Article published in:
Journal of Asian Pacific Communication
Vol. 27:1 (2017) ► pp. 2242
Abramowitz, A.L., & Saunders, K.L.
(2008) Is polarization a myth? The Journal of Politics, 701, 542–555. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
American Association for Public Opinion Research
(2009) Standard definitions: Final dispositions of case codes and outcome rates for surveys. Online source retrieved March 15, 2010 from http://​www​.aapor​.org​/AM​/Template​.cfm​?Section​=Standard​_Definitions1​&Template=​/CM​/ContentDisplay​.cfm​&ContentID​=1814.
Anderson, A. A., Brossard, D., Scheufele, D. A., Xenos, M. A. & Ladwig, P.
(2014) The “nasty effect:” Online incivility and risk perceptions of emerging technologies. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 191, 373–387. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Asofou, S.
(2008) Democracy and custom in Samoa: An uneasy alliance. Suva, Fiji: IPS Publications, University of the South Pacific.Google Scholar
(2012a).Google Scholar
Beaudoin, C. E., & Thorson, E.
(2004) Social capital in rural and urban communities: Testing differences in media effects and models. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 811, 378–399. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Beaudoin, C. E.
(2007) Mass media use, neighborliness, and social support. Communication Research, 341, 634–664. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Bhawuk, D. P. S.
The measurement of intercultural sensitivity using the concepts of individualism collectivism. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 161, 413–436. Crossref
Blake, R. R., & Moutan, J. S.
(1964) The managerial grid. Houston, TX: Gulf Publishing.Google Scholar
Cai, D. A., & Fink, E. L.
(2002) Conflict style differences between individualists and collectivists. Communication Monographs, 691, 67–87. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Cappella, J. N., & Jamieson, K. H.
(1997) Spiral of cynicism. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Chafee, S. H., & Schleuder, J.
(1986) Measurement and effects of attention to media news. Human Communication Research, 131, 76–107. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Chmiel, A., Sobkowicz, P., Sienkiewicz, J., Paltoglou, G., Buckley, K., Thelwall, M., & Holyst, J.A.
(2010) Negative emotions boost user activity at BBC forum. Physica A, 3901, 2936–2944. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Chua, E. G., & Gudykunst, W. B.
(1987) Conflict resolution styles in low-and high-context cultures. Communication Research Reports, 41, 32–37.Google Scholar
CIA World Factbook
Coffindaffer, J., Kavookjian, J., Scott, G., & Bhanegaonkar, A.
(2006) Assessment of student conflict management style: Impact on patient counseling and communication course grades. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, San Diego, CA, July 5.Google Scholar
Conrad, C.
(1991) Communication in conflict: Style-strategy relationships. Communication Monographs, 581, 135–151. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Crotty, W. J., & Jacobson, G. C.
(1980) Television and the politics of media. In American Parties in Decline (pp. 67–99). Boston, MA: Brown, Little and Company.Google Scholar
Cuillier, D.
(2009) Access attitudes: A social learning approach to examining community engagement and support for press access to government records. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 851, 549–576. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Dalisay, F.
(2012) The spiral of silence and conflict avoidance: Examining antecedents of opinion expression concerning the U.S. military buildup in the Pacific Island of Guam. Communication Quarterly, 601, 4811–503. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Daly, T. M., Lee, J. A., Soutar, G. N., & Rasmi, S.
(2010) Conflict-handling style measurement: a best-worst scaling application. International Journal of Conflict Management, 211, 281–308. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Davis, R.
(2005) Politics online: Blogs, chatrooms, and discussion groups in American democracy. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Democracy Now
(2009) Guam residents organize against US plans for $15B military buildup on Pacific Island. Retrieved from http://​www​.democracynow​.org​/2009​/10​/9​/guam​_residents​_organize​_against​_us​_plans.
Department of Chamorro Affairs Research
(2003) Chamorro heritage: A sense of place; Guidelines, procedures and recommendations for authenticating Chamorro heritage. Hagåtñam, GU: Department of Chamorro Affairs Research, Publication, and Training Division.Google Scholar
Dillman, D. A., Smyth, J. D., & Christian, L. M.
(2009) Internet, mail, and mixed-mode surveys: The tailored design method. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
Drage, J.
(1995) The exception, not the rule: A comparative analysis of women’s political activity in Pacific Island countries. Pacific Studies, 181, 61–93.Google Scholar
Fallows, J.
(1996), Breaking the news: How the media undermine American democracy. New York: Pantheon Books.Google Scholar
Festinger, L.
(1957), A theory of cognitive dissonance. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Forgette, R., & Morris, J. S.
(2006) High-conflict television news and public opinion. Political Research Quarterly, 591, 447–456. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Fuentes, G.
(2015, September 5). Navy signs off on plan to move 5,000 Marines to Guam. Online source retrieved January 31, 2017, from https://​www​.marinecorpstimes​.com​/story​/military​/2015​/09​/05​/navy​-signs​-off​-plan​-move​-5000​-marines​-guam​/71657614/
Goldman, S. K., & Mutz, D.C.
(2011) The friendly media phenomenon: A cross-national analysis of cross-cutting exposure. Political Communication, 281, 42–66. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Hayes, A. F., Scheufele, D. A., & Huge, M. E.
(2006) Nonparticipation as self-censorship: Publicly observable political activity in a polarized opinion climate. Political Behavior, 281, 259–283. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Hofstede, G.
(1980) Culture’s consequences: International differences in work-related values. Sage: Newbury Park, CA.Google Scholar
Huckfeldt, R., & Sprague, J.
(1995) Citizens, politics, and social communication: Information and influence in an election campaign. New York: Cambridge University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Huffer, E.
(2005) Governance, corruption, and ethics in the South Pacific. The Contemporary Pacific, 171, 118–140. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Klapper, J. T.
(1949) The effects of mass media. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
Lawrence, E., Sides, J., & Farrell, H.
(2010) Self-segregation or deliberation? Blog readership, participation, and polarization in American politics. Perspectives on Politics, 81, 141–157. doi: Crossref
Leung, K., & Tjosvold, D.
(1989) Conflict management in the Asia Pacific: Assumptions and approaches in diverse cultures. Singapore: Wiley.Google Scholar
Lim, L.L.
(2009) The influences of harmony motives and implicit beliefs on conflict styles of the collectivist. International Journal of Psychology, 441, 401–409. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Lipset, S. M.
(1959) Some social requisites of democracy: Economic development and political legitimacy. The American Political Science Review, 531, 69–105. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Matz, D.C., Wood, W.
(2005) Cognitive dissonance in groups: The consequences of disagreement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 881, 22–37. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Mann, P. H.
(1954) The concept of neighborliness. American Journal of Sociology, 601, 163–168. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
McClurg, S.
(2006) Political disagreement in context: The conditional effect of neighborhood context, disagreement and political talk on electoral participation. Political Behavior, 281, 349–366. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
McDevitt, M., & Chaffee, S.
(2002) From top-down to trickle-up influence: Revisiting assumptions about the family in political socialization. Political Communication, 191, 281–301. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
McDevitt, M., & Ostrowski, A.
(2009) The adolescent unbound: Unintentional influence on curricula on ideological conflict seeking. Political Communicatin, 261, 11–29. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Mendiola, T. M. C.
(2014) Geftao: Unselfishness. Retrieved November 12, 2014, from http://​www​.guampedia​.com​/geftao​-unselfishness/
Morris, M. W., Williams, K. Y., Leung, K., Larrick, R., et al.
(1998) Conflict management style: Accounting for cross-national differences. Journal of International Business Studies, 291, 729–748. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Moor, P. J., & Heuvelman, A.
(2010) Flaming on YouTube. Computers in Human Behavior, 261, 1536–1546. doi: Crossref
Mutz, D. C.
(2002) The consequences of cross-cutting networks for political participation. American Journal of Political Science, 461, 838–855. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Mutz, D. C., & Mondak, J. J.
(2006) The workplace as a context for cross-cutting political discourse. The Journal of Politics, 681, 140–155. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Mutz, D. C., & Reeves, B.
(2005) The new videomalaise: Effects of televised incivility on political trust. American Political Science Review, 991, 1–16. doi: Crossref
Neuwirth, K., Frederick, E., & Mayo, C.
(2007) The spiral of silence and fear of isolation. Journal of Communication, 571, 450–468. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Niemi, R. G., Craig, S. C., & Mattei, F.
(1991) Measuring internal political efficacy in the 1988 National Election Study. The American Political Science Review, 851, 1407–1413. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Nisbet, M., & Scheufele, D. A.
(2004) Political talk as a catalyst for online citizenship. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 811, 877–896. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Oetzel, J. G.
(1998) The effects of self-construals and ethnicity on self-reported conflict styles. Communication Reports, 111,133–144. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Ohbuchi, K. Y. & Takahashi, Y.
(1994) Cultural styles of conflict management in Japanese and Americans: Passivity, covertness, and effectiveness of strategies. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 21, 329–344. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Perez, M. P.
(2002) Pacific identities beyond racial formations: The case of Chamorro ambivalence and flux. Social Identities, 81, 457–479. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Perkins, D. D., Brown, B. B., & Taylor, R. B.
(1996) The ecology of empowerment: Predicting participation in community organizations. Journal of Social Issues, 521, 85–110. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Pinkleton, B. E., & Austin, E. W.
(2001) Individual motivations, perceived media importance, and political disaffection. Political Communication, 181, 321–334. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Pinkleton, P. E., Austin, E. W., & Fortman, K. K. J.
(1998) Relationships of media use and political disaffection to political efficacy and voting behavior. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 321, 34–49. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Pratt, R., & Smith, Z. A.
(2000) Hawai’i politics and government: An American state in a Pacific world. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
Putnam, R.
(2000) Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. Simon and Schuster: New York. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Putnam, L. L., & Poole, S. M.
(1987) Conflict and negotiation. In F.M. Jablin, L.L. Putnam, K.H. Roberts, & L.W. Porter (Eds), Handbook of organizational communication: An interdisciplinary perspective (pp. 549–599). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
Rahim, M. A.
(1983) A measure of styles of handling interpersonal conflict. Academy of Management Journal, 261, 368–376. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Rogers, R. F.
(1995) Destiny’s landfall: A history of Guam. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press.Google Scholar
Shah, D. V.
(1998) Civic engagement, interpersonal trust, and television use: An individual-level assessment of social capital. Political Psychology, 19, 3, 469–496. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Shah, D. V., Kwak, N., & Hobert, R. L.
(2001) “Connecting” and “Disconnecting” with civic life: Patterns of Internet use and the production of social capital. Political Communication, 181, 141–121. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Scheufele, D. A.
(2000) Talk or conversation? Dimensions of interpersonal discussion and their implications for participatory democracy. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 771, 727–743. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Scheufele, D. A. & Nisbet, M. C.
(2002) Being a citizen online: New opportunities and dead ends. Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 71, 55–55. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Thomas, K. W.
(1976) Conflict and conflict management. In M. D. Dunnette (Ed.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (pp. 87–94). Chicago, IL: Rand-McNally.Google Scholar
Tichenor, P. J., Donohue, G. A., & Olien, C. N.
(1980) Community conflict & the press. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
Ting-Toomey, S., Yee-Jung, K.K., Shapiro, R.B., Garcia, W., Wright, T.J., & Oetzel, J.G.
(2000) Ethnic/cultural identity salience and conflict styles in four US ethnic groups. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 241, 47–81. doi: Crossref
de Tocqueville, A.
(2004) Tocqueville: Democracy in America. New York: Library of America.Google Scholar
U.S. Department of the Interior
(2015) Guam: Insular area summary for Guam. Retrieved from http://​www​.doi​.gov​/oia​/islands​/guam​.cfm.
Ulbig, S. G., & Funk, C. L.
(1999) Conflict avoidance and political participation. Political Behavior, 211, 265–282. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Underwood, R.A.
(1984) Language survival, the ideology of English and education in Guam. Educational Research Quarterly, 81 1984, 72–81.Google Scholar
Verba, S., & Nie, N. H.
(1972) Participation in America: Political democracy and social equality. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
Verba, S., Schlozman, K. L., & Brady, H. E.
(1995) Voice and equality: Civic voluntarism in American politics. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Wong, A.
(2012, November 5). >Hawaii voter turnout drops even lower. Civil Beat. Online source retrieved November 4, 2014, from http://​www​.civilbeat​.com​/2012​/11​/17582​-hawaii​-voter​-turnout​-drops​-even​-lower/Google Scholar
Zukin, C., Keeter, S., Andolina, M., Jenkins, K., & Delli-Carpini, M.X.
(2006) A new engagement? Political participation, civic life, and the changing American citizen. New York: Oxford University Press. CrossrefGoogle Scholar
The demobilizing potential of interpersonal conflict in the Pacific