The alternation between presence and absence of subject personal pronouns in Spanish is studied in the bilingual setting of New York City with data extracted from the Otheguy-Zentella corpus. The speech of newcomers to NYC shows that the Caribbean and the Latin American Mainland resemble each other but that there are statistically significant differences between the two regions in occurrence rates of overt pronouns and in the role played by the different person-numbers of the verb in motivating their use. Clear changes in usage are observed in the second, NY-raised generation, consisting of large increases in occurrence rates and in changes in the role played in the selection of overts by the different person-numbers of the verb.
2012. The Development of NP Selection in School-Age Children: Reference and Spanish Subject Pronouns. Language Acquisition 19:1 ► pp. 3 ff.
Valdeón, Roberto A.
2015. Languages in contact, cultures in conflict: English and Spanish in the USA. Language and Intercultural Communication 15:3 ► pp. 313 ff.
Viner, Kevin Martillo
2018. Conditional morphology in New York heritage Spanish: General and variable usage patterns. Studies in Hispanic and Lusophone Linguistics 11:2 ► pp. 429 ff.
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