Chapter published in:Cognitive Linguistics and the Study of Chinese
Edited by Dingfang Shu, Hui Zhang and Lifei Zhang
[Human Cognitive Processing 67] 2019
► pp. 121–155
Chapter 4Types of negatives and the noun-verb distinction in English and Chinese
In this study, it is claimed that, unlike in Chinese, the most important division of negatives in English is between the negation of nouns and that of verbs, but not between indicative and non-indicative negation, nor between the negation of there is and is. In Chinese the most important division of negatives is between indicative and non-indicative negation, or between the negation of you 有 ‘has/there is’ and the negation of shi 是 ‘is’, but not between noun and verb negation. This difference supports the thesis that, while in English nouns and verbs occupy two separate grammatical categories, nouns in Chinese constitute a super-noun category with the verb included, and thus a noun-verb division in Chinese should not be overstated.
- 2.The division of negatives in English: No and not
- 3.The division of negatives in Chinese
- 3.1Ancient Chinese bu 不 / fu 弗 and wu 毋(无) / wu 勿
- 3.2In modern Chinese: Mei 没/ wu 无/wei 未 and bu 不/fe i 非
- 4.The primary division in Chinese grammar
- 5.Negative affixes in English and Chinese
- 6.Further notes on you 有 in Chinese
- 6.1Properties of you 有
- 6.2Usage extensions of you 有
- 7.Philosophical background
- 8.Conceptual metaphors in Chinese
Published online: 20 November 2019
Broschart, J., & Dawuda, C.
2000 Beyond nouns and verbs: Typological studies in lexical categorization. Available at: http://www.phil-fak.uni-duesseldorf.de/sfb282/working_papers/BEYNOUNF.pdf
Diao, Y., & Li, Y.
Ding, S. S.
1935 Shi foudingci fu bu （Interpreting the two negatives fu and bu） 释否定词‘弗’‘不’ (Interpreting the two negatives fu and bu ). In Qingzhu Cai Yuanpei xiansheng liushiwu sui lunwenji: Juan er 庆祝蔡元培先生六十五岁论文集, 卷II (A Collection of Works in Celebration of the 65th Birthday of Mr. Cai Yuanpei, Part II). Guoli Zhongyang Yanjiuyuan Lishi Yuyan Yanjiushuo, 967–996.
2010 Cong jiasheju de fouding xingshi kan jiaguwen zhong de wu, jiang yu bu , fu zhi bie 从假设句的否定形式看甲骨文中的 ‘勿’、 ‘弜’ 与 ‘不’、 ‘弗’ 之别 (The difference between wu, jiang and bu , fu in oracle bone inscriptions from the perspective of negative forms of hypothetical sentences). Zhongguo Yuwen 中国语文 (Studies of the Chinese Language), 2, 162–167.
Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M
Langacker, R. W.
Larson, K. R.
Li, C. N., & Thompson, S. A
1942b Lun wu yu wu 论毋与勿 (On negatives wu 毋 and wu 勿). Huaxi xiehe daxue zhongguo wenhua yanjiusuo jikan 《华西协和大学中国文化研究所集刊》 (Bulletin of the Insitute of Chinese Culture, West China Union University), 1(4), 69–97. Reprinted in Lü shuxiang wenji吕叔湘文集 (Collected Works of Prof. Lü Shuxiang), Vol. 2. Beijing: The Commercial Press.
McCawley, J. D
2009a Cong yanyuan shi ge dongci shuoqi–‘Mingci dong yong’ he ‘dongci ming yong’ de buduichen 从‘演员是个动词’说起––‘名词动用‘和’动词名用的不对称 (‘Actor or actress is a verb’: On the asymmetry between nouns used as verbs and verbs used as nouns). Paper delivered to the Joint Symposium of Mainland, Hongkong and Twaiwan China on Syntax and Semantics (Xinzu, Taiwan Qinghua University) printed 2010 in Dangdai Xiushixue当代修辞学 (Contemporary Rhetoric Study), 1, 1–12.
Shen, J., & Wan, Q.
Trubetzkoy, N. S.
Ungerer, F., & Schmid, H-J
2009 Ruhe jiehe fangyan he gudai wenxian yanjiu hanyu de lishi–Yi you de yongfa weili 如何结合方言和古代文献研究汉语的历史––以’有’的用法为例 (How to study the history of Chinese using data of dialects and ancient texts: A case of the usage of you ). Monograph of a lecture delivered at the Institute of Linguistics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.
Yuan, Y., Li, X., Cao, H., & Wang, J.