Erminnie A. Smith (1836–1886)
A portrait of a linguist
In this paper I discuss the varied contributions of Erminnie Adele Smith (1836–1886), a linguist, ethnologist, and geologist, who has a significant but underestimated place in the history of the study of North American languages. Among others, Smith was among the first scholars to collaborate extensively with Indigenous consultants and the first woman in the history of Western linguistics who published works on grammatical gender. Such achievements point to the need to reconsider her life and work in the context of the reception of the first generation of women in American anthropology as well as the study of gender in Iroquoian languages since the mid-19th century.
- 3.Intellectual milieu
- 3.1Scholarly contacts
- 3.2Membership in societies
- 3.3Women in anthropology
- 4.1Geology and mineralogy
- 4.2Iroquoian languages
- 6.Concluding discussion
Published online: 03 June 2022
1984 “Two Feminine Genders in Oneida”. Anthropological Linguistics 26:2.125–137. https://www.jstor.org/stable/30027499
Ayres-Bennett, Wendy & Helena Sanson
Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution, ed.
Boas, Franz & George Hunt
Brinton, Daniel G[arrison]
Brinton, Daniel G.
Browman, David L.
Browman, David L. & Stephen Williams
Bruyas, James [Jacques] S. J.
1826 Review of Manners and Customs of Several Indian Tribes Located West of the Mississippi; Including some account of the soil, climate, and vegetable productions, and the Indian materia medica: to which is prefixed the history of the author’s life during a residence of several years among them by John D. Hunter (Philadelphia: J. Maxwell 1823) and Historical Notes Respecting the Indians of North America: With remarks on the attempts made to convert and civilize them by John Halkett (London: A. Constable 1825) The North American Review 22:50.53–119.
Catalogue of Endangered Languages
2022 Honolulu, Hawaii: The University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa. (https://endangeredlanguages.com). Accessed: 20 March 2022.
Chafe, Wallace L.
Charlevoix, P[ierre François Xavier] de
1744 Histoire et description generale de la Nouvelle France, avec le journal historique d’un voyage fait par ordre du roi dans l’Amérique septentrionnale. Vol. III1: Journal d’un voyage fait par ordre du roi dans l’Amérique septentrionnale: Adressé a Madame la Duchesse de Lesdiguieres. Paris: Chez Rolin Fils, Libraire.
Chester, Hilary Lynn
Christy, T. Craig
Converse, Harriet Maxwell
Creese, Mary R. S.
Davison, Alice & Penelope Eckert
Dexter, Ralph W.
1788 Observations on the Language of the Muhhekaneew Indians: In which the extent of that language in North-America is shewn, its genius is grammatically traced, some of its peculiarities, and some instances of analogy between that and the Hebrew are pointed out. New Haven, Conn.: Printed by Josiah Meigs. (New ed. by John Pickering, Boston: Phelps and Farnham 1823; Repr. in American Linguistics, vol. I1. London: Routledge 1997.)
Fairbanks, A. W.
Fenton, William N.
Fleming Blacker, Patricia & Pamela P. Grossman
Fletcher, Alice C.
Gaines, Celie & Lizzie R. Burst
Heaton, Raina, Eve Koller & Lyle Campbell
Hewitt, J[ohn] N[apoleon] B[rinton]
Hewitt, J. N. B.
Hewitt, J. N. B. & Erminnie A. Smith
n.d. Tuscarora Dictionary. [Manuscript 2850, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution].
Judd, Neil M.
Koerner, E[rnst] F[rideryk] Konrad
Kurath, Hans & Raven I. McDavid, Jr.
Lurie, Nancy Oestreich
Mason, Otis T[ufton]
Merriam, Kathryn Lavely
2010 The Preservation of Iroquois Thought: J.N.B. Hewitt’s legacy of scholarship for his people. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
2018 “Iroquoian Languages”. Oxford Bibliographies Online: Linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (https://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780199772810/obo-9780199772810-0023.xml). Accessed: 20 March 2022.
Miller, Darlis A.
Morgan, Lewis H[enry]
Morgan, Lewis H.
Naumann, Bernd, Frans Plank & Gottfried Hofbauer
Parezo, Nancy J.
1823 “Notes by the Editor [to Observations on the Language of the Muhhekaneew Indians by Jonathan Edwards]”. Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society (2nd series) 101.98–151. (Edwards’ Observations on the Language of the Muhhekaneew Indians issued separately, Boston: Phelps & Farnham 1823; Repr., Boston: Charles C. Little & James Brown 1843.)
Pilling, James Constantine
Powell, J[ohn] W[esley]
Powell, J. W.
Rhea, John M.
Rossiter, Margaret W.
Rudes, Blair A.
1994 “John Napoleon Brinton Hewitt: Tuscarora linguist”. Anthropological Linguistics 36:4.466–481. https://www.jstor.org/stable/30028390
Rudes, Blair A. & Dorothy Crouse
Sergeevna, Byša Lidija
2019 Stanovlenie problemnogo polja v issledovanijax ženščin-antropologov SŠA (1970–2010-e gg.) [The formation of the problem field in the studies of women anthropologists in the United States (1970–2010s)]. Ph.D. dissertation, Tver State University, Tver.
Shea, John Gilmary
Smith, Erminnie A[dele]
1879 “The Great Oberstein Industry; Method of coloring, cutting and polishing agates and secondary gems. Illustrated by a fine collection of specimens”. Paper presented at the 28th Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Saratoga Springs, N.Y.
Smith, Erminnie A.
n.d. Seneca Translation of Second and Third Chapters of Genesis, and First Proverbs. [Manuscript 415, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution].
Smith, Erminnie A. & J. N. B. Hewitt
Talvj (= Therese Albertine Luise von Jakob Robinson)
Tooker, Elisabeth & Barbara Graymont
Treichler, Paula A.
Whitney, William Dwight