Chapter published in:Grammar and Cognition: Dualistic models of language structure and language processing
Edited by Alexander Haselow and Gunther Kaltenböck
[Human Cognitive Processing 70] 2020
► pp. 159–190
Dichotomous or continuous?
Final particles and a dualistic conception of grammar
This article demonstrates that final particles (more broadly markers) in four East Asian languages (Japanese, Korean, Chinese, and Mongolian) and three West European languages (English, Spanish, and German) follow a similar semantic/discourse-functional ordering principle when they occur in sequence: more intersubjective particles follow more subjective or less intersubjective particles. These particles can be largely classified into two types: sentence-final and utterance-final types. A detailed description of both types in languages like Japanese reveals that the sentence-final type has some properties of both domains postulated in a dualistic conception of grammar (thetical grammar and sentence grammar, inter alia, in Kaltenböck et al. (2011) and Heine et al. (2013); macrogrammar and microgrammar in Haselow (2016a) among others). Japanese sentence-final particles, par excellence, are microgrammartical and sentence-grammatical elements on formal grounds but macrogrammatical and thetical-grammatical elements in functional terms. This fact requires us to recognize that the two domains do not comprise a dichotomy but form a continuum to a greater degree than assumed thus far.
Keywords: sentence-final, utterance-final, macrogrammar, microgrammar, thetical grammar, sentence grammar
Published online: 12 November 2020
Clark, H., & Brennan, S. A.
Fischer, K., & Alm, M.
Heine, B., Claudi, U., & Hünnemeyer, F.
Heine, B., Kaltenböck, G., Kuteva, T., & Long, H.
Heine, B., Kuteva, T., & Kaltenböck, G.
Heine, B., Kaltenböck, G., & Kuteva, T.
2018 On the dualistic nature of discourse processing: linguistic and neurolinguistic observations. Working paper, prepared for the International Workshop One Brain – Two Grammars? Examining dualistic approaches to grammar and cognition, Rostock, 1–2 March 2018.
Huddleston, R., & Pullum, G. K.
Izutsu, M. N., & Izutsu, K.
2017 Regularity outside argument structure: sequential ordering in final position. A paper presented at IPrA 15, Belfast, Northern Ireland.
2019 Very simple, though, isn’t it?: pragmatic marker sequencing at right periphery. A paper to be presented at IPrA 16, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hon Kong.
2009 Mongorugo no shujoshi no shosetsu nitsuite: kopasu ni motozuku kijutsuteki kenkyu [On the sequential ordering of Mongolian final particles: a corpus-based descriptive study]. In Tomimori, N., Minegishi, M., & Kawaguchi, Y. (Eds.), Kopasu o mochiita gengo kenkyu no kanosei [Potentials of corpus-based studies] (129–147). Tokyo University of Foreign Studies.
Kaltenböck, G., & Heine, B.
Li, C. N., & Thompson, S. A.
1991 ‘Wir sind ja doch alte Bekannte’: the use of German ja and doch as modal particles. In Abraham, W. (Ed.), Discourse particles: Descriptive and theoretical investigations on the logical, syntactic, and pragmatic properties of discourse particles in German (163–201). Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Lohmann, A., & Koops, C.
Paik, P. J.
Shinzato, R., & Masuda, K.
Tottie, G., & Hoffmann, S.
Yap, F. H., Yang, Y., & Wong, T.-S.