakova, P. Blumenthal, & D. Siepmann (Eds.), Emotions in discourse (pp. 69–82). Frankfurt/Main: Peter Lang.
(In press) Cognitive socio-semantics: The theoretical and analytical role of context in meaning. Review of Cognitive Linguistics.
Gower, J., Gardner-Lubbe, S., & le Roux, N
(2010) Understanding biplots. Chichester: Wiley.
Greenacre, M., & Blasius, J
(Eds.) (2006) Multiple correspondence analysis and related methods. London: Chapman & Hall.
Greenacre, M., & Nenadić, O
(2010) ca: Simple, multiple and joint correspondence analysis. R package version 0.33. Retrieved from [URL].
(1984) Theory and applications of correspondence analysis. London: Academic Press.
(2006) From simple to multiple correspondence analysis. InM. Greenacre, & J. Blasius(Eds.), Multiple correspondence analysis and related methods (pp. 41–76). London: Chapman & Hall.
(2007) Correspondence analysis in practice. London: Chapman & Hall.
(2010) Biplots in practice. Bilbao: Fundación BBVA.
Husson, F., Lê, S., & Pagès, J
(2011) Exploratory multivariate analysis by example using R. London: Chapman & Hall.
Kowalczyk, T., Pleszczynska, E., & Ruland, F
(Eds.) (2004) Grade models and methods for data analysis. München: Springer.
(2014a) Shame and its near-synonyms in English: A multivariate corpus-driven approach to social emotions. In I. Novakova, P. Blumenthal, & D. Siepmann (Eds.), Emotions in discourse (pp. 84–94). Frankfurt/Main: Peter Lang.
(2014b) Epistemic stance predicates in English: A quantitative corpus-driven study of subjectivity. In D. Glynn, & M. Sjölin (Eds.), Subjectivity and epistemicity: Corpus, discourse, and literary approaches to stance (pp. 355–386). Lund: Lund University Press.
Krawczak, K., & Glynn, D
(2011) Context and cognition: A corpus-driven approach to parenthetical uses of mental predicates. In K. Kosecki, & J. Badio (Eds.), Cognitive processes in language (pp. 87–99). Frankfurt/Main: Peter Lang.
Krawczak, K., & Kokorniak, I
(2012) Subjective construal of think in Polish. Poznań Studies in Contemporary Linguistics, 48, 439–472.
Le Roux, B., & Rouanet, H
(2005) Geometric data analysis: From correspondence analysis to structured data analysis. London: Kluwer.
2017. Les prépositions à et de et la complémentation verbale. Langages N° 206:2 ► pp. 65 ff.
2022. Constituency map of the alternative for Germany (AfD) vote in 2017: analysing characteristic differences via multiple correspondence analysis. Journal of Contemporary European Studies 30:2 ► pp. 313 ff.
2020. Schemas and the frequency/acceptability mismatch: Corpus distribution predicts sentence judgments. Cognitive Linguistics 31:4 ► pp. 609 ff.
Gaio, Mario, Carmen Ferrajolo, Alessia Zinzi, Consiglia Riccardi, Pasquale Di Filippo, Ludovica Carangelo, Gorizio Pieretti, Francesco Rossi, Giovanni Francesco Nicoletti & Annalisa Capuano
2021. Association of Direct Oral Anticoagulants (DOACs) and Warfarin With Haemorrhagic Risk by Applying Correspondence Analysis to Data From the Italian Pharmacovigilance Database – A Case Study. Frontiers in Pharmacology 12
Garraffoni, André R. S., Fabrício C. Alcântara & Hélio H. Checon
2017. Evaluating the anesthetization and fixation efficacy of “soft” and “hard” freshwater benthic meiofauna: what is the best method for specimen preservation?. Limnology 18:2 ► pp. 209 ff.
2022. A corpus-based study of congruent and metaphorical patterns of modality in English. Studia Neophilologica► pp. 1 ff.
This list is based on CrossRef data as of 12 may 2023. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers.
Any errors therein should be reported to them.