Chapter published in:Advancedness in Second Language Spanish: Definitions, challenges, and possibilities
Edited by Mandy R. Menke and Paul A. Malovrh
[Issues in Hispanic and Lusophone Linguistics 31] 2021
► pp. 66–91
Advanced users of Spanish
Relationships among modalities of speaking, reading, and listening
This chapter outlines a three-year large-scale project assessing postsecondary Spanish learners’ proficiency in speaking, reading, and listening using instruments from the American Council of Teachers of Foreign Language (ACTFL). Nearly 400 students from the second curricular year on demonstrated proficiency at Advanced Low on the ACTFL scale in at least one modality. This chapter examines the ratings of these students and outlines relationships among the three modalities at curricular stages as well as at each proficiency sub-level. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal data show primacy of reading proficiency at the advanced level, followed by listening and then speaking. Among Advanced learners of Spanish at the university, the Advanced level in the receptive modalities appears to be corequisite with Advanced speaking proficiency.
Keywords: L2 Spanish, modality, advanced proficiency, ACTFL scale
Published online: 08 February 2021
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