Filled pauses may reveal speech planning or execution problems to a greater extent in L2 spontaneous speech than in L1. The purpose of this study was to analyze the forms and position of all filled pauses, and the durations and the formants of vocalic filled pauses in English (L2) and in Hungarian (L1) spontaneous speech produced by 30 young learners with various L2 proficiency levels using data from our HunEng-D learner corpus. The findings showed that the forms of filled pauses were similar in both languages, irrespective of level of language proficiency. Results confirmed significantly longer vocalic filled pauses in basic and intermediate learners in their L2 relative to their more advanced peers. Formant values (as acoustic reflections of vowel quality) indicated very similar articulatory configurations for all vocalic filled pauses, irrespective of language and language proficiency.
2003 “Disfluencies influence syntactic parsing”. Journal of Memory and Language 491, 183–200.
Bates, D. M., Maechler, M., & Bolker, B.
2012lme4: Linear Mixed-Effects Models Using S4 Classes. R package version lme4_1.1-12. Available at [URL] (accessed October 2015).
2009 “Variability and stability in collaborative dialogues: turn-taking and filled pauses”. Proceedings of Interspeech 2009, 796–799. Available at [URL] (accessed October 2015).
Bergmann, Ch., Sprenger, S. A., & Schmid, M. S.2015 “The impact of language co-activation on L1 and L2 speech fluency”. Acta Psychologica 1611, 25–35.
Boersma, P., & Weenink, D.
2012Praat: Doing Phonetics by Computer. Available at [URL] (accessed October 2015).
Bortfeld, H., Leon, S. D., Bloom, J. E., Schober, M. F., & Brennan, S. E.
2001 “Disfluency rates in conversation: Effects of age, relationship, topic, role, and gender”. Language and Speech 441, 123–147.
Brennan, S. E., & Schober, M. F.
2001 “How listeners compensate for disfluencies in spontaneous speech”. Journal of Memory and Language 44(2), 274–296.
Bunta, F., & Major, R. C.
2004 “An optimality theoretic account of Hungarian ESL learners acquisition of /ɛ/ and /æ/”. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching 42(3), 277–298.
Clark, H. H.
1994 “Managing problems in speaking”. Speech Communication 15(3–4), 243–250.
Clark, H. H., & Fox Tree, J. E.
2002 “Using uh and um in spontaneous speaking”. Cognition 84(1), 73–111.
1996 “The effects of a metronome on the filled pauses of fluent speakers”. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 39(6), 1232–1238.
Christenfeld, N., Schachter, S., & Bilous, F.
1991 “Filled pauses and gestures: It’s not coincidence”. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 20(1), 1–10.
Christenfeld, N., & Creager, B.
1995 “Anxiety, alcohol, aphasia, and ums”. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 70(3), 451–460.
Corley, M., & Stewart, O. W.
2008 “Hesitation disfluencies in spontaneous speech: the meaning of um”. Language and Linguistics Compass 2(4), 589–602.
Derwing, T. M., Munro, M. J., Thomson, R. I., & Rossiter, M. J.
2009 “The relationship between L1 fluency and L2 fluency development”. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 31(4), 533–557.
Dommelen, W. van
2007 “Temporal patterns in Norwegian as L2”. In J. Trouvain, & U. Gut (Eds.), Non-Native Prosody. Phonetic Description and Teaching Practice. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 121–145.
Donzel, M. E. van, & Koopmans-van Beinum, F. J.
1996 “Pausing strategies in discourse in Dutch”, Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Spoken Language Processing. Philadelphia, PA: IEEE Press, 1029–1032.
2001 “Acoustico-phonetic characteristics of filled pauses in spontaneous French speech: Preliminary results”. Proceedings of Disfluency in Spontaneous Speech (DISS’01), 41–44. Available at [URL] (accessed October 2015).
2004Disfluency in Swedish Human – Human and Human – Machine Travel Booking Dialogues. Linköping: Unitryck.
Finlayson, I. R., & Corley, M.
2012 “Disfluency in dialogue: An intentional signal from the speaker?”. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 19(5), 921–928.
Flege, J. E.
1995 “Second language speech learning: Theory, findings, and problems”. In W. Strange (Ed.), Speech Perception and Linguistic Experience: Issues in Cross-Language Research. Timonium, MD: York Press, 233–277.
1982 “Sentence planning units: Implications for the speaker’s representation of meaningful relations underlying sentences”. In J. Bresnan (Ed.), The Mental Representation of Grammatical Relations. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 798–827.
Fox Tree, J. E.2002 “Interpreting pauses and ums at turn exchanges”. Discourse Processes 34(1), 37–55.
Fraundorf, S. H., & Watson, D. G.
2011 “The disfluent discourse: Effects of filled pauses on recall”. Journal of Memory and Language 65(2), 161–175.
Furman, R., & Özyürek, A.
2007 “Development of interactional discourse markers: Insights from Turkish children’s and adults’ oral narratives”. Journal of Pragmatics 39(10), 1742–1757.
1996 “Second language acquisition and linguistic theory: the role of language transfer”. In W. Ritchie, & T. Bhatia (Eds.), Handbook of Second Language Acquisition. San Diego: Academic Press, 317–345.
Gayraud, F., Lee, H-R., & Barkat-Defradas, M.
2011 “Syntactic and lexical context of pauses and hesitations in the discourse of Alzheimer patients and healthy elderly subjects”. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics 25(3), 198–209.
2003 “Hesitation phenomena in spontaneous Italian”. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (ICPhS), 2653–2656.
2007 “Learner corpora in second language prosody research and teaching”. In J. Trouvain, & U. Gut (Eds.), Non-Native Prosody. Phonetic Description and Teaching Practice. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 145–167.
Guillot, M. -N.
1999Fluency and its Teaching. (Modern Languages in Practice). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
2011 “Hesitation and monitoring phenomena in bilingual speech: A consequence of code-switching or a strategy to facilitate its incorporation?”. Journal of Pragmatics 43(15), 3793–3806.
Horne, M., Frid, J., Lastow, B., Bruce, G., & Svensson, A.
2003 “Hesitation disfluencies in Swedish: Prosodic and segmental correlates”. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (ICPhS), 2429–2432.
2010 “Filled pauses in Hungarian: their phonetic form and function”. Acta Linguistica Hungarica 57(2–3), 288–306.
2014Hezitációs jelenségek a magyar beszédben [Hesitation phenomena in Hungarian speech]. Budapest: ELTE Eötvös Kiadó.
Jong, N. H. de
2016 “Predicting pauses in L1 and L2 speech: the effects of utterance boundaries and word frequency”. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching 54(2), 113–132.
Jong, N. H. de, & Bosker, H. R.2013 “Choosing a threshold for silent pauses to measure second language fluency”. Proceedings of Disfluency in Spontaneous Speech (DiSS 2013), Stockholm, 17–20. Available at [URL] (accessed October 2015).
Jong, N. H. de, Steinel, M. P., Florijn, A., Schoonen, R., & Hulstijn, J. H.
2013 “Linguistic skills and speaking fluency in a second language”. Applied Psycholinguistics 34(5), 893–916.
1983 “Now you see it, now you don’t”. In S. M. Gass, & L. Selinker (Eds.), Language Transfer in Language Learning. Rowley, MA: Newbury House, 112–134.
1995 “Crosslinguistic influence: Transfer to nowhere?”. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 151, 125–150.
Kenesei, I., Vago, R., & Fenyvesi, A.
2012Hungarian. New York: Routledge.
2006Speech Production and Second Language Acquisition. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
2013 “A kitöltött szünet formái és funkciói tizenévesek spontán beszédében” [Forms and functions of filled pauses in teenagers’ spontaneous speech], Magyar Nyelvőr 1371, 192–208.
Lauttamus, T., Nerbonne, J., & Wiersma, W.
2007 “Detecting syntactic contamination in emigrants. The English of Finnish Australians”. SKY Journal of Linguistics 201, 273–307.
Leeuw, E. de
2007 “Hesitation markers in English, German, and Dutch”. Journal of Germanic Linguistics 19(2), 85–114.
Levelt, W. J. M.
1989Speaking. From Intention to Articulation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Lickley, R. J.
1994Detecting Disfluency in Spontaneous Speech. Doctoral dissertation. Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh.
Lickley, R. J.
2015 “Fluency and disfluency”. In M. Redford (Ed.), The Handbook of Speech Production. New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell, 445–469.
1959 “Hesitation phenomena in spontaneous English speech”. Word 15(1), 19–44.
Mahl, G. F.
1956 “Disturbances and silences in the patient’s speech in psychotherapy”. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 53(1), 1–15.
Major, R. C.
2001Foreign Accent. The Ontogeny and Phylogeny of Second Language Phonology. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum.
Merlo, S., & Barbosa, P. A.
2010 “Hesitation phenomena: a dynamical perspective”. Cognitive Processing 11(3), 251–261.
O’Connell, D. C., & Kowal, S.
2005 “Uh and um revisited: Are they interjections for signaling delay?”. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 34(6), 555–576.
2011 “Second language speech production”. In S. M. Gass, & A. Mackey (Eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Second Language Acquisition. London and New York: Routledge, 335–348.
Piske, T., MacKay, I. R. A., & Flege, J. E.
2001 “Factors affecting degree of foreign accent in an L2: a review”. Journal of Phonetics 29(2), 191–215.
Postma, A.2000 “Detection of errors during speech production: a review of speech monitoring models”. Cognition 77(2), 97–131.
R Core Team
2011R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria: the R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Available at [URL].
Rasier, L., & Hilligsmann, Ph
2007 “Prosodic transfer from L1 to L2. Theoretical and methodological issues”. Nouveaux cahiers de linguistique française 281, 41–66.
2001 “Second language proficiency and pausing: A study of Russian speakers of English”. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 23(4), 497–526.
2003 “Disfluencies and hesitation strategies in oral L2 tests”. Proceedings of: Disfluency in Spontaneous Speech DiSS’03), 41–44. Available at [URL] (accessed October 2015).
Roberts, P. M., Meltzer, A., & Wilding, J.
2009 “Disfluencies in non-stuttering adults across sample lengths and topics”. Journal of Communication Disorders 42(6), 414–427.
Rose, R. L.
2013 “Crosslinguistic corpus of hesitation phenomena: A corpus for investigating first and second language speech performance”. Proceedings of Interspeech 2013, 992–996. Available at [URL] (accessed October 2015).
Schachter, S., Rauscher, F., Christenfeld, N., & Tyson Crone, K.
1994 “The significance of sentence disruptions in the development of grammar. The vocabularies of Academia”. Psychological Science 51, 37–41.
2010Cognitive Bases of Second Language Fluency. New York: Routledge.
1994Preliminaries to a Theory of Speech Disfluencies. PhD dissertation. California: University of California.
2001 “To ‘errrr’ is human: ecology and acoustics of speech disfluencies”. Journal of the International Phonetics Association 31(1), 153–169.
2006 “Phonetic processes in discourse”. In K. Brown (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 284–288.
Siptár, P., & Törkenczy, M.
2000The Phonology of Hungarian. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
2007 “Some features of filled hesitation pauses in spontaneous Russian”. Proceedings of 16th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, 1325–1328. Available at [URL] (accessed October 2015).
1999Acoustic Phonetics. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Stouten, F., Duchateau, J., Martens, J. -P., & Wambacq, P.
2006 “Coping with disfluencies in spontaneous speech recognition: Acoustic detection and linguistic context manipulation”. Speech Communication 48(11), 1590–1606.
1998 “Filled pauses as markers of discourse structure”. Journal of Pragmatics 30(4), 485–496.
Trofimovich, P., & Baker, W.
2006 “Learning second language suprasegmentals: Effect of L2 experience on prosody and fluency characteristics of L2 speech”. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 28(1), 1–30.
Trouvain, J., & Möbius, B.
2014 “Individuelle Ausprägung von Atmungspausen in der Mutter- und in der Fremdsprache als Anzeichen kognitiver Belastung”. Proceedings Elektronische Sprachsignalverarbeitung 2014, 177–184. Available at [URL] (accessed October 2015).
Trouvain, J., Fauth, C., & Möbius, B.2016 “Breath and non-breath pauses in fluent and disfluent phases of German and French L1 and L2 read speech”. Proceedings of Speech Prosody 2016, 31–35.
Urizar, X., & Samuel, A. G.
2014 “A corpus-based study of fillers among native Basque speakers and the role of zera”. Language and Speech 57(3), 338–366.
Veiga, A., Candeias, S., Lopes, C., & Perdigão, F.
2011 “Characterization of hesitations using acoustic models”. Proceedings of 17th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, 2054–2057. Available at [URL] (accessed October 2015).
Watanabe, M., Hirose, K., Den, Y., & Minematsu, N.
2008 “Filled pauses as cues to the complexity of upcoming phrases for native and non-native listeners”. Speech Communication 50(2), 81–94.
1984 “Language production in foreign and native languages: Same or different?” In H. Dechert, D. Möhle, & M. Raupach (Eds.), Second Language Productions, Tübingen, Germany: Narr, 11–25.
2008 “Filled pauses in L2 Chinese: A comparison of native and non-native speakers”. In M. K. M. Chan, & H. Kang (Eds.), Proceedings of the 20th North American Conference on Chinese Linguistics (NACCL-20). Vol. 11. Columbus, Ohio: The Ohio State University, 213–227. Available at [URL] (accessed October 2015).
Zhao, Y., & Jurafsky, D.
2005 “A preliminary study of Mandarin filled pauses”. Proceedings of Disfluency in Spontaneous Speech (Diss’05), 179–182. Available at [URL] (accessed October 2015).
Cited by 5 other publications
Bunta, Ferenc & Mária Gósy
2022. Expanding the Clinical Toolset: Acoustic Analyses for Speech-Language Pathologists and Audiologists in the 21st Century. Perspectives of the ASHA Special Interest Groups 7:6 ► pp. 2146 ff.
Kotani, Katsunori & Takehiko Yoshimi
2018. Machine-learning classification of pronunciation difficulty for learners of English as a Foreign Language. Research in Corpus Linguistics► pp. 1 ff.
2022. The conversation-organising role of the non-lexical sound öö in Hungarian. Journal of Pragmatics 194 ► pp. 23 ff.
Silber-Varod, Vered, Mária Gósy & Anat Lerner
2021. Is It a Filler or a Pause? A Quantitative Analysis of Filled Pauses in Hebrew. In Speech and Computer [Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 12997], ► pp. 638 ff.
Trouvain, Jürgen, Frank Zimmerer, Bernd Möbius, Mária Gósy & Anne Bonneau
This list is based on CrossRef data as of 26 november 2023. Please note that it may not be complete. Sources presented here have been supplied by the respective publishers.
Any errors therein should be reported to them.