The role of social eye-gaze in children’s and adults’ ownership attributions to robotic agents in three cultures
Patricia Kanngiesser | Department of Developmental and Comparative Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology
Shoji Itakura | Department of Psychology, Graduate School of Letters, Kyoto University
Yue Zhou | Department of Psychology, Graduate School of Letters, Kyoto University
Takayuki Kanda | ATR Intelligent Robotics and Communication Laboratories
Hiroshi Ishiguro | Intelligent Robotics Laboratory, Graduate School of Engineering Science, Department of Systems Innovation, Osaka University
Bruce Hood | School of Experimental Psychology, University of Bristol
Young children often treat robots as social agents after they have witnessed interactions that can be interpreted as social. We studied in three experiments whether four-year-olds from three cultures (China, Japan, UK) and adults from two cultures (Japan, UK) will attribute ownership of objects to a robot that engages in social gaze with a human. Participants watched videos of robot-human interactions, in which objects were possessed or new objects were created. Children and adults applied the same ownership rules to humans and robots – irrespective of whether the robot engaged in social gaze or not. However, there was cultural variation in the types of ownership rules used. In Experiment 3, we removed further social cues, finding that just showing a pair of self-propelled robot-arms elicited ownership attributions. The role of social gaze in social attributions to robots and cross-cultural differences in ownership understanding are discussed.
Keywords: social gaze, ownership, robots, cross-cultural, social cognition
Published online: 17 August 2015
Cited by 12 other publications
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