Article published in:Corpus-based Approaches to Spoken L2 Production: Evidence from the Trinity Lancaster Corpus
Edited by Vaclav Brezina, Dana Gablasova and Tony McEnery
[International Journal of Learner Corpus Research 5:2] 2019
► pp. 253–279
Certainty adverbs in spoken learner language
The role of tasks and proficiency
Our research examines the use of three stance adverbs of certainty (actually, really and obviously) across B1, B2 and C1 levels in the Trinity Lancaster Corpus (TLC). Particularly, we examined the occurrence of these adverbs in the subset of Spanish L1 speakers from Mexico and Spain. Really, actually and obviously were found to display a distinctive frequency of use across different proficiency levels and the different speaking tasks analysed. Dialogic tasks favoured a more frequent use of really and actually, while obviously was hardly used. Qualitative analyses of the pragmatic functions of really and actually revealed that there is an increase in the use of meanings to express hedging in really and factualness in actually across the proficiency levels. Our research confirms the finding in Gablasova et al. (2017) that the type of speaking task conditions speakers’ repertoire of linguistic devices, although we argue that this conditioning operates on different levels.
- 2.Research methodology
- 2.1The Trinity Lancaster Corpus
- 2.2Corpus query, data extraction and quantitative data analysis
- 2.3Qualitative data analysis
- 3.1Descriptive statistics
- 3.2Inferential statistics
- 3.2.1Levels B1/B2
- 3.2.2Levels B2/C1
- 3.2.3Levels B1/C1
- 3.2.4Summary of findings
- 3.2.5Looking at L1 nationalities: Spanish and Mexican students compared
- 3.3Functions and position
- 4.1Frequency of use increase and tasks (RQ 1 & 2)
- 4.2Functions across proficiency levels: The emergence of hedging and non-epistemic meanings in the higher proficiency group (RQ 1 & 2)
- 4.3Same L1, different varieties (RQ 3)
Published online: 24 September 2019
Aguado-Jiménez, P., Pérez-Paredes, P. & Sánchez, P.
Alexopoulou, T., Michel, M., Murakami, A. & Meurers, D.
Bartley, L. & Hidalgo-Tenorio, E.
Biber, D. & Staples, S.
Biber, D., Johansson, S., Leech, G., Conrad, S., Finegan, E. & Quirk, R.
Brand, C. & Kämmerer, S.
Cheng, W. & Warren, M.
Council of Europe
2018 Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment. Companion Volume with New Descriptors. Available at https://rm.coe.int/cefr-companion-volume-with-new-descriptors-2018/1680787989
Gablasova, D., Brezina, V., McEnery, T. & Boyd, E.
Gilquin, G., De Cock, S. & Granger, S.
Hawkins, J. A. & Filipović, L.
Hyland, K. & Milton, J.
Kilgarriff, A., Baisa, V., Bušta, J., Jakubíček, M., Kovář, V., Michelfeit, J., Rychly, P. & Suchomel, V.
Liu, R. & Ren, P.
O’Keeffe, A. & Mark, G.
2010 “The death of the adverb revisited: Attested uses of adverbs in native and non-native comparable corpora of spoken English”. In M. Moreno Jaén, F. Serrano Valverde & M. Calzada Pérez (Eds.), Exploring New Paths in Language Pedagogy. Lexis and Corpus-based Language Teaching. London: Equinox, 157–172.
Pérez-Paredes, P. Hernández, P. & Aguado-Jiménez, P.
Pérez-Paredes, P. & Sánchez-Tornel, M.
Pérez-Paredes, P. & Bueno, C.
Pérez-Paredes, P. & Mark, G.
forthcoming. “Adverbs in spoken English. A corpus-based analysis of learner and native-speaker language and its pedagogic implications”.
2008 “Adverb use in EFL student writing: from learner dictionary to text production”. In Proceedings of EURALEX XIII International Congress. http://amsacta.unibo.it/2436/1/EURALEX2008.pdf (12 September 2017).
Schleppegrell, M. J.
2008 “Actually, it’s more than pragmatics, it’s really grammaticalization”. Toronto working Papers in Linguistics. Toronto: Department of Linguistics, University of Toronto. http://twpl.library.utoronto.ca/index.php/twpl/article/view/6537 (10 September 2017).