John Flowerdew | Lancaster University | Birkbeck, University of London
Since the late 1980s, there has been a growing interest in the direct application of corpora, or data-driven learning (DDL), in
language education. This relatively novel teaching approach has been particularly applied in the teaching and learning of English
for Academic Purposes (EAP)/academic writing, especially since the turn of the century. This paper synthesizes and evaluates the
research progress in the field of EAP/academic writing since the year 2000 by critically reviewing 37 empirical studies focussing
on applications of DDL in this context. Based on the critical review and a discussion of some contentious issues, a set of five
recommendations for the way forward in DDL research and practice for EAP/academic writing is presented.
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(2018) AntConc (Version 3.5.7) [Computer Software]. Tokyo: Waseda University. Available from [URL] (last accessed August 2018).
(2002) The learner as corpus designer. Language and Computers, 42(1), 9–25.
Bianchi, F., & Pazzaglia, R.
(2007) Student writing of research articles in a foreign language: metacognition and corpora. In R. Facchinetti (Ed.), Corpus Linguistics 25 Years on (pp. 259–287). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Rodopi.
(2010) Data-driven learning: Taking the computer out of the equation. Language Learning, 60(3), 534–572.
(2011) Bringing corpora to the masses: Free and easy tools for language learning. In N. Kubler (Ed.), Corpora, Language, Teaching, and Resources: From Theory to Practice (pp. 69–95). Brussels: Peter Lang.
(2017) Corpus use in language learning: A meta-analysis. Language Learning, 67(2), 348–393.
Cargill, M., & O’Connor, P.
(2006) Developing Chinese scientists’ skills for publishing in English: Evaluating collaborating-colleague workshops based on genre analysis. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 5(3), 207–221.
(2004) Students’ diverse appreciation of text corpora as writing aids. In T. Caudery (Ed.), Proceedings of the Ninth Nordic Conference for English Studies (NAES 2004) (pp. 27–29). Aarhus: University of Aarhus.
(2007) Popularising corpus consultation by language learners and teachers. In E. Hidalgo, L. Quereda & J. Santana (Eds.), Corpora in the Foreign Language Classroom (pp. 3–16). Amsterdam/New York: Rodopi.
(2010) Combining text-based and corpus-based approaches in the learning and teaching of academic writing in French. In M. M. Jaén & M. C. Pérez (Eds.) Exploring New Paths in Language Pedagogy (pp. 145–156). London: Equinox Publishing.
(2011) Language learning as discourse analysis: Playing games in a corpus of French journalistic discourse. In N. Kübler (Ed.). Corpora, Language, Teaching, and Resources: From Theory to Practice (pp. 97–110). Frankfurt: Peter Lang.
Chambers, A. & O’Sullivan, Í.
(2004) Corpus consultation and advanced learners’ writing skills in French. ReCALL, 16(1), 158–172.
Chang, J. -Y.
(2014) The use of general and specialized corpora as reference sources for academic English writing: A case study. ReCALL, 26(2), 243–259.
(2012) Using a stance corpus to learn about effective authorial stance-taking: A textlinguistic approach. ReCALL, 24(2), 209–236.
(2007) Reconciling top-down and bottom-up approaches to graduate writing: Using a corpus to teach rhetorical functions. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 6(4), 289–302.
(2011) Using hands-on concordancing to teach rhetorical functions: Evaluation and implications for EAP writing classes. In A. Frankenberg-Garcia, L. Flowerdew & G. Aston (Eds.), New Trends in Corpora and Language Learning (pp. 81–104). London/New York: Continuum.
(2012) ‘Proper vocabulary and juicy collocations’: EAP students evaluate do-it-yourself corpus building. English for Specific Purposes, 31(2), 93–102.
(2014) Getting the corpus habit: EAP students’ long-term use of personal corpora. English for Specific Purposes, 351, 30–40.
(1997) Is there any measurable learning from hands-on concordancing?System, 25(3), 301–315.
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Corbin, J., & Strauss, A.
(2008) Basics of Qualitative Research. (3rd ed.). Los Angeles: Sage.
(2007) Exploring genre and corpora in the English for academic writing class. The ORTESOL Journal, 251, 8–14.
(2014) Genre analysis in the academic writing class: With or without corpora?Quaderns de Filologia-Estudis Lingüístics, 161, 65–80.
(2014) Enhancing writing pedagogy with learner corpus data. ReCALL, 26(2), 202–224.
(2007) Getting to “know” connectors? Evaluating data-driven learning in a writing skills course. In E. Hidalgo, L. Quereda & J. Santana (Eds.), Corpora in the Foreign Language Classroom (pp. 267–288). Amsterdam/New York: Rodopi.
(2017) Retesting the limits of data-driven learning: Feedback and error correction. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 30(6) 1–27.
(2008) The Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA): 560 million words, 1990-present. Retrieved from [URL] (last accessed August 2018).
(2012) Text and corpus work, EAP writing and language learners. In R. Tang (Ed.), Academic Writing in a Second or Foreign Language (pp. 45–66). London: Continuum.
Ebrahimi, A., & Faghih, E.
(2017) Integrating corpus linguistics into online language teacher education programs. ReCALL, 29(1), 120–135–16.
(2012) Pedagogical perspectives on bundles: Teaching bundles to doctoral students of biochemistry. In J. Thomas & A. Boulton (Eds.), Input, Process and Products. Developments in Teaching and Language Corpora (pp. 195–211). Brno: Masaryk University Press.
Fan, M., & Xu, X.
(2002) An evaluation of an online bilingual corpus for the self-learning of legal English. System, 30(1), 47–63.
Feng, H. -H.
(2014) A pilot study: The use of corpus concordancing for ESL learner self error-correction. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 251, 5–25.
Fenton-Smith, B., Humphries, P., & Walkinshaw, I.
(Eds.) (2017) EMI: Issues and Challenges in Asia-Pacific Higher Education. Cham: Springer.
Flowerdew, J., & Wang, S. O.
(2017) Teaching English for research writing purposes with a focus on genre, register, textual mentors, and language-reuse. In J. Flowerdew & T. Costley (Eds.), Discipline-specific Writing; Theory into Practice (pp. 144–161). London: Routledge.
(2005) Integrating traditional and critical approaches to syllabus design: The ‘what’, the ‘how’ and the ‘why?’. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 4(2), 135–147.
(2008) Corpus linguistics for academic literacies mediated through discussion activities. In D. Belcher & A. Hirvela (Eds.), The Oral-Literate Connection: Perspectives on L2 Speaking, Writing and Other Media Interactions (pp. 268–287). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
(2015) Using corpus-based research and online academic corpora to inform writing of the discussion section of a thesis. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 201, 58–68.
Francis, W. N., & Kucera, H.
(1964) Computational Analysis of Present-day American English. Providence, R. I.: Brown University Press.
(2012) Raising teachers’ awareness of corpora. Language Teaching, 45(4), 475–489.
(2001) Over-indulgence and under-representation in interlanguage: Reflections on the utilization of concordancers in self-directed foreign language learning. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 14(3–4), 269–288.
Gaskell, D., & Cobb, T.
(2004) Can learners use concordance feedback for writing errors?System, 32(3), 301–319.
(2009) Using online corpora to develop students’ writing skills. ELT Journal, 63(4), 363–372.
(1995) Success in research article writing and revision: A social-constructionist perspective. English for Specific Purposes, 14(1), 37–57.
Gilquin, G., Granger, S., & Paquot, M.
(2007) Learner corpora: The missing link in EAP pedagogy. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 6(4), 319–335.
(2009) ConcGram 1.0: A Phraseological Search Engine. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
(2007) Corpus tools as an affordance to learning in professional legal education. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 6(4), 303–318.
(2006) Helping ESL writers through a multimodal, corpus-based, online grammar resource. Calico Journal, 24(1), 5–32.
Hsieh, W. M., & Liou, H. C.
(2008) A case study of corpus-informed online academic writing for EFL graduate students. CALICO Journal, 26(1), 28–47.
(2014) The effects of paper-based DDL on the acquisition of lexico-grammatical patterns in L2 writing. ReCALL, 26(2), 163–183.
(1990) From printout to handout: Grammar and vocabulary teaching in the context of data-driven learning. English Language Research Journal, 41, 27–45.
(1991) Should you be persuaded: Two samples of data-driven learning materials. English Language Research Journal, 41, 1–16.
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(2006) Academic English in secondary schools. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 5(4), 251–253.
(2010) IFAConc: A pedagogic tool for online concordancing with EFL/EAP learners. In A. Frankenberg-Garcia, L. L. Flowerdew & G. Aston (Eds.), New Trends in Corpora and Language Learning (pp. 81–104). London/New York: Continuum.
Kaur, J., & Hegelheimer, V.
(2005) ESL students use of concordance in the transfer of academic word knowledge: An exploratory study. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 18(4), 287–310.
Kennedy, C., & Miceli, T.
(2000) The CWIC project: Developing and using a corpus for intermediate Italian students. In B. Kettemann & G. Marko (Eds.), Teaching and Learning by Doing Corpus Analysis. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Teaching and Language Corpora (pp. 81–104). Amsterdam/New York: Rodopi.
Kennedy, C., & Miceli, T.
(2001) An evaluation of intermediate students’ approaches to corpus investigation. Language Learning and Technology, 5(3), 77–90.
Kennedy, C., & Miceli, T.
(2010) Corpus-assisted creative writing: Introducing intermediate Italian learners to a corpus as a reference resource. Language Learning & Technology, 14(1), 28–44.
Lee, D., & Swales, J.
(2006) A corpus-based EAP course for NNS doctoral students: Moving from available specialized corpora to self-compiled corpora. English for Specific Purposes, 251, 56–75.
(1997) Teaching and language corpora: A convergence. In A. Wichmann, S. Fligelstone, T. McEnery & G. Knowles (Eds.), Teaching and Language Corpora (pp. 11–23). Harlow: Addison Wesley Longman.
(2014) Is this enough? A qualitative evaluation of the effectiveness of a teacher-training course on the use of corpora in language education. ReCALL, 26(2), 260–278.
Liou, H. C., Yang, P. C., & Chang, J. S.
(2012) Language supports for journal abstract writing across disciplines. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 28(4), 322–335.
McGarrell, H. M.
(2015) Developing autonomy through awareness of textual features in academic texts. OLBI Working Papers, 71, 41–52.
Miceli, T., & Kennedy, C.
(2002) An apprenticeship with the CWIC Corpus: A tool for learner writers in Italian. In C. Kennedy (Ed.), Proceedings of Workshop Innovations in Italian Teaching (pp. 83–94). Brisbane: Griffith University.
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(2006) Learners’ writing skills in French: corpus consultation and learner evaluation. Journal of Second Language Writing, 15(1), 49–68.
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(2010) Writing/thinking in real time: Digital video and corpus query analysis. Language Learning & Technology, 14(3), 31–50.
(2016) A corpus-aided approach for the teaching and learning of rhetoric in an undergraduate composition course for L2 writers. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 211, 99–109.
(2015) Training L2 writers to reference corpora as a self-correction tool. ELT Journal, 69(2), 165–177.
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(2011) Concordancing in L2 writing class: An overview of research and issues. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 10(3), 130–139.
(2008) More than a linguistic reference: The influence of corpus technology on EAP writing. Language Learning & Technology, 12(2), 31–49.
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Yoon, H., & Jo, J. W.
(2014) Direct and indirect access to corpora: An exploratory case study comparing students’ error correction and learning strategy use in L2 Writing. Language, Learning & Technology, 18(1), 96–117.
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2021. Teaching research writing in education: Practice and reflection. International Journal of English for Academic Purposes: Research and Practice 2021:Autumn ► pp. 191 ff.
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