Adverb placement in EFL academic writing
Going beyond syntactic transfer
The present study looks at adverb placement in expert writing and in first-language and second-language novice spoken and
written production. The extent to which first-language (L1) transfer is still present in advanced learners’ written production is also
investigated. The study uses data from one expert corpus (LOCRA), two native-speaker student
corpora (BAWE and LOCNEC) and two learner corpora (VESPA and LINDSEI). The results highlight the importance of taking mode into consideration, as clear distributional
differences were found between spoken and written production. In addition, while considerable differences could be noted across L1
background in the spoken data, factors such as presence/absence of auxiliary, verb type (e.g. intransitive, copular/linking) and lexis were
found to be most important for predicting adverb placement in the written data. Only very limited evidence of L1 transfer was found in the
learners’ writing, suggesting that advanced learners have largely mastered the distributional preferences of adverbs.
- 2.Epistemic adverbs and L1 transfer
- 2.1Epistemic adverbs
- 2.2Typological differences between the L1s
- 3.Corpora and method
- 3.2.1Frameworks for the study of L1 transfer
- 3.2.2Categorizing adverb placement
- 3.2.3Coding for linguistic context
- 3.2.4The coding procedure and inter-rater reliability
- 4.Results and discussion
- 4.1Investigating differences across modes
- 4.2Investigating positional distribution in the written data
For any use beyond this license, please contact the publisher at email@example.com.
) Analyzing Linguistic Data: A Practical Introduction to Statistics Using R
. Cambridge University Press.
BAWE (British Academic Written English corpus)
. Corpus compiled at the Universities of Warwick
, Reading and Oxford Brookes in 2004–2007 [URL]
) Stance in spoken and written university registers
. Journal of English for Academic Purposes
, 5(2), 97–116.
Biber, D., Johansson, S., Leech, G., Conrad, S., & Finegan, E.
) Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English
Celce-Murcia, M., Larsen-Freeman, D., & Williams, H. A.
) The Grammar Book: An ESL/EFL Teacher’s Course
(2nd ed.). Heinle & Heinle.
De Cock, S.
) Preferred sequences of words in NS and NNS speech
. Belgian Journal of English Language and Literatures (BELL), New Series
, 21, 225–246.
) Conjunctive Markers of Contrast in English and French: From Syntax to Lexis and Discourse
. [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Université catholique de Louvain.
Faarlund, J. T., Lie, S., & Vannebo, K. I.
) Norsk Referansegrammatikk
[Norwegian Reference Grammar
Fleiss, J. L.
) Measuring nominal scale agreement among many raters
. Psychological Bulletin
, 76(5), 378–382.
Gamer, M., Lemon, J., Fellows, I., & Singh, P.
irr: Various coefficients of interrater reliability and agreement
R package version 0.84.1
Gilquin, G., De Cock, S., & Granger, S.
) LINDSEI: Louvain International Database of Spoken English Interlanguage
. UCL Presses.
) The position of the adverb certainly will make a difference
. English Today
, 18(1), 25–30.
Granger, S. & Rayson, P.
) Automatic profiling of learner texts
. In S. Granger
(Ed.), Learner English on Computer
(pp. 119–131). Longman.
Gries, S. Th.
to appear). On classification trees and random forests in corpus linguistics: Some words of caution and suggestions for improvement
. Corpus Linguistics and Linguistic Theory
) Adjunct Adverbials in English
. Cambridge University Press.
) A Comparative Typology of English and German: Unifying the Contrasts
. Croom Helm.
Heuboeck, A., Holmes, J., & Nesi, H.
) The BAWE corpus manual
) Factors Influencing the Placement of English Adverbs in Relation to Auxiliaries: A Study in Variation
. Almqvist & Wiksell International.
) Methodological rigor in the study of transfer: Identifying L1 influence in the interlanguage lexicon
. Language Learning
, 50(2), 245–309.
Jarvis, S., & Pavlenko, A.
) Crosslinguistic Influence in Language and Cognition
Johansson, S., Ebeling, J., & Oksefjell, S.
) English-Norwegian Parallel Corpus: Manual
. Department of British and American Studies, University of Oslo.
Landis, J. R., & Koch, G. G.
) The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data
, 331, 159–174.
Larsson, T., Paquot, M., & Plonsky, L.
forthcoming). Inter-rater reliability in learner corpus research: Insights from a collaborative study on adverb placement
. International Journal of Learner Corpus Research
Le, S., Josse, J., & Husson, F.
) FactoMineR: An R package for multivariate analysis
. Journal of Statistical Software
, 25(1), 1–18.
LOCRA (Louvain Corpus of Research Articles)
Corpus compiled at the Centre for English Corpus Linguistics, UCLouvain
) Language Transfer: Cross-Linguistic Influence in Language Learning
. Cambridge University Press.
) Adverb placement in post-intermediate learner English: A contrastive study of learner corpora
. In G. Gilquin
, S. Papp
, & M. B. Díez-Bedmar
(Eds.), Linking up Contrastive and Learner Corpus Research
(pp. 127–146). Rodopi.
) EAP Vocabulary in EFL learner Writing: From Extraction to Analysis: A Phraseology-oriented Approach
[Unpublished doctoral thesis]. Université catholique de Louvain.
Quirk, R., Greenbaum, S., Leech, G., & Svartvik, J.
) A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language
R Core Team
) R: A language and environment for statistical computing
[Computer software]. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. [URL]
) Advanced learner corpora data and grammar teaching: Adverb placement
. In M. C. Campoy
, B. Belles-Fortuno
, & M. L. GeaValor
(Eds.), Corpus-based Approaches to English Language Teaching
(pp. 205–215). Continuum.
) Language transfer
. General Linguistics
, 91, 67–92.
Strobl, C., Boulesteix, A.-L., Kneib, T., Augustin, T., & Zeileis, A.
) Conditional variable importance for random forests
. BMC Bioinformatics
, 9(307). [URL]
van Vuuren, S.
) Traces of Transfer? Pragmatic Development in the Use of Initial Adverbials in the Interlanguage of Advanced Dutch Learners of English
VESPA (Varieties of English for Specific Purposes dAtabase)
Corpus administered at the Centre for English Corpus Linguistics at Université catholique de Louvain
) Transatlantic variation in English adverb placement
. Language Variation and Change
, 251, 179–200.
) Adverb placement in second language acquisition: Some effects of positive and negative evidence in the classroom
. Interlanguage Studies Bulletin
Zifonun, G., Hoffmann, L., & Strecker, B.
) Grammatik der Deutschen Sprache
[Grammar of the German Language
]. Mouton de Gruyter.
Cited by 2 other publications
Larsson, Tove, Magali Paquot & Luke Plonsky
Lenart, Istvan, Zoltan Lakner, Laszlo Kovacs & Gyula Kasza
. Consumers across cultures: a comparative study about consumers’ role in food safety-related academic literature
. British Food Journal
This list is based on CrossRef data as of 15 april 2022. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers.
Any errors therein should be reported to them.